Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 14

Cambridge Encyclopedia

cattle - Terminology, Biology, Uses of cattle, Cattle husbandry, Ox, Cattle in religion, traditions and folklore

Domesticated mammals, developed from wild aurochs (Bos taurus); now worldwide with numerous breeds; kept for milk and/or meat or for hauling loads; also known as oxen. The world's cattle population doubled, 1960–80. The name cattle is sometimes used to include other species (eg banteng, gaur, yak, bison, buffalo, anoa). (Family: Bovidae.) Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemp…

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cattleya

An orchid (mainly an epiphyte) native to the forests of Central and South America. Most kinds have swollen, bulb-like stems (pseudobulbs) bearing 1–3 leaves, and spikes of up to 47 large, showy flowers. Widely cultivated with numerous hybrids, they are one of the most widely used orchids of floristry. (Genus: Cattleya, 30 species. Family: Orchidaceae.) …

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Caucasus Mountains - Geographical Affiliation, Climate

Major mountain system between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea; bounded S by Turkey and Iran; comprises the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus; generally accepted as the physical boundary between Europe (N) and Asia (S); extends c.1120 km/700 mi SE; in the W is Mt Elbrus (5642 m/18 510 ft), highest point in the Kavkaz range; in the E the range widens to over 160 km/100 mi. The…

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caucus - Caucuses in the United States, Caucuses in Commonwealth Nations, Origin of the term

A meeting, public or private, restricted to persons sharing a common characteristic, usually membership of a political party, held to formulate decisions or nominate candidates in forthcoming elections. It is most often applied to the USA, where the caucus-convention system is significant in selecting presidential and vice-presidential candidates, and where caucuses are the authoritative voice of …

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cauliflower

A type of cultivated cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for the immature inflorescence which forms the edible white head. If left to mature, the head eventually elongates greatly, producing numerous yellow cross-shaped flowers. (Family: Cruciferae.) Cauliflower is a variety (Botrytis Group) of Brassica oleracea in the family Brassicaceae. …

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Cavan (county) - History, Industry/Commerce, Infrastructure, Education

pop (2000e) 53 000; area 1891 km²/730 sq mi. County in Ulster province, NC Ireland; bounded N by N Ireland; drained by Analee, Boyne, and Erne Rivers; capital, Cavan; oats, potatoes, dairy farming. Cavan (An Cabhán in Irish, meaning "the hollow") is the main town and administrative centre of County Cavan in the Republic of Ireland. The town lies in the north midlands of Ireland…

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Cavan (town) - History, Industry/Commerce, Infrastructure, Education

54°00N 7°21W, pop (2000e) 5300. Agricultural market town and capital of Cavan county, Ulster, NC Ireland; NW of Dublin; bishopric; crystal; international song contest (Apr). Cavan (An Cabhán in Irish, meaning "the hollow") is the main town and administrative centre of County Cavan in the Republic of Ireland. The town lies in the north midlands of Ireland, close to the border with …

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cave - Types and formation, Distribution and Records, Inhabitants, Archaeological and social importance

A natural cavity in the Earth's surface, generally hollowed out by the action of water, and most spectacularly developed in limestones (soluble in mildly acid rainwater), in which huge vaults and interconnected river systems may form. Caves are also made by the action of sea water against cliffs, as in Fingal's Cave in the Scottish Hebrides. Ice caves may form in glaciers by streams of meltwater. …

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cavefish

Small, blind North American fish confined to limestone caves of SE states; body lacking pigment (Genera: Amblyopsis, Typhlichthys, 4 species); also two species (Genus: Chologaster) with small eyes and pigmented skin from coastal swamps. (Family: Amblyopsidae.) …

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caviar

The prepared roe (eggs) of the female sturgeon, beluga, sevruga, and sterlet. These fish are caught in the winter months in the rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea and the Danube. Sturgeon roe is black, and is considered superior. Caviar is the processed salted roe of various species of fish, most notably sturgeon. Today, the best caviar comes from sturgeon that is fished from th…

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cavitation - Inertial Cavitation, Non-inertial cavitation, Problems, Beneficial uses, Biomedical application, Pumps and propellers

A form of localized boiling in a liquid, caused by sudden dramatic reductions in pressure, giving rise to pockets of gas. Cavitation can occur at the trailing edge of ship propellers, and in liquids subject to powerful sound waves. Cavitation is a general term used to describe the behaviour of voids or bubbles in a liquid. Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behaviour: inertia…

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Cavite

14º29N 120º50E, pop (2001e) 113 400. City and seaport in S Luzon, Philippines; on a peninsula on S shore of Manila Bay; primarily a residential centre for commuters to Manila which is 34 km/21 mi NE; city chartered in 1940 and was former provincial capital; important base (1896–7) for revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo; Sangley Point naval airbase and shipyard; transport equipment, fishing. …

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Cayenne - Economy, Administration, Cayenne in popular culture

4°55N 52°18W, pop (2000e) 60 000. Federal and district capital of French Guiana, NE South America; major port on Cayenne I at mouth of R Cayenne, on the Atlantic coast; founded, 1643; used as penal settlement, 1854–1938; airport; source of Cayenne pepper; timber, sugar cane, rum, pineapples; Jesuit-built residence (1890) of the prefect. Cayenne is the capital of the French overseas ré…

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Cayman Islands - History, Geography, Districts, Demographics, Economy, Government, Taxation, Education, Healthcare, Military, Foreign relations, In fiction

(UK British Overseas Territory) The Cayman Islands are an overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the western Caribbean Sea comprising the islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. The Cayman Islands - often referred to as The Caymans, or just Cayman - were first sighted by Christopher Columbus on May 10, 1503 during his disastrous fourth and final voyage to t…

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CBS Corporation - History, Assets

Major US media corporation which began in 1928 as the small radio station Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS). Under the management of William Paley, the CBS network grew rapidly and in 1938 the company acquired the American Recording Corporation, which later became Columbia Records. Many well-known radio stars signed by CBS successfully transferred to television, making the company the dominant ne…

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CD-ROM - Media

An acronym for Compact Disk Read Only Memory, a computer storage medium based on the use of the standard 5 in (25 mm) compact disk, licensed by Sony and Philips, and usually used for digital audio. One CD-ROM disk can store more than 600 megabytes of computer information, which is considerably more than a comparable size of hard magnetic disk. Most CDs are read-only, and data is installed during…

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Ceanannus M

53°44N 6°53W, pop (2000e) 3600. Urban district in Meath county, Leinster, E Ireland; on R Boyne NW of Dublin; noted for its monastery (founded by St Columba) and the remains of five Celtic crosses; Book of Kells (now in Trinity College, Dublin) produced there c.800. Kells may refer to: In Christianity: In geography: In Canadian politics: In…

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Cecco Angiolieri - Biography, Works, Criticism

Poet, born in Siena, C Italy. Nothing is known of his life except from his sonnets, the only kind of verse he wrote, which reveal a cynical, sardonic character. He attacked Dante in three poems. Cecco Angiolieri was born in Siena in 1260, son of Angioliero, who was himself the son of Angioliero Solàfica who was for several years a banker to Pope Gregory IX; In 1281 he was with …

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Cecco d'Ascoli - Bibliography

Poet, physician, and astrologer, born in Ancarano, Abruzzo, EC Italy. He wrote a scientific-philosophical poem in the vernacular, L'acerba, which was supposed to be a scientific equivalent of Dante's Divine Comedy, but it remained unfinished. He was comdemned and burnt at the stake as a heretic. Cecco d'Ascoli (1257-1327), the popular name of Francesco degli Stabili (sometimes given as Fran…

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Cecil (Harmsworth) King - Work in Collections, References and external links

Newspaper proprietor, born in Totteridge, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK, the nephew of the Harmsworth brothers. He joined the Daily Mirror in 1926, and became chairman of Daily Mirror Newspapers Ltd and Sunday Pictorial Newspapers Ltd (1951–63), and chairman of the International Publishing Corporation and Reed Paper Group (1963–8). Born Rathdrum, County Wicklow, Ireland, King was largely …

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Cecil (James) Sharp - Sharp in America, Books

Collector of folk songs and dances, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, became a lawyer, then turned to music. He published several collections of British and US folk material, and in 1911 founded the Folk-Dance Society. His work is commemorated by Cecil Sharp House, London, the headquarters of the society. Cecil James Sharp (1859–1924) was the founding father of the folklore rev…

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Cecil (John) Rhodes - Childhood in England, South Africa, Education, Diamonds, Politics, Rhodesia, Political Views, Princess Radziwill

British colonial statesman, and prime minister of Cape Colony, South Africa (1890–6), born in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. Suffering from a lung weakness, he was sent for his health to a brother's cotton farm in South Africa; he subsquently made a fortune at the Kimberley diamond diggings, and amalgamated the several diamond companies to form the De Beers Consolidated Mines …

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Cecil (Percival) Taylor - Selected discography

Avant-garde pianist and composer, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the New York College of Music and the New England Conservatory, Boston. In 1956 he made his first important quartet recordings, which diverged sharply from established approaches to jazz language and harmony. Taylor is known for being an extremely energetic, physical yet subtle player, producing exceedingly complex …

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Cecil Frances Alexander - Places in the United States, Other

Poet and hymn writer, born in Co Wicklow, E Ireland. In 1848 she published her immensely popular Hymns for Little Children, which included the well-known ‘All Things Bright and Beautiful’, ‘Once in Royal David's City’, and ‘There is a green hill far away’. A similar popular surname is Humphrey. …

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Cecil P(hilip) Taylor

Playwright, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He wrote his first play, Aa Went to Blaydon Races, in 1962. Later works include The Plumber's Progress (1975), Bring Me Sunshine, Bring Me Smiles (1981), and his most successful play, Good (1981), which was first staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company. He also adapted plays by Ibsen and others, as well as writing for television. Cecil Philip Tay…

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Cecilia Beaux

Painter, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. She was influenced by the work of Thomas Eakins and became a portrait painter. After studying in Paris at the Académie Julien (1887), she set up a studio in New York City (1890). Her sensitive academic work, as in Dorothea and Francesca and Mother and Daughter (both 1898), remains popular. Cecilia Beaux (May 1, 1855 – September 7, 1942) w…

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cedar - Uses, References and external links

An evergreen conifer with a massive trunk and flat, wide-spreading crown, native to the mountains of N Africa, the Himalayas, and the E Mediterranean; needles sometimes bluish, in tufts; timber fragrant and oily. It should not be confused with the ‘cedar’ of commerce, which is obtained from other conifers. (Genus: Cedrus, 4 species. Family: Pinaceae.) Cedar correctly refers to those trees…

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Cedric Gibbons - Academy Awards®

Film art director, born in Dublin, Ireland, the husband of Dolores Del Rio. The most celebrated and influential art director in the history of Hollywood, he worked for Edison (1915–17), Goldwyn (1918–23), and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (from 1924). He designed the Academy Award statuette and received it himself 11 times, from The Merry Widow (1934) to Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956). Gibbons i…

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Ceefax - Technology, Pages from Ceefax

A UK alphanumeric teletext system operated by the BBC since 1974. It is broadcast on the BBC's two terrestrial channels and forms part of its News and Current Affairs Directorate. The name derives from ‘see facts’. Ceefax (phonetic for "See Facts") is the BBC's teletext information service. The system was announced in October 1972 and following test transmissions in 1973-1974 …

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Cees Nooteboom - Works

Novelist and poet, born in The Hague, W Netherlands. Educated at convent schools, he spent the greater part of his adolescence travelling through Europe. Elements of his travels are apparent in his debut novel Philip en de anderen (1955, Philip and the Others), but he became known as a literary journalist writing travel stories such as Een nacht in Tunesië (1965, A Night in Tunisia). He made his …

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Celebes Sea - Celebes Sea pirates, Marine life

area 280 000 km²/110 000 sq mi. Sea of SE Asia, bounded by islands of Indonesia (W and S), Malaysia (NW), and the Philippines (NE); maximum depth 5090 m/16 700 ft; fishing, local trade. The Celebes Sea (or the Sulawesi Sea) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sang…

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celeriac

A variety of celery (Apium graveolens, variety rapaceum), also called turnip-rooted celery, with a tuberous base to the stems, cooked as a vegetable or used in salads. (Family: Umbelliferae.) Celeriac (Apium graveolens Rapaceum Group) (also known as 'turnip-rooted celery' or 'knob celery'), is a specially selected Cultivar Group of celery, grown as a root vegetable for its large and w…

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celery - Etymology, Cultivation and uses, Allergies from celery and celeriac, History, Trivia

A strong-smelling biennial herb (Apium graveolens), growing to 1 m/3¼ ft, native to Europe, SW Asia, and N Africa; stems deeply grooved; leaves shiny, divided into triangular or diamond-shaped segments; flowers minute, greenish-white, borne in umbels 3–5cm/1¼–2 in across. Forms with swollen leaf stalks (variety dulce) are widely cultivated as a vegetable. (Family: Umbelliferae.) Cele…

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celesta - History, Works featuring the celesta

A musical instrument resembling a small upright piano, but with metal plates instead of strings and a shorter (five-octave) compass. It was invented in 1886 by French instrument maker Auguste Mustel (1842–1919) and used a few years later by Tchaikovsky in his ballet The Nutcracker (‘Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy’). The sound of the celesta is akin to that of the glockenspiel, but with a …

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celestial equator

The great circle in which the plane of the Earth's equator cuts the celestial sphere. This is the primary circle for the co-ordinates' right ascension and declination. The celestial equator is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, which is actually the plane of the terrestrial equator extended out into the universe (i.e., it could be constructed by extrapolating the Earth'…

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celestial mechanics - History of celestial mechanics, Examples of problems

The study of the motions of celestial objects in gravitational fields. Founded by Isaac Newton, it deals with satellite and planetary motion within the Solar System, using Newtonian gravitational theory. Celestial mechanics is a division of astronomy dealing with the motions and gravitational effects of celestial objects. Although modern analytic celestial mechanics starts 400 y…

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celestial sphere

An imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth, used as a reference frame to specify the positions of celestial objects on the sky. Its N and S poles lie over those of Earth, and its equator is the projection of the terrestrial Equator. The celestial sphere can be used geocentrically and topocentrically. In the Aristotelic and Ptolemaic models, the celestial sphere was imagined as a …

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Celia Franca

Dancer, born in London, UK. She trained under Marie Rambert, Antony Tudor, and Vera Volkova (1905–75), and performed with Ballet Rambert (1937–40) and Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet (1941–50). She was invited to set up a new ballet company for Canada, and in 1951 the National Ballet of Canada was founded under her directorship (1951–74). Celia Franca CC (born June 25, 1921) is the founder …

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cell (biology) - Overview, Anatomy of cells, Subcellular components

The basic unit of plant and animal bodies; it comprises, at least, a nucleus or nuclear material and cytoplasm enclosed within a cell membrane. Some cells, such as the mature red blood corpuscles of mammals, lack a nucleus, but possessed one at an earlier stage of development. Many cells are more complex, and contain other specialized structures (organelles), such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, Go…

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cellulite

According to certain beauty experts, the dimpled fat around the thighs and buttocks, which is said to resist dieting. However, available scientific evidence shows that when an individual diets, fat is lost from all fat deposits in the body. Cellulite describes dimpling of skin, caused by the protrusion of subcutaneous fat into the dermis creating an undulating dermal-subcutaneous fat juncti…

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cellulitis - Forms of cellulitis, Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors, Diagnosis, Incubation, Duration, Prevention

Inflammation of the connective tissue that supports organs and structures in the body, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It may arise following wounds and after surgical operations. It is potentially dangerous, as the infection may enter the bloodstream or affect adjacent organs, and is best treated by an appropriate antibiotic. Cellulitis is an inflammation of the connective tissue …

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celluloid - Nitrocellulose, Alexander Parkes, Daniel Spill, John Wesley and Isaiah Hyatt, Trademark, Photography, Discontinuation, Formulation

The earliest commercial plastic (c.1865–9), consisting of cellulose nitrate plasticized with camphor. It had the great virtue of dimensional stability, which kept it in vogue for photographic film in spite of its dangerous inflammability, long after other plastics had been contrived. It was eventually superseded as a film base by dimensionally stable forms of cellulose acetate. Celluloid i…

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cellulose - Background, Chemistry, Biosynthesis, Breakdown, Derivatives

(C6H10O5)n. A structural polysaccharide found mainly in the cell walls of woody and fibrous plant material, such as cotton. It is a condensation polymer with glucose, and isomeric with starch. It is the main raw material for paper. Many important derivatives are formed by esterifying some of the hydroxyl groups; these include rayon (cellulose acetate) and guncotton (cellulose nitrate or nitrocellu…

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Celsius (temperature) - History, Temperatures and intervals, The melting and boiling points of water, The special Unicode °C character

A temperature scale that takes the triple point of water to be 0·01°C, which corresponds roughly to taking the freezing point of water as 0°C and the boiling point as 100°C; named after Anders Celsius; a change in temperature of one degree Celsius is equal to a change in temperature of one Kelvin; a temperature in degrees Celsius is still often called by the old name degrees Centigrade. …

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Celtic art - Background, Early Middle Ages, Celtic revival, Celtic art types and terms

The art which emerged in 5th-c BC in S Germany and E France, spread throughout Europe for 500 years, and affected much subsequent mediaeval art, especially decorative gold and bronze-work. Greek motifs such as rosettes and lyre-shapes were combined with arabesques and strongly stylized human and animal forms traceable to the art of nomadic tribes on the E Steppes. Ceremonial metal vessels took the…

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Celtic languages - Characteristics of Celtic languages, Mixed languages

The languages of the Celts, the first Indo-European peoples to spread throughout Europe. The dialects spoken on the continent are known as Continental Celtic; traces remain in several inscriptions and place-names in Gaulish (from the tribal name Galli or Gaul), and in Celtiberian (from Celtiberi, the name given to the Celtic tribes of Spain). Insular Celtic is the name given to the Celtic language…

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Celtic literature - Traditional literature, Modern literature

The indigenous literatures of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, as well as some Cornish texts from the 15th-c (including the three biblical plays comprising the Ordinalia). There is also an extensive literature in the Breton language, consisting of saints' lives, plays, comic pieces, folk tales, and ballads. This comes mainly from the Middle Breton (12th–17th-c) and Modern Breton periods, the latter …

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cement - Setting and hardening, Types of manufactured cements, Environment

In general, any substance used to adhere to each of two materials which cannot themselves adhere, and therefore to effect a join. More usually, it refers to Portland cement, an artificial mineral substance used in building and engineering construction. This is made by heating clay and limestone in retorts to form a clinker which is then finely ground. The addition of water produces a soft manageab…

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censorship - Types, Subject matter, State secrets and unwanted attention, School textbooks

The controlling of access to and dissemination of information, especially on political and moral grounds. In its extreme form, it involves the wholesale banning of information, including works of fiction, enforced by the imposition of penalties against offenders. As such it is a characteristic of authoritarian states, which seek to regulate the flow of information, opinion, and expression. This is…

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census - Census and Privacy, Ancient and medieval censuses, Modern censuses

A count of the population resident in an area at a given time, together with the collection of social and economic data, made at regular intervals. In many countries census data form the basis for the planning of service provisions, and a census is taken every 10 years. The USA conducted its first national census in 1790, and France and the UK began to collect census data in 1801. The first Chines…

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centaur - Legendary centaurs, Art, Theories of origin, Centaurs in fiction, Centaurs in games

In Greek mythology, a creature combining the upper half of a man and the rear legs of a horse (as shown on vases); later and more popularly imagined as having the entire body of a horse. Centaurs came from Thessaly, and most were beastly and wild, fighting with the Lapiths and with Heracles. In Greek mythology, the centaurs (Greek: Κένταυροι) are a race of creatures composed of par…

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Centaurus

A large and rich S constellation. Its brightest star, Alpha Centauri, is actually three stars, the faintest of which, Proxima Centauri, is the closest star to the Sun, 1·29 parsec away from Earth. Omega Centauri is the largest and brightest globular cluster, 5·2 kiloparsec away. Centaurus A is a huge radio galaxy (600 kiloparsec across) and one of the nearest (4 megaparsec away). It is a strong …

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centipede - List of some commonly occurring centipedes

A carnivorous, terrestrial arthropod, commonly found in soil, leaf litter, and rotting wood; body up to 30 cm/12 in long, divided into head (bearing feelers and mouthparts) and many-segmented trunk; each trunk segment has one pair of legs; c.2500 species, some venomous. (Class: Chilopoda.) Centipedes (Class Chilopoda) are fast-moving venomous, predatory, terrestrial arthropods that have l…

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Cento

44º74N 11º27E, pop (2001e) 29 400. Town in Emilia-Romagna, NC Italy; located on the Reno R, 24 km/15 mi NW of Bologna; birthplace of Ugo Bassi and Il Guercino; a chapel was built in the church of Santa Maria del Rosario for Guercino and several of his works are in the local art gallery; industrial centre. Cento is a city and commune in the province of Ferrara, part of the region Emili…

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Central (Scotland) - Central region, Central Belt, Scottish Parliament electoral region

pop (2000e) 274 700; area 2631 km²/1016 sq mi. Former (to 1996) region in C Scotland, UK; replaced in 1996 by Stirling, Clackmannanshire, and Falkirk councils; N part in the Highlands, including the Trossachs (W); S part encloses the Forth river valley; drained by the Forth, Carron, and Devon Rivers; contains several lochs, including Katrine, Lubnaig, Venachar (W) and part of Earn (NE); capi…

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Central African Republic - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics

Local name République Centrafricaine The Central African Republic (French: République Centrafricaine IPA: /ʀepyblik sɑ̃tʀafʀikɛn/ or Centrafrique /sɑ̃tʀafʀik/) is a landlocked country in central Africa. The Central African Republic is one of the poorest countries in the world and among the ten poorest countries in Africa. Between about 1000 BCE and 1000 CE, Ada…

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Central America - Physical geography, Human geography, History

area 596 000 km²/230 000 sq mi. A geographical region that encompasses the independent states to the S of Mexico and to the N of South America; includes Guatemala, El Salvador, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama; the area gained independence from Spain in 1821. Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. It is variably defined either as being a r…

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Central American Common Market (CACM)

An economic association initiated in 1960 between Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and (from 1963) Costa Rica. Its early apparent success was offset by growing political crisis in the late 1970s. The Central American Common Market (CACM) - in Spanish: Mercado Común Centroamericano (MCCA) - is an economic trade organization between five nations of Central America. Th…

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Central Committee

Under Soviet Communist Party rules, the highest decision-making authority in the former USSR, apart from Congress, which elected it. Except in rare circumstances, however, it exercised little influence, partly because of its unwieldy size and partly because of the concentration of power in the Politburo. Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist par…

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Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - Organization, Historical operations, Controversies, Other controversies, Miscellaneous

The official US intelligence analysis organization responsible for external security, established under the National Security Act (1947). Often involved in subversive activities, and suspected of internal subversive activities from time to time, it suffered a loss of credibility following the investigation into the Watergate affair in the mid-1970s. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is …

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central nervous system (CNS) - Parts of the CNS

A collection of nerve cells, connected in an intricate and complex manner, which is involved in the control of movement and the analysis of sensation, and in humans also subserves the higher-order functions of thought, language, and emotion. In vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord, enclosed within the meninges within the skull and vertebral column. The central nervous system…

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Central Powers

Initially, the members of the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria–Hungary, Italy) created by Bismarck in 1882. As Italy remained neutral in 1914, and joined the Allies in 1915, the term was later used to describe Germany, Austria–Hungary, their ally Turkey, and later Bulgaria in World War 1. The Central Powers were the nations of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria, w…

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Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) - History, Timeline

A political-military alliance signed in 1955 between Iran (which withdrew after the fall of the Shah), Turkey, Pakistan, Iraq (which withdrew in 1958), and the UK, as a defence against the Soviet Union. In 1979 Iran and Pakistan withdrew from the alliance, and it ceased to function The Central Treaty Organization (also referred to as CENTO, original name was Middle East Treaty Organization …

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Centralia

38º31N 89º08W, pop (2000e) 14 100. Town in SC Illinois, USA; the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad laid out Centralia as a city in 1852, and has served as an important transportation and service centre since a regular train service began (1853); birthplace of David H Blackwell; oil discovered, 1938; Lake Centralia oilfield was the largest in the US in 1940; Centralia House (c.1850); Hot Air Ballo…

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centrifuge - Theory, History and predecessors, Different types and uses, Use and safety

A device for separating the components of a mixture (solid-in-liquid or liquid-in-liquid) by applying rapid rotation and consequent centrifugal force. It may be equipped for the technical separation of materials (eg cream) or for scientific observation (eg the ultracentrifuge, which separates particles of macromolecular size). A centrifuge is a piece of equipment, generally driven by a moto…

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centripetal force - Basic idea, Examples, Common misunderstandings, Geometric derivation (without calculus), References

An inward-directed radial force required to keep an object on a circular path; gravity, for example, provides a centripetal force, causing the Moon to orbit the Earth. Corresponding to a centripetal force is a centripetal acceleration due to that force, and acting in the same direction as it. For an object moving in a circle at a constant speed, the rate of change of velocity (the direction change…

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centromere - Function, The centromeric sequence, Inheritance, Centromeric aberrations

The point on a chromosome, usually a constriction, by which it is attached to the spindle during the division of the cell nucleus. It orchestrates the division of the chromosome into its two daughter chromosomes. The centromere is a region of chromosomes with a special sequence and structure. A centromere functions in sister chromatid adhesion, kinetochore formation, pairing of …

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century

The smallest unit in a Roman legion, under the command of a centurion. Probably consisting originally of 100, under the Empire there were 80 soldiers in a century. A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. Thus, the first century of a time frame is "The First Century" and not "Century 0". 2000) as the first or last year of a century. This confusion…

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ceorl - Etymology

An ordinary freeman of Anglo-Saxon England, who normally held between one and five hides of land (1 hide = c.120 acres). By the 10th-c, wealthy ceorls could become thegns; but after the Norman Conquest many ceorls lost personal freedom. The Middle English derivative churl has the sense of serf or ill-bred person. In the Battle of the Fords of Isen the Rohirrim were driven back across the Is…

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cephalic index - Dolichocephalic animals, Mesocephalic animals

A head's breadth as a percentage of its length. Heads of different relative breadths are termed brachycephalic (broad), mesocephalic (intermediate), and dolichocephalic (long). The cranial index expresses comparable ratios on the skull, rather than the living head. The notion is especially used in anthropological classification. The cephalic index is the ratio of the maximum breadth of the …

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Cepheid variable - Description, Use as a "standard candle", Examples

A class of variable star with a period of 1–50 days, characterized by precise regularity. There is a direct correlation between the period and luminosity (the longer the period, the more luminous the star). The observed brightness of a Cepheid indicates its distance from Earth, and is consequently of great importance in determining the distance scale of the universe. A Cepheid variable or …

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Cerberus - The Twelfth Labor of Heracles

In Greek mythology, the dog which guards the entrance to the Underworld, originally 50-headed, later with three heads. Any living souls visiting Hell gave ‘a sop to Cerberus’, ie a honey-cake, to quieten him. Heracles carried him off as one of his labours. In Greek mythology, Cerberus or Kerberos (Greek Κέρβερος, Kerberos, "demon of the pit"), was the hound of Hades—a monstrous …

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cerebellum - General features, Development and evolution, Anatomy, Dysfunction, Theories about cerebellar function, Cerebellar modeling, Additional images

A part of the brain which occupies the lower back part of the cranial cavity within the skull, consisting of two hemispheres united in the midline by the vermis. It is connected to the brain stem by three pairs of structures called peduncles, and forms part of the wall of the fourth ventricle. Its principal function is the control of posture, repetitive movements, and the geometric accuracy of vol…

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cerebral palsy - General Classification, Types of Spastic CP, Presentation (signs and symptoms), History, Cause, Prognosis, Treatment

A disorder resulting from damage to the brain during fetal development or in infancy. It is characterized by weakness, paralysis, rigidity, and lack of co-ordination of movement; the muscular spasms involved have led to the use of the term spastic for these children. A high proportion of children also suffer from epilepsy, and some are retarded mentally. Several types of brain injury are responsib…

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cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - Physiology, Pathology, Diagnosis and therapy

In vertebrates a clear, colourless, protein-free fluid circulating through the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space. It surrounds the brain and spinal cord, and provides them with mechanical support and nutrients. In humans, CSF is sometimes collected (by lumbar puncture) and analysed for diagnostic purposes: an excess of CSF around the brain in…

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Ceres (mythology) - References to Ceres

The ancient Italian corn-goddess, an early cult at Rome. She was given characteristics and stories associated with Demeter. Ceres was the daughter of Saturn and Ops, wife-sister of Jupiter, mother of Proserpina by Jupiter and sister of Juno, Vesta, Neptune and Pluto. Ceres was also patron of Enna, Sicily. The Romans adopted Ceres in 496 BC during a devastating famine…

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Cerinthus

Jewish Gnostic heretic, born in Alexandria. He is said to have lived in Ephesus contemporaneously with the aged apostle John. Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teaching…

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Cerne Abbas

50º49N 2º29W, pop (2000e) 800. Village in Dorset, S England, UK; 10 km/6 mi N of Dorchester; ruins of 10th-c abbey where Ælfric was abbot; tithe barn (14th-c), church (15th-c); famous tourist attraction is the Cerne Giant, a 45 m/150 ft high figure cut into the chalk downs overlooking the village. Cerne Abbas is an old village located in the valley of the River Cerne, between steep …

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certificate of deposit - Rates, How CDs work, Deposit insurance, Terms and conditions

A certificate representing a fixed-term, interest-bearing deposit in large denominations, which can be bought and sold. The concept was first introduced by Citibank in New York City in 1961; sterling certificates were introduced in 1968. A certificate of deposit or CD is, in the United States, a time deposit, a familiar financial product, commonly offered to consumers by banks, thrift insti…

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cervical cancer

A malignant tumour arising from the lining of the cervical canal. It is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Its occurrence is related to frequent sexual intercourse with several partners, and most cases arise in association with genital infection by the human papilloma virus. Early stages of the cancer can be detected by the cervical smear test and effectively treated. …

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cervix - Anatomy, Cervical mucus, Cervical position, Functionality, Cervical cancer, Lymphatic drainage

The lower tapering third of the uterus (womb). Its lower, blunt part projects into the vagina; its upper part communicates with the body of the uterus through a slight constriction (the isthmus). The vaginal part is firm in the non-pregnant uterus, and relatively soft in the pregnant uterus. A small opening at the lower end of the cervix (the external os) allows communication between the uterine c…

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C

Sculptor, born in Marseille, S France. The son of an Italian immigrant barrel-maker, he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Institut des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Using mainly scrap iron and particularly crushed cars, he created assemblages and became known with works such as Petit Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (1957), L'Homme de St Denis (1958), and Yellow Buick (1961). Commissioned by Peugeot, he pr…

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C

Awards given by the French Academy of Cinema Arts and Techniques annually since 1976. The statuette is named after the sculptor who designed it. The ceremony is televised, and the awards are given to people involved in all branches of the cinema. Cesar (Spanish, French and Portuguese - as César - for Caesar) may refer to: CESAR …

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Cesare Battisti

Irredentist patriot, born in Trento, Trentino, N Italy. He joined the Socialist party at a very young age and founded the paper L'avvenire del lavoratore (The Worker's Future) in 1896. A deputy in the Austrian parliament, he supported the Italian minorities' desire for autonomy. At the outbreak of World War 1 he joined the Italian army as a volunteer, but was later captured by the Austrians and ha…

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Cesare Borgia - Biography, Popular culture, Sources

Italian soldier, born probably in Rome, Italy, the illegitimate son of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), and brother of Lucrezia Borgia. He was appointed Archbishop of Valencia (1492) and a cardinal (1493) after his father's election to the papacy. In 1499 he succeeded his elder brother Juan (whom he was suspected of murdering) as captain-general of the papal army. In two campaign…

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Cesare Correnti

Italian politician and writer, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. He participated in the Five Days of Milan rising (1848) and was one of the Lombard government members. He then moved to Piedmont and played an active part in its political life, first in opposition, then on the government's side. He was twice education minister, and a senator from 1886. Cesare Correnti (January 3, 1815 -Octobe…

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Cesare Lombroso - Early life, Psychiatric Art, Additional titles

Founder of the science of criminology, born in Verona, N Italy. After working as an army surgeon, he became professor of mental diseases at Pavia, director of an asylum at Pesaro, and professor of forensic medicine (1876), psychiatry (1896), and criminal anthropology (1906) at Turin. His theory (now discredited) postulated the existence of a criminal type distinguishable from a normal person by ph…

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Cesare Pavese - Early life and education, Arrest and conviction; the war in Italy, After the war

Writer, born in Cuneo, NW Italy. He worked as a translator and publisher before turning to writing. A complex character, he was a tortured, politically committed intellectual who harked back to the ‘myths’ of childhood and the countryside. His short stories, such as La bella estate (1949, The Beautiful Summer), were well-received, but he is best known for his novel La luna e i falò (1950, The M…

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Cesare Zavattini - Directors, Notable films

Writer, film director, and scriptwriter, born in Luzzara, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy. He began his career with novels where social commitment is infused with humour and a touch of Surrealism, as in Parliamo tanto di me (1931), Io sono il diavolo (1941), and Totò il buono (1943). His work with Vittorio de Sica resulted in some of the best examples of neo-realist cinema, including Sciuscià (1946), La…

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cetane number - Comparison to Octane Rating, Chemical Relavance, Measuring Cetane Number, See Also, External Links

An index defining the ignition quality of fuel for diesel internal combustion engines. The number is the cetane percentage in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl napthalene, adjusted to match the characteristics of the fuel under test. Cetane number or CN a measure of the combustion quality of diesel fuel under compression, one measure of fuel quality. Cetane number is actually a measure o…

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Cetinje - History, Population, Tourism, Culture, Transport

42º23N 18º55E. Town in Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro; 670 m/2198 ft above sea level on the Cetinje plateau, at the foot of Mt Lovcen; derives its name from the R Cetina (or Cetinja); former capital of independent Montenegro (passed to Yugoslavia in 1918); replaced as capital by Podgorica, 1946; birthplace of Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Elena of Savoy, Frederic Rossif; Vlaska Church (1450); …

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Cetus

The fourth largest constellation, lying on the celestial Equator, but inconspicuous because it has few bright stars. …

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Ceuta - History, Ecclesiastical history, Sources and external links

35°52N 5°18W, pop (2000e) 69 000. Freeport and military station, at E end of the Strait of Gibraltar, on the N African coast of Morocco; administered by Cádiz province, Spain; car ferries to Algeciras; became Spanish in 1580; trade in tobacco, oil products; old fortress at Monte Hacho, cathedral (15th-c), Church of Our Lady of Africa (18th-c). Ceuta is a Spanish exclave in North Africa…

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chacma baboon

A baboon native to S Africa (Papio ursinus); large but slender body; dark brown with dark face; inhabits grassland and rocky regions; troops contain up to 100 individuals. …

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Chaco War - Origins, Aftermath

(1932) A territorial struggle between Bolivia and Paraguay in the disputed Northern Chaco area. Owing to the brilliant tactics of Col José Félix Estigarribia (1888–1940), Paraguay won most of the area, and a peace treaty was signed in 1938. Around 50 000 Bolivians and 35 000 Paraguayans died in the war. The Chaco War (1932–1935) was fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of…

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chaconne

A dance of Latin-American origin. The harmonies and basses traditionally associated with it were widely used as material for arias and instrumental variations in the 17th–18th-c. If a stereotypically "classic" chaconne may be described, it is usually (but not always) in major key, in triple meter, begins on the second beat of the bar, and has a theme of four measures (or a close mult…

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Chaim (Azriel) Weizmann

Jewish statesman and president of Israel (1949–52), born near Pinsk, SW Belarus. He studied in Germany and Switzerland, then lectured on chemistry at Geneva and Manchester universities. He helped to secure the Balfour Declaration of 1917, and became president of the Zionist Organization (1920–30, 1935–46) and of the Jewish Agency (from 1929). He played a major role in the establishment of the s…

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Chaim Gross

Sculptor and teacher, born in Wolow, SWC Poland. During World War 1 he and his family fled to Budapest (c.1914), and he then emigrated to New York City (1921), where he studied at the Educational Alliance Art School (1921) and the Beaux-Arts (1922–6). He taught at many institutions, and was known for his wood and stone Expressionistic figures, such as ‘Strong Woman’ (1935). Chaim Gross (…

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Chaim Soutine

Artist, born in Smilovich, C Belarus. He studied at Vilnius, and went to Paris in 1911, where he became known for his paintings of carcases, and for his series of ‘Choirboys’ (1927). After his death he was recognized as a leading Expressionist painter. Chaim Soutine (1893 – August 9, 1943) was a Jewish expressionist painter from the Russian Empire. Born in Smilavichi, Russia…

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chalcedony - Geochemistry: Chalcedony, External Links, Solubility of Quartz and Chalcedony in Pure Water

A group name for the compact varieties of mineral silica (SiO2) composed of very fine-grained crystals of quartz. It occurs in massive form with a wax-like lustre, often filling cavities in volcanic rocks. Banded varieties are agate and onyx, and coloured varieties include carnelian, jasper, bloodstone, and chrysoprase. People living along the Central Asian trade routes used various forms o…

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Chalcis - Historical population, Persons, Sporting teams

38°27N 23°42E, pop (2000e) 48 600. Capital of Euboea, Greece; railway; local ferries; commerce, tourism; Aristotle died here. Coordinates: 38°28′N 23°36′E Chalcis or Chalkida, Halkida, Halkis or Chalkis (Greek, Modern: Χαλκίδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -is), the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the strait of the Euripus at its narrowe…

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chalcopyrite - Paragenesis

A copper iron sulphide mineral (CuFeS2) found in veins associated with igneous rocks; brass-coloured and metallic. It is the main ore of copper. Chalcopyrite is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. Chalcopyrite is present within many ore bearing environments via a variety of ore forming processes. Chalcopyrite is present in volcan…

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chalk

A fine-grained limestone rock, mainly of calcite, formed from the shells of minute marine organisms. Often pure white in colour, it is characteristically seen in rocks of the Upper Cretaceous period of W Europe, its most famous exposures being on either side of the English Channel. Blackboard chalk is calcium sulphate. Chalk is formed in shallow waters by the gradual accumulation of the cal…

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Chamaeleon - Notable Deep-sky Objects

A faint S constellation. Chamaeleon (IPA: /kəˈmiːliən/, Latin: chameleon) is a minor southern constellation. π Cha 5.64 In 1999, a nearby open cluster was discovered centered on the bright star Eta Chamaeleontis. …

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chamber music

Music for two or more players intended for performance in a room rather than a concert hall, with only one player to a part. The term is a translation of the Italian ‘musica da camera’ and, by convention, applies only to instrumental music, and therefore mainly to music since c.1600. Until c.1750 the main type of chamber music was the trio sonata (typically for two violins and continuo). Since t…

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chamber of commerce - Chamber Models

An association of business enterprises in a district, whose aims are to promote the area and its members' businesses. The Chambers of Commerce of the USA (established 1912) represent, through member organizations, some five million business firms and individuals. The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), based in Paris, was set up in 1920, and has the affiliation of over 40 national institution…

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chameleon - Description, Distribution and habitat, Reproduction, Diet, Change of color, In captivity, Other species

A lizard native to Africa, the Middle East, S Spain, India, and Sri Lanka; body flattened from side to side; can change colour rapidly (controlled by nerves in skin); tail clasping, cannot be shed; eyes move independently of one another; tongue longer than head and body, with sticky tip that shoots out to hit insect prey; usually lives in trees. (Family: Chamaeleontidae, 85 species.) Chamel…

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Champ Clark

US representative, born in Lawrenceburg, Kentucky, USA. He studied at Bethany College in West Virginia and Cincinnati Law School, then moved to Missouri (1876). He worked as a newspaper editor and city attorney in Louisiana and Bowling Green, OH before serving as prosecutor for Pike County (1885–9) and member of the Missouri legislature (1889–91). Elected to Congress (Democrat, Missouri, 1893–1…

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champagne

A sparkling wine produced in the Champagne region of NE France, using either a mixture of black and white grapes, or white grapes only. The effervescent nature of champagne is due to the fact that some of the fermentation takes place in the bottle. The amount of sugar determines the style of the champagne, ranging from very sweet to very dry: doux, demi-sec, sec, extra-sec, brut, and extra brut. N…

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Champagne-Ardenne

pop (2000e) 1 410 000; area 25 606 km²/9884 sq mi. Region of NE France comprising the departments of Ardennes, Aube, Marne, and Haute-Marne; a long-standing scene of conflict between France and Germany; noted for the production of champagne wine; 120 km/75 mi-long ‘Route du Champagne’ through the vine-growing areas, starting at Reims. Champagne-Ardenne is one of the 26 régions …

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Chan Chan

An ancient Chimu capital in the Moche Valley, Peru, occupied from c.1000 to the Inca conquest c.1470; a world heritage site. Its residential area covered 19 km²/7¼ sq mi, with a population of c.30 000. The monumental centre 6 km²/2¼ sq mi in area is notable for its 10 huge rectangular enclosures, administrative centres of the kingdom during successive reigns. Coordinates: 8°6′…

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Chancellor of the Exchequer - List of holders of the office since 1559

The senior minister in charge of the UK Treasury, and a senior minister in the cabinet. The Chancellor takes responsibility for the preparation of the budget, and (in contrast to most other countries) is economic as well as finance minister. In 1997, however, the new Labour government gave responsibility for fixing interest rates to the Bank of England, thus reducing the Chancellor's ability to ma…

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chancroid - Causes, Symptoms and signs, Common locations in men (most common to least common)

A sexually transmitted disease common in Africa and South Asia, resulting from infection with Haemophilus Ducreyi. It causes ulceration of the genital organs. Chancroid is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful sores on the genitalia. Chancroid is a bacterial infection caused by the fastidious Gram-negative streptobacillus Haemophilus ducreyi. Uncirc…

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Chandigarh - Geography, Climate, Plan and architecture, Social life and patterns, Education, Demographics, Economy, Chandigarh UT Administration, Transport

pop (2001e) 901 000; area 114 km²/44 sq mi. City and union territory (1966) in NW India; serves as the joint state capital of the Punjab (since 1954) and Haryana; airfield; railway; university (1947); city designed by Le Corbusier, includes an 8 km/5 mi green belt; Asia's largest rose garden. Chandigarh pronunciation?(help·info) (Punjabi: ਚੰਡੀਗੜ੍ਹ, Hindi: चंड

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Chandragupta II - Biography, The Empire, His Reign, The Famous Iron Pillar, Campaigns against foreign tribes, Sources

Indian emperor (c.380–c.415), the third of the imperial Guptas of N India. He extended control over his neighbours by both military and peaceful means. A devout Hindu, he tolerated Buddhism and Jainism, and patronized learning. During his reign, art, architecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cultural development of ancient India reached its climax. The period of prominence of the Gup…

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change ringing - Mechanics of change ringing on tower bells, Mathematics of change ringing, Learning to ring

A British form of bell-ringing devised by 17th-c Cambridge printer Fabian Stedman. A set of differently tuned bells, usually those in a church tower, are rung in various permutations so that no sequence (or change) is sounded more than once. A full diatonic scale of eight bells allows 40 320 changes. A ‘peal’ of about 5000 changes takes about three hours to ring. Change ringers belong to Guilds…

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Chania - Geography and climate, History, Historical population, The city today, Culture, Education / Research, Economy

35°31N 24°01E, pop (2000e) 139 000. Capital town of Chania department, Crete; on N shore of Crete I; founded, 13th-c; capital of Crete until 1971; airport; fruit, olives, leather, crafts, tourism; dance festival to commemorate the battle for Crete (May). Coordinates: 35°31′N 24°1′E Chania (IPA [xa'ɲa], Greek: Χανιά, also transliterated as Hania, older form Chanea…

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Channel Islands - Geography, History, Politics, Economy, Transport and communications, Culture, Other islands in the English channel

Timezone GMT The Channel Islands are a group of British-dependent islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. The inhabited islands of the Channel Isles are Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, Sark, Herm (the main islands); The Chausey islands south of Jersey are not generally included in the geographical definition of the Channel Islands but occasiona…

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Channel Tunnel - Historical proposals for and attempts to start a tunnel, The current tunnel

A tunnel linking France and Britain, first proposed in 1802. Excavations begun in 1882 were soon abandoned due to fears about defence, and a state-financed venture by the French and British governments was scrapped in the 1970s. In 1985 Eurotunnel, an Anglo-French consortium, was set up to finance the tunnel and operate it once it opened. The tunnel, built by the Anglo-French Transmanche Link, con…

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chant - Chant as a spiritual practice, Other uses of chant

A monotone or a melody, usually restricted in range, mainly stepwise in interval and free in rhythm, to which a text (especially a liturgical one) is declaimed. Plainchant, originally sung in unison and without accompaniment, was used for the services of the mediaeval Roman Catholic Church and later incorporated into polyphonic music. The repertory was defined and standardized in the 6th-c, repute…

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chant royal

A form of verse developed by French poets, notably Eustache Deschamps in the late 14th-c to Clément Marot in the early 16th-c. It was similar to the ballade, but its subjects were dignified, usually royalty and religion. The chant royal is a poetic form that consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-E and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-E or a seven-lin…

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Chaos - Physics, Characteristics, Primal Chaos, Chaos and Thelema

In Greek mythology, the primaeval state of emptiness (according to Hesiod), but in later Greek philosophy a universe of muddled forms and elements which separated out into our world. It can be personified, as in Milton's ‘reign of Chaos and old Night’. Chaos in physics is often considered analogous to thermodynamic entropy. The original meaning of Χάος /'xaos/ or /'χaos/ …

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chaos - Physics, Characteristics, Primal Chaos, Chaos and Thelema

A state of disorder and irregularity whose evolution in time, though governed by simple exact laws, is highly sensitive to starting conditions: a small variation in these conditions will produce wildly different results. Long-term behaviour of chaotic systems cannot be predicted. Chaos is an intermediate stage between highly ordered motion and fully-random motion. For example, in fluid flow, a slo…

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chaparral - Ecology of fire in chaparral, Species

The evergreen scrub vegetation of semi-arid areas with a Mediterranean-type climate in SW USA and NW Mexico. It is a plant community adapted to frequent fires. Without fire every few years the chaparral would degrade. Typical vegetation species include evergreen scrub oak, laurel sumac, and ceanothus. A typical chaparral plant community consists of densely-growing evergreen scrub oaks and o…

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chapati - Chapati size variation

A thin, flat, unleavened bread, made from a mixture of water and wheat flour containing c.95% of the original wheat. It is a traditional accompaniment to many Asian dishes, especially those of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Chapatis are usually eaten with cooked dal (lentil soup) or vegetable (Indian curry) dishes, and pieces of the chapati are used to wrap around and pick up each bite of…

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chapel - Notable chapels, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Originally, a place to house sacred relics; now generally a church. In England and Wales, the term is used of Nonconformist places of worship; in N Ireland and Scotland, of Roman Catholic churches. It may also be a place of worship belonging to a college or institution, and may further denote the chancel of a church or cathedral, or part of a cathedral containing a separate altar. A chapel …

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character (computing) - Character encoding

In a computer system, the representation of a printed character, used for recording information on paper. There are two common ways of coding characters in a computer system: ASCII and EBCDIC. In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme or a grapheme-like unit or symbol, such as in an alphabe…

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Charadriiformes

An order of essentially water-loving birds (18 families). It includes gulls, terns, skuas, auks, and many waders. Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. Baker, 2006), a better arrangement may be as follows: More conservatively, the Thinocori could be included in the Scolopaci, and the Chionidi in the Charadrii, or the Glareolidae could be placed in a …

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charcoal - Production, Uses, Sources, references and external links

An impure form of carbon made by heating animal or vegetable substances (usually wood) in the absence of air to drive off the volatile constituents. It is porous and hence used as an adsorbent and filter. It burns without flame or smoke. Coke is a variety formed from coal. Animal charcoal is known as bone-black. The first part of the word is of obscure origin, but the first use of the term …

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Chard

50º53N 2º58W, pop (2002e) 12 100. Market town in Yeovil district, Somerset, SW England, UK; located 19 km/12 mi SE of Taunton; major cloth-making town in the Middle Ages; birthplace of Margaret Grace Bondfield; agriculture, lace, clothing; carnival (Oct). …

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chard

A type of cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris, variety cicla) lacking a swollen root but with swollen midribs and leaf-stalks; also called Swiss chard. (Family: Chenopodiaceae.) …

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charge

A quantity of electricity (electrical charge), the source of an electric field; symbol Q, units C (coulombs). The elementary unit of charge e = 1·602 × 10?19 C, equal in size but opposite in sign to the electron's charge, cannot be subdivided and is a fundamental constant. Charge occurs only in multiples of e, a simple additive quantity which is always conserved. Two types of charge are pos…

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Charge of the Light Brigade - Events, Aftermath, Other media, Further reading

An incident during the Battle of Balaclava (25 Oct 1854) in the Crimean War, when a British cavalry division, the Light Brigade, under the command of Lord Cardigan, charged the main Russian artillery. The charge involved massive loss of life. It resulted from the misunderstanding of an order given by the commanding officer, Lord Raglan, to stop guns captured by the Russians being carried away duri…

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charge-coupled device - History, Physics of Operation, Architecture, Applications, Color cameras

An image sensor which in a video camera comprises a mosaic of minute photo-conductive diodes corresponding to the pixels and lines of a television system. Charges produced in each element by incident light are stored until read off in the required scanning sequence. A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an image sensor, consisting of an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or couple…

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Charing Cross - Nearest places, Nearest tube stations, Nearest railway stations

An area in C London, UK. It takes its name from a cross erected to mark the site of the resting-place of the body of Queen Eleanor, who died in 1290. Traditionally Charing Cross is viewed as the centre of London, when measuring distances to and from the city. The name Charing Cross, now given to a mainline railway station and the surrounding district of central London, comes from the origin…

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charismatic movement - History, Charismatics: a world perspective, Charismatic denominations, Charismatic movement and Pentecostalism, Catholicism

A movement of spiritual renewal, rooted in Pentecostalism, which takes a variety of forms in Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Churches. It emphasizes the present reality and work of the Holy Spirit in the life of the Church and the individual. It is sometimes accompanied by speaking in tongues. The charismatic movement began with the adoption of certain beliefs typical of th…

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Chariton - The Loves of Chaereas and Callirhoe, Plot, Analysis, Editions and translations

41º01N 93º30W, pop (2000e) 4600. Seat of Lucas Co, SC Iowa, USA; birthplace of Gerald Clark Brant and Gordon R Willey; municipal airport; Lucas County Historical Museum. Chariton, of Aphrodisias in Caria, the author of a Greek romance entitled The Loves of Chaereas and Callirhoe. Recent evidence suggests that the novel was written in the mid 1st century AD, making it the oldest sur…

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charivari

A traditional ritual which involves blowing horns and banging pots and pans in order to express disapproval, for example of a cuckolded husband or an elderly bridegroom. The custom was practised in much of Europe under different names; in England it was known as ‘rough music’ or ‘the skimmington’. Such forms of community ‘policing’ died out mainly during the 19th-c. Charivari or shiva…

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Charleroi - History, Sights, Transport, People born in Charleroi, Twin cities

50º25N 4º27E, pop (2000e) 210 000. Town in Hainaut province, SW Belgium, on the R Sambre; formerly a fortress; location of World War 1 German attack against the French (Aug 1914); centre of coal-mining area; iron, wire and cables, cutlery. Charleroi (Walloon: Tchålerwè) is the first city and municipality of Wallonia in population. The Charleroi area was already settled in …

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Charles (Ammi) Cutter

Librarian, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard Divinity School, and then became librarian of the Boston Athenaeum (1869–93) where he compiled the library's influential Catalogue. His multipart Expansive Classification system, which was designed to help growing libraries expand without completely reclassifying, influenced the Library of Congress system. With his life-long riv…

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Charles (Andr - 1890–1912: Formative years, 1912–1940: Military career, 1940–1945: The Free French Forces

French general and first president of the Fifth Republic (1958–69), born in Lille, N France. He fought in World War 1, and became a strong advocate of mechanized warfare, but his efforts to modernize the French Army made little progress. With the fall of France (Jun 1940), he fled to England to raise the standard of the ‘Free French’, and entered Paris in the vanguard of one of the earliest lib…

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Charles (Augustus) Lindbergh - Lindbergh's Introduction to Aviation, First solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean

Aviator, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Pilot, inventor, writer, and environmentalist, he made the first solo transatlantic aeroplane flight in 1927 and returned to America a hero and celebrity of unsurpassed dimension. The son of a Minnesota congressman, he showed early mechanical aptitude as well as physical daring. He bought a war surplus Curtiss ‘Jenny’ biplane (1923) and barnstormed the Mi…

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Charles (Bird) King

Painter, born in Newport, Rhode Island, USA. He studied with Benjamin West in London (1805–12), and became friends with Washington Allston and Thomas Sully. Upon his return he settled in Washington, DC, and worked diligently as an artist. His most famous work, a still-life summation of his career, is The Artist's Dream (1830). Charles King may refer to: …

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Charles (Brian) Handy - External references

Management educator and writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Oxford, became a manager in Shell Petroleum (1956–65), then an economist in the City of London. He joined the London Business School in 1968, becoming professor of management development there (1972–7), and 1977–81 was appointed warden of St George's House, Windsor (the Church of England's ‘staff college’). His books inclu…

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Charles (Cotesworth) Pinckney - Early life and career, South Carolina, After the War, The Constitutional Convention, XYZ Affair, Presidential politics

US statesman, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. He studied at Oxford and at Caen Military Academy, then settled as a barrister in Charleston. He was Washington's aide-de-camp at Brandywine and Germantown, but was taken prisoner at the surrender of Charleston (1780). A member of the Constitutional Convention (1787), he introduced the clause forbidding religious tests. In 1796 he was appointe…

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Charles (Dana) Gibson - Personal, Trivia

Illustrator and cartoonist, born in Roxbury (now part of Boston), Massachusetts, USA. A brilliant black-and-white artist, he drew society cartoons for such periodicals as Life, Scribner's, Century, and Harper's. In his celebrated ‘Gibson Girl’ drawings, he created the idealized prototype of the beautiful, well-bred, American woman. Charles Dewolf Gibson (commonly known as Charlie Gibson w…

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Charles (Edward) Ives - Biography, Ives's early music, Mature Period from 1910-1920, Reception

Composer, born in Danbury, Connecticut, USA. An organ prodigy, he was first trained by his bandmaster father, who also instilled a penchant for musical experiment. At Yale (1894–8) he learned much from the conservative Horatio Parker, but in view of his advanced musical ideas he decided not to pursue a career in music. After college he entered the insurance business in New York and over the next …

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Charles (Eliot) Norton

Editor, writer, and teacher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. A cosmopolitan man of letters and a profoundly influential teacher, he edited the works of Dante, Carlyle, and other writers. He helped found The Nation (1865), and pioneered the teaching of art history at Harvard (1873–97). Charles Eliot Norton (November 16, 1827 - October 21, 1908) was an American scholar and man of lett…

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Charles (Etienne) Bonnet - Principal source

Naturalist and philosopher, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. He is known for his discovery of parthenogenesis, and he also developed the ‘catastrophic’ theory of evolution. Charles Bonnet (March 13, 1720 – May 20, 1793), Swiss naturalist and philosophical writer, was born at Geneva, of a French family driven into Switzerland by the religious persecution in the 16th century. …

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Charles (Evans) Hughes

Jurist and politician, born in Glens Falls, New York, USA. Admitted to the bar in 1884, he became Governor of New York (1907–10) and an associate justice of the US Supreme Court (1910). He ran against Woodrow Wilson as Republican candidate for the presidency in 1916, became secretary of state (1921–5) in the Warren Harding administration, and was appointed Chief Justice (1930–41). He also presi…

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Charles (Frambach) Berlitz - Life, Bibliography

Educator and publisher, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at Yale (1936), then took over the family business of intensive language teaching founded by his grandfather Maximilian Delphinus Berlitz (1852–1921). During World War 2 he restored the fortunes of Berlitz Schools of Languages and Berlitz Publications by getting commissions with the armed services. After the war he offered b…

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Charles (Fran - Biography, Works

Composer, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire and in Rome, then became organist of the Eglise des Missions Etrangères, Paris, where his earliest compositions, chiefly polyphonic in style, were performed. His major works include the opera, Le Médecin malgré lui (1858, trans The Mock Doctor), and his masterpiece, Faust (1859). He also published Masses, hymns, and anthems,…

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Charles (Franklin) Kettering

Engineer and inventor, born near Loudonville, Ohio, USA. He studied at Ohio State University (1904), and then worked for the National Cash Register Co until 1909, when he and a partner, Edward A Deeds, set up the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Co, later known as Delco. Kettering developed the first electrical ignition system and the first self-starter for automobiles, a device that made him famou…

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Charles (Franklin) Thwing

College president, born in New Sharon, Maine, USA. As president of Western Reserve University, Cleveland (1890–1921), he orchestrated great expansion, inaugurating new graduate schools, extension studies, and adult education. He also helped to found the Cleveland School of Education. His many publications include History of Higher Education in America (1906). Charles Franklin Thwing (Novem…

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Charles (Frederick) Crisp

US representative, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. His actor parents were visiting England when he was born. They returned to the USA and he was raised in Georgia, which he left at age 16 to join the 10th Virginia Infantry. After three years of service and one year in Morris I prison, he returned to Georgia (1865) to study law. Appointed solicitor general of the SW superior cour…

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Charles (Gordon) Curtis

Inventor, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied civil engineering at Columbia University, then law at the New York Law School. He is best known for his invention of the Curtis impulse steam turbine in 1896, 12 years after the reaction turbine had been patented by Sir Charles Parsons. Charles Curtis (January 25, 1860 – February 8, 1936) was a Representative and a Senator from Kans…

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Charles (Grafton) Page

Physician and inventor, born in Salem, Massachusetts, USA. A Harvard graduate and a trained physician, he practised medicine, and in his free time experimented with electricity. Among his many contributions were a self-acting circuit breaker and a primitive electric locomotive, which had a trial run in 1850. In 1841 he became one of two principal examiners of the US Patent Office. He resigned in 1…

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Charles (Haskell) Revson - Early life, Founding of Revlon, Quiz show scandals, Personality, Philanthropy

Business executive, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. With two partners he founded Revlon Inc in 1932, becoming its president (1932–62) and chairman (1962–75). Revlon introduced opaque nail polish and matching colours for lips and nails. Largely through Revson's flair for new product development and magazine advertising, it became the largest retail cosmetics and fragrance company in the USA. …

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Charles (Henry) Bukowski - Life, Work, Bibliography, Criticism and Biographies, Film

Poet, short-story writer, and novelist, born in Andernach, W Germany. He moved with his parents to the USA in 1922. An underground writer, his works include four novels, several collections of short stories, and many volumes of verse. A cult figure who did not achieve popular success, he had a sardonic sense of humour which is reflected in some of his titles, such as Play the Piano Drunk Like a Pe…

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Charles (James) Haughey - Early life, Political return: a medley of triumph and defeat, Tribunal, Death, Funeral, Legacy

Irish statesman and prime minister (1979–81, 1982, 1987–92), born in Castlebar, Co Mayo, W Ireland. He studied at Dublin, was called to the bar in 1949, and became a Fianna Fáil MP in 1957. From 1961 he held posts in justice, agriculture, and finance, but was dismissed in 1970 after a quarrel with the prime minister, Jack Lynch. He was subsequently tried and acquitted on a charge of conspiracy …

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Charles (James) Lever

Writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and went to Göttingen to study medicine. His most popular work, Charles O'Malley (1840), is a description of his own college life in Dublin. His travels took him to North America and Europe, and he related his experiences in many novels, including Arthur O'Leary (1844), Knight of Gwynne (1847), and Luttrel of Arran (1865). In…

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Charles (John Huffam) Dickens - Life, Literary style, Legacy, Adaptations of readings, Museums and festivals, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Landport, Hampshire, S England, UK, the son of a clerk in the navy pay office. Painful childhood memories, notably his father's imprisonment in a debtors' prison, and his own work in a warehouse in Southwark, were a formative influence on his writings. In 1814 he moved to London, then to Chatham, where he received some schooling. He found a menial post with a solicitor, then took…

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Charles (John) Olson - Early life and politics, Early writings, The Maximus Poems, Trivia, Selected bibliography

Poet and writer, born in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Yale, Harvard, and Wesleyan (1932 BA; 1933 MA). He taught at several institutions, including Harvard (1936–9) and, as rector and teacher, at Black Mountain College, NC (1948–56). Long based in Gloucester, MA he is noted for his difficult experimental poetry, especially the Maximus series (1953–68), which used what he called

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Charles (Jules Henri) Nicolle - Biography, Accomplishments, Discovery of the Vector, Attempt at a Vaccine

Physician and bacteriologist, born in Rouen, NW France. A pupil of Louis Pasteur, he became director of the Pasteur Institute at Tunis (1903), and professor at the Collège de France (1932). He discovered that the body louse is a transmitter of typhus fever, and in 1928 was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Charles Jules Henry Nicolle (September 21, 1866 – February 2…

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Charles (Langbridge) Morgan

Writer, born in Bromley, S Greater London, UK. After serving in the navy, he went to Oxford University, where he published The Gunroom (1919) on his early experiences, and became a well-known personality. He joined the editorial staff of The Times in 1921, and was their principal drama critic (1926–39). Under his pseudonym he also wrote for The Times Literary Supplement critical essays called Ref…

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Charles (Lewis) Tiffany

Goldsmith and jeweller, founder of Tiffany & Co, born in Killingly, Connecticut, USA. He began dealing in fancy goods in New York City in 1837, and by 1883 was one of the largest manufacturers of silverware in the USA. His work reflected current tastes, with an accent on the traditional and historical. He held official appointments to 23 royal patrons, including the Tsar of Russia, Queen Victoria,…

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Charles (Louis Eug - Biography, As Educator and Author, Character, Selected List of Works, Sources

Composer and writer on music, born in Paris, France. He studied under Massenet and Fauré at the Paris Conservatoire. He excelled in colourful and inventive orchestration in his symphonies, symphonic poems, choral-orchestral works (including seven based on Kipling's Jungle Book), film music, and works inspired by Hollywood, such as the Seven Stars Symphony. He also wrote prolifically for a wide ra…

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Charles (Lum) Drake

Geophysicist, born in Ridgewood, New Jersey, USA. He taught at Columbia University (1955–65) before joining Dartmouth College (1967). He elucidated the impact of geo-sciences on critical energy resources, and advanced the study of plate tectonics with research on the earth's continental margins, crust, and upper mantle. Charles Drake (real name "Charles Ruppert", born October 2, 1917 in Ne…

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Charles (Marion) Russell

Painter, sculptor, and illustrator, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. Growing up fascinated with sketching and modelling cowboys, Indians, and animals, he went to Montana at age 16 and settled there. He worked as a hunter and cowboy, lived one winter with the Blood tribe of Canada, and decided in 1892 to devote himself to art full-time. Entirely self-taught, working with oils, water colours, pen-an…

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Charles (Martial Allemand) Lavigerie

Clergyman, born in Bayonne, SW France. He studied at Saint-Sulpice, Paris, and was ordained in 1849. In 1863 he was made Bishop of Nancy, in 1867 Archbishop of Algiers, and a cardinal in 1882. As Primate of Africa (1884) he became well known for his missionary work, and founded the Society of Missionaries of Africa, or White Fathers (1868). In 1888 he also founded the Anti-Slavery Society. …

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Charles (Memorial) Hamilton

US representative, born in Clinton Co, Pennsylvania, USA. A lawyer, he enlisted in the Union army in 1861. He went with the military government to Florida in 1865, serving as a Republican representative (1868–71), once Florida was readmitted to Congress. There are several people named Charles Hamilton: …

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Charles (Nelson) Perkins - Early life, Public Life, Football (soccer) Career, Further reading

Bureaucrat and activist, born in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, C Australia of Arunta and European descent. He studied at the University of Sydney, becoming the first Aborigine to graduate from a university. He was a leader of the Aboriginal movement in the 1960s, his ‘freedom rides’ bringing injustice to Aboriginal people to public attention. He was chairman of the Aboriginal Development Co…

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Charles (Peter) Kennedy - Early life, Political career, Initial period as party leader, 2005 general election, Developments since the election

British politician, born in Inverness, Highland, N Scotland, UK. He studied at the universities of Glasgow and Indiana, USA, then worked as a journalist before being elected Social Democratic MP for Ross, Cromarty and Skye (1983– ) and becoming the youngest MP in the Commons. A supporter of merger with the Liberal Party, he was elected president of the new Liberal Democrat Party in 1990, and lead…

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Charles (Pierre) Baudelaire - Life and work, Influence, Trivia, Bibliography, Online texts

Symbolist poet, born in Paris, France. He was sent on a voyage to India, but stopped off at Mauritius. On his return to Paris in 1842, he met Jeanne Duval, a half-caste, who became his mistress and inspiration. He spent much of his time in the studios of Delacroix, Manet, and Daumier. His masterpiece is a collection of poems, Les Fleurs du mal (1857), for which author, printer, and publisher were …

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Charles (Robert) Darwin - Life, Religious views, Legacy, Works

Naturalist, the discoverer of natural selection, born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, WC England, UK. He studied medicine at Edinburgh (1825), then biology at Cambridge (1828). In 1831 he became the naturalist on HMS Beagle, which was to make a scientific survey of South American waters, and returned in 1836, having travelled extensively throughout the S Pacific. By 1846 he had published several works …

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Charles (Sherwood) Stratton

Midget showman, born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. He stopped growing at six months of age, and stayed 63 cm/25 in until his teens, eventually reaching 101 cm/40 in. Barnum displayed him in his museum, from the age of five, under the name of General Tom Thumb, and he became famous throughout the USA and Europe. In 1863 his marriage to Lavinia Warren (1841–1919), also a midget, was widely p…

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Charles (Stanley) Causley - Publications

Poet, born in Launceston, Cornwall, SW England, UK. He left school at 15, joined the navy, and trained as a teacher after World War 2. He wrote his first poetry while in the navy, publishing his first collection, Hands to Dance, in 1951. He became known as a poet of the sea, and also as a children's poet. Later volumes include Union Street (1957), Figgie Hobbin (1970), and Early in the Morning (19…

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Charles (Vernon) Gridley

US naval officer, born in Logansport, Indiana, USA. As a Naval Academy student, he was assigned to active duty in the Civil War, and for over 30 years he filled the standard posts of a career officer. Assigned as captain to the Olympia, he found himself in Manila Bay on 1 May 1898 when Admiral George Dewey gave the famous command, ‘You may fire when you are ready, Gridley’. Evidently under great…

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Charles A(lan) Wright

Legal scholar, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He taught at the University of Minnesota (1950–5) before joining the faculty at the University of Texas, Austin (1955). His major publications are Handbook of the Law of Federal Courts (1963) and Federal Practice and Procedure: Criminal (4 vols, 1969). Charles Alan Wright (1927 - 2000), was the nation's foremost authority on constitut…

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Charles A(nderson) Dana - Early years, New York Tribune, Civil War, Return to journalism, Other literary work, Publication

Newspaper editor, born in Hinsdale, New Hampshire, USA. He spent two years at Harvard, and was a member of the Brook Farm community (1841–6) with George Ripley. He edited the New York Tribune (1848–62), which opposed the extension of slavery to new territories. From 1863 to the close of the Civil War he was assistant-secretary of war. In 1867 he purchased the New York Sun, and successfully manag…

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Charles Albert Bender

Baseball player, born in Crow Wing Co, Minnesota, USA. A Chippewa Indian, he won 210 games during his 16-year career as a right-handed pitcher (1903–25), mostly with the Philadelphia Athletics. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953. Charles Albert "Chief" Bender (May 5, 1884 - May 22, 1954) was one of the great pitchers in Major League Baseball in the first two decades of the…

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Charles Anthon

Classicist, born in New York City, New York, USA. He was admitted to the bar (1919), became professor of Greek and Latin at Columbia University the next year, and was the first American to prepare critical editions of classical writers (Horatii Poemata, 1830). He produced the first American edition of Lemprierè's Classical Dictionary which he virtually rewrote, and his contribution was recognized…

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Charles Atlas - World's Most Perfectly Developed Man, Trademarks, Pop culture references

Body-builder and trainer, born in Acri, S Italy. He went to the USA in 1904, was anaemic and weak as a youth, and took up exercise at a Brooklyn Young Men's Christian Association gym. There he developed his own system of pitting muscle against muscle - what he later (1921) called ‘dynamic tension’. He built up his body, and was soon attracting attention as a strong man at Coney Island. He had me…

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Charles Aubrey Eaton

US representative, born in Nova Scotia, Canada. Coming to America for theological studies, he was a pastor and newspaper editor in both countries. He served on the Foreign Affairs Committee in the US House of Representatives (Republican, New Jersey, 1925–53). Charles Aubrey Eaton (March 28, 1868 – January 23, 1953) was a Canadian-born clergyman and politician who rose to lead prominent c…

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Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve - Biography, Works, English translations

Literary critic, born in Boulogne, NW France. He studied at Paris, trained in medicine, then turned to writing. He produced several volumes of poetry, and in the Revue de Paris (1829) began his Causeries, longer critical articles on French literature. His major works include several books of ‘portraits’ of literary contemporaries. His single novel, Volupté, appeared in 1835. In 1840 he became k…

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Charles Augustus Briggs

Protestant clergyman and educator, born in New York City, New York, USA. The son of a prosperous businessman, he served briefly with a New York infantry regiment on the outbreak of the Civil War, then entered the Union Theological Seminary, and became professor of Hebrew there (1874). Conservative Presbyterians objected to his scholarly work in Old Testament criticism and he was found guilty in a …

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Charles Avison - Life, Influence

Composer, born in Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, NE England, UK. Also known as a critic, he wrote an Essay on Musical Expression (1752). Charles Avison (February 1709, Tyne – May 9 or May 10, 1770, Newcastle upon Tyne) was an English composer during the Baroque period. He was a church organist at St. John's Church in Newcastle and at St. Nicholas's Cathedral. He is best remembe…

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Charles Aznavour - Film career, Biography, Awards and recognition

Auteur, actor, composer, and performer, born in Paris, France. His family fled the massacre of the Armenians in Turkey in 1915. His life was difficult until the Liberation, and he worked in various low-paid jobs. With Pierre Roche he wrote ‘J'ai bu’, sung by Georges Ulmer, which won the Grand Prix du Disque in 1947. He wrote for Patachou, Chevalier, Mistinguett, and Piaf, who encouraged him to i…

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Charles B(renton) Huggins

Oncologist, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He went to the USA to attend Harvard Medical School (1920), then taught surgery at the University of Michigan (1926–7). At the University of Chicago (1927–62), he specialized in clinical urology, and discovered hormonal therapy for prostate cancer, for which he shared the 1966 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He became head of Chicago's Be…

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Charles Babbage - Birth, Design of computers, Other accomplishments, Eccentricities, Quotes, Named after Babbage

Mathematician and inventor, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he became professor of mathematics (1828–39), and spent most of his life attempting to build two calculating machines. His assistant was Byron's daughter, Augusta Ada, Lady Lovelace. His ‘difference engine’ was intended for the calculation of tables of logarithms and similar functions by repeated addition performed b…

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Charles Blondin

Acrobat and tightrope-walker, born in Hesdin, N France. In 1859 he crossed Niagara Falls on a tightrope, and later did the same with variations (eg blindfolded, with a wheelbarrow, with a man on his back, on stilts). He was still performing in his early 70s. Charles Blondin (28 February 1824 – 19 February 1897), French tight-rope walker and acrobat, was born at St Omer, France. …

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Charles Boyer - Partial filmography, Television

Actor, born in Figeac, SC France. He studied at the Sorbonne and the Paris Conservatoire. Having become established as a star of the French stage and cinema, he settled in Hollywood in 1934, and was known as the screen's ‘great lover’ from such romantic roles as Mayerling (1936), The Garden of Allah (1936), and Algiers (1938). His later appearances included Barefoot in the Park (1967) and Stavis…

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Charles Brackett

Film producer and screenwriter, born in Saratoga Springs, New York, USA. He graduated from Williams (1915) and Harvard Law School (1920), his schooling interrupted by his service in World War 1. He practised law and published magazine stories and several novels before becoming drama critic for the New Yorker (1925–9). Some of his stories were purchased by Hollywood, which led to his being hired a…

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Charles Bradlaugh - Early life, Activism and journalism, Politics, Parliament, Death, Bibliography

Social reformer and free-thinker, born in London, UK. He became a busy secularist lecturer and pamphleteer under the name of ‘Iconoclast’. In 1880 he was elected MP for Northampton but, as an unbeliever, he refused to take the oath, and was expelled and re-elected regularly until 1886, when he took the oath and his seat. In 1886 he was prosecuted, with Annie Besant, for republishing a pamphlet a…

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Charles Brantley Aycock

US governor, born in Fremont (formerly Nahunta), Wayne Co, North Carolina, USA. A Goldsboro lawyer, he served as a US attorney general in North Carolina (1893–7). As Democratic governor (1901–5), he established a literacy test to remove black voters from the rolls, while funding new school construction and teacher training for whites. He later returned to his law practice. Charles Brantle…

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Charles Brockden Brown - Bibliography

Writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. A Quaker and Philadelphia lawyer who moved to New York City to write (1796), he is regarded as the country's first professional author. His first publication, Alcuin: A Dialogue (1798), focused on the rights of women. He wrote four groundbreaking American Gothic romances, including Wieland (1798) and Arthur Mervyn (2 vols, 1799–1800). As these did …

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Charles Bronson - Biography, Selected filmography

Film actor, born in Ehrenfield, Pennsylvania, USA. He made his name with roles in The Magnificent Seven (1960) and The Great Escape (1963), becoming known for his ‘tough-guy’ characters in such violent thrillers as The Mechanic (1972) and Death Wish (1974). Other films include The Dirty Dozen (1967), Ten to Midnight (1983), The President's Assassin (1987), Death Wish V (1994), and Dead to Rights…

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Charles Bulfinch

Architect, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. America's first native-born architect, he graduated from Harvard and was inspired by new Neoclassical buildings while on a European tour (1785–7). As a member of the board of select men (1791–1817) and superintendent of police, he sought to make Boston an American model of classical elegance through town planning and the development of the Federal s…

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Charles Burney - Biography

Musicologist, born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, WC England, UK, the father of Fanny Burney. After composing three pieces, Alfred, Robin Hood, and Queen Mab, for Drury Lane (1745–50), he went as organist to King's Lynn, Norfolk (1751–60). He travelled in France, Italy, Germany, and Austria (1770–2) to collect material for his General History of Music (1776–89), long considered a standard work. In…

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Charles C(hristian) Lauritsen - Awards and honors

Physicist, born in Holstebro, Denmark. He went to the USA in 1917, and designed and produced radios, until R A Milliken influenced him to join the California Institute of Technology (1926–68). He helped develop what was then the most powerful X-ray tube extant for cancer therapy (1928). A pioneer in nuclear astrophysics and rocketry for most of his career, he produced components for the atomic bo…

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Charles Carroll

Revolutionary leader and US senator, born in Annapolis, Maryland, USA, the cousin of John Cardinal Carroll. Son of a wealthy, land-owning Catholic family, he was educated at Jesuit schools in France, studied law in London, then returned to Maryland (1765) and took over the family estate, Carrollton. He devoted himself to managing the estate until he was drawn into politics (1773) and became spokes…

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Charles Chauncy - Literature

Protestant religious leader, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Harvard (1721) and became pastor of the First (Congregational) Church of Boston (1727), where he remained for 60 years. A leader of theological liberalism in New England, he was in constant conflict with his Calvinist contemporary, Jonathan Edwards. A political liberal, he was also an ardent patriot during the Revolutio…

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Charles Churchill

Satirical poet, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, but ruined his academic career with a clandestine marriage at the age of 17. With his father's help he was ordained priest in 1756, but gave up the Church in 1763. He achieved fame with his Rosciad (1761), a fierce attack on contemporary actors. Other works include The Apology (1761), The Prophecy of Famine (1763), and The Candidate (176…

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Charles Coborn - Sources

Cockney comedian of Scottish descent. He spent his childhood in London's East End, went on the stage in 1875, and immortalized the songs ‘Two Lovely Black Eyes’ (1886) and ‘The Man who Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo’ (1890). In 1928 he published the autobiographical The Man who Broke the Bank. Charles Coburn (4 August 1852–23 November 1945) was a British music hall singer and comedian …

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Charles Cotton

Writer, born at Beresford Hall, Staffordshire, C England, UK. In 1664 he issued anonymously his burlesque poem, Scarronides, or the First Book of Virgil Travestie. Later works include a treatise on fly-fishing contributed in 1676 to the fifth edition of Walton's Compleat Angler, and a translation of Montaigne's Essays (1685). Charles Cotton (April 28, 1630 - February, 1687) was an English p…

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Charles Cowden Clarke

Shakespearean scholar, born in Enfield, N Greater London, UK. He became a bookseller in London (1820), and a music publisher in partnership with Alfred Novello, whose sister Mary Victoria Novello (1809–98) he married in 1828. He gave public lectures on Shakespeare and other literary figures, and with his wife published an annotated edition of Shakespeare (1869) and The Shakespeare Key (1879). …

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Charles Crocker - Early career, Running a railroad, Banking

Railroad builder and businessman, born in Troy, New York, USA. His family moved to Indiana (1836), where he established an iron forge (1845). He later sold the business and went to California to take up gold mining. He soon realized that the real money lay in selling goods, and the store he opened in Sacramento (1852) made him rich within a few years. By 1860 he was elected to the state legislatur…

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Charles Cros

Inventor and poet, born in Fabrezan, S France. He discovered a process for colour photography (1869) and invented a phonograph (paléophone) in 1877, the year that Thomas Edison made his first recording. His most important poetical work, Le Coffret de santal (1873), was praised by Paul Verlaine and may have influenced Arthur Rimbaud as well as 20th-c French Symbolists. Charles Cros (October…

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Charles Curtis

US vice-president (1929–33) and US representative, born in North Topeka, Kansas, USA. He claimed to be one-eighth American Indian and made much of this in his political career. He became Herbert Hoover's vice-president after 34 years in Congress, and supported the Republican policies even as the impact of the Great Depression became more evident. Charles Curtis (January 25, 1860 – Februa…

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Charles de Brosses - Publications

Magistrate and writer, born in Dijon, E France. He was a co-disciple of Buffon with the Jesuits, and a liberal. Close to the Encyclopédistes, he was drawn to the study of the mechanics of languages, on which he wrote an essay in 1675. His Lettres sur l'Italie, published after a journey there, brought him fame, and he also produced a compilation of the works of Sallust. He won a lawsuit against Vo…

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Charles de La Fosse

Painter, born in Paris, France. He studied under Lebrun, and during a stay in Italy (1658–63) became influenced by the works of Titian and Veronese, going on to produce decorative historical and allegorical murals. His works include The Sacrifice of Iphigenia in the Salon de Diane at Versailles, and the Sunrise in the Salon d'Apollon. His greatest decorative work is the cupola of the Church of Le…

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Charles Demuth - Selected works

Painter, born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA. He worked in water colours and studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under Thomas Anshutz (1905–8), at the Académie Julian, Paris (1912–14), and lived in New York City. During 1910–14 he painted illustrations for several writers, including Emile Zola and Henry James. Lame and diabetic, he illustrated the joys of physical life, as in…

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Charles Despiau

Sculptor, born in Mont-de-Marsan, SW France. He was influenced and discovered by Rodin, for whom he worked in 1907–14. A sensitive, Neoclassical portraitist, his earliest major work was Paulette (1907, Musée d'art moderne, Paris). His only large-scale work remains the war memorial in Mont-de-Marsan (1920–2). Other works include Head of Madame Derain (1922) in Washington, DC. Despiau was …

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Charles Dibdin

Composer, writer, and theatre manager, born in Southampton, Hampshire, S England, UK. He early attracted notice by his singing, and began a stage career in 1762. In 1789 he started his popular series of one-man musical entertainments. He wrote over 1000 songs (such as ‘Poor Jack’ and ‘Tom Bowling’) and many stage works, musical pieces, and novels. Charles Dibdin (March 4?, 1745 - July 2…

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Charles Doolittle Walcott - Early life, Beginning of scientific career, Leadership of the Smithsonian Institution, Death and legacy

Geologist and palaeontologist, born in New York Mills, New York, USA. He worked for the US Geological Survey (1879–1907, director 1894–1907) and was secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1907–27). His voluminous publications on trilobites, brachiopods, fossil jellyfish and western fossils established him as a leading authority on Cambrian rocks and fossils. His discovery of fossilized soft-…

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Charles Dudley Warner

Writer, born in Plainfield, Massachusetts, USA. He studied at Hamilton (1851 BA), worked as a railroad surveyor in Missouri (1853–4), then returned to school to take a law degree at the University of Pennsylvania (1858). He practised law in Chicago until 1860, before moving to Hartford, CT to work as an editor for the Evening Press (which merged with the Hartford Courant in 1867). He travelled to…

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Charles E(rwin) Wilson - Early life and career, General Motors Career, Secretary of Defense, Human experimentation, Later life, Nickname

Automobile executive and US Cabinet member, born in Minerva, Ohio, USA. An electrical engineer, he designed automobile products for Westinghouse (1912–21), then became president of Delco Remy (1926–8). As vice-president of General Motors (1928–41), then president (1941–52), he recognized the United Auto Workers union, championed cost-of-living wage increases, and led his company through World …

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Charles Eames - Biography, Designers, Philosophy, Works, Quotes, Further reading

Architect and designer, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. He studied and practised architecture and taught at Cranbrook Academy of Art (1937–40). There he collaborated on modern furniture design with the Saarinens and student Ray Kaiser (c.1916–88), whom he married in 1941. Initially a painter and sculptor, his wife formed an innovative design partnership with her husband (1941–78) that produced…

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Charles Eastman

Santee Sioux physician and writer, born at Redwood Falls, Minnesota, USA. He studied at Dartmouth (1887 BA) and gained an MD from Boston University (1890). He established 32 Indian Young Men's Christian Association groups, and helped to found the Boy Scouts and Campfire Girls. An advocate for Indians' rights, he also wrote several books and lectured widely in the USA and England. With his f…

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Charles Edison - Biography

US governor and cabinet member, born in Llewellyn Park, New Jersey, USA. The son of Thomas Alva Edison, he joined Edison Illuminating Co (1914), where he improved working conditions and became president (1926). A Democrat, he co-chaired the New Jersey State Recovery Board (1933–6), and as assistant navy secretary (1936–9), then secretary (1939–40), he reorganized the fleet. As governor of New J…

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Charles Edouard Guillaume

Physicist, born in Fleurier, W Switzerland. He studied at Neuchâtel, and became director of the Bureau of International Weights and Measures at Sèvres. He discovered a nickel-steel alloy, ‘Invar’, which does not expand significantly and can therefore be used in precision instruments and standard measures, and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1920. Charles Édouard Guillaume (F…

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Charles Edward Munroe - Publications

Chemist, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Based at the Naval Torpedo Station and War College in Newport, RI (1886–92), he was the foremost explosives chemist of his time, inventing smokeless gunpowder (c.1890) and discovering important properties of guncotton that led to the development of bazookas and shaped charges in World War 2. He also played a role in the development of armour-piercin…

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Charles Edward Russell - Work as a Journalist, Politics, Works published

Journalist, reformer, and Socialist, born in Davenport, Iowa, USA. Convinced that free trade was a cure for social ills, he founded the Iowa Free Trade League (1881). He then combined journalism with reform as city editor of the New York World (1894–7), managing editor of the New York American (1897–1900), and publisher of the Chicago American (1900–2). In the following years he became a well-k…

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Charles Edwin Bessey

Botanist, born in Milton Township, Ohio, USA. After growing up on a farm, he founded curricula in botany and horticulture at the Iowa Agricultural College (1870–84), then joined the University of Nebraska (1884–1915), where he became a respected educator and administrator, holding deanships and serving as an officer in many professional botanical and agricultural associations. He was a pioneer i…

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Charles Egbert Craddock - Works

Writer, born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA. She wrote short stories in the Atlantic Monthly from 1878, published as In the Tennessee Mountains (1884), and thereafter became a prolific novelist of mountain backwoods life. Mary Noailles Murfree (January 24, 1850-July 31, 1922) was an American fiction writer of novels and short stories who wrote under the pen name Charles Egbert Craddock. …

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Charles Eliot

Landscape architect, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. The son of Charles William Eliot, he graduated from Harvard University and studied horticulture before becoming an apprentice to Frederick Law Olmsted (1883). Taking a year off to study European landscape design, he came back to open his own Boston firm (1886), creating parks for small New England and midwestern cities, including Youngsto…

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Charles Evans Whittaker - Sources

Judge, born near Troy, Kansas, USA. He practised law in Kansas City for 30 years before presiding over a US district court (1954–6) and then a US Court of Appeals (1956–7). President Eisenhower named him to the US Supreme Court (1957–62), where he wrote no major opinions. Charles Evans Whittaker (February 22, 1901 – November 26, 1973) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supre…

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Charles Farrar Browne - Stories, Nota Bene

Writer and humorist, born in Waterford, Maine, USA. In a series of Cleveland Plain Dealer letters (1857–9) purportedly written by Artemus Ward, he created the blustery character through whom he satirized contemporary society. These letters, followed by an endless series he concocted to describe everything he saw or thought, were part of the ongoing American tradition of ‘unlettered’ colloquial …

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Charles Ferdinand Ramuz - Works, Awards, Films

Writer, born in Cully, W Switzerland. He spent some time in Paris before World War 1, and his first novel, Le Petit Village (The Little Village), appeared in 1903. One of the best-known French-Swiss writers of the 20th-c, his prose style and descriptive power won him wide admiration and repute. Most of his works were written after he was 40, and include Beauté sur la terre (1927, Beauty on Earth)…

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Charles Follen McKim

Architect, born in Isabella Furnace, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Harvard and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris. The addition of Stanford White to his partnership with William Rutherford Mead launched McKim, Mead & White in 1879, designers of more than 1000 public, commercial, and residential buildings. McKim was an elegant Classical designer; his work includes the Boston Public Library (1887–9…

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Charles Francis Adams

Diplomat and writer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the son of John Quincy Adams. After studying law at Harvard, he was admitted to the bar in 1828. During the Civil War he was minister to Britain (1861–8), and in 1871–2 was one of the US arbitrators on the Alabama claims. He published the life and works of his grandfather and father. Several notable persons have been named Charles F…

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Charles Francis Hall

Arctic explorer, born in Rochester, New Hampshire, USA. He became interested in the fate of Sir John Franklin whose 1845 expedition to the Northwest Territories, Canada, had been lost. He made two search expeditions (1860–2, 1864–9), living among the Inuits, and bringing back information and relics of the Franklin journey. In 1871 he sailed in command of the Polaris in an attempt to reach the No…

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Charles Frederick Worth - Commemoration

Costumier, born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. A book-keeper, he went to Paris in 1845, and worked in a fashion accessories shop. He established a ladies' tailors in 1858, and gained the patronage of Empress Eugénie. The first to show a collection in advance and to use female models, he introduced the bustle, and is especially known for his elegant crinolined gowns. Charles Frede…

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Charles Frohman - Life and career, Further reading

Theatrical agent and manager, born in Sandusky, Ohio, USA. The brother of Daniel Frohman, he was interested in the theatre from his youth. He settled in New York and worked at various theatres and agencies, setting out as an independent manager (1883) and then as a booking agent. He soon built up his Empire Stock Theatre Co, developing such notable actors as John Drew, Maude Adams, and Ethel Barry…

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Charles George Gordon - Early career, China, Africa, Gordon and Calvary, Remembered as a hero

British general, born in Woolwich, E Greater London, UK. He trained at Woolwich Academy, joined the Royal Engineers in 1852, and in 1855–6 fought in the Crimean War. In 1860 he went to China, where he crushed the Taiping Rebellion, for which he became known as Chinese Gordon. In 1877 he was appointed Governor of the Sudan. He resigned in poor health in 1880, but returned in 1884 to relieve Egypti…

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Charles Gibson - Personal, Trivia

Historian, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. A Yale PhD, he ended his teaching career at the University of Michigan (1965–85). His groundbreaking ethnohistorical studies of the colonial period greatly broadened the scope of Latin-American historical studies. His books include The Colonial Period in Latin American History (1958) and The Aztecs under Spanish Rule (1964). Charles Dewolf Gibson …

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Charles Glover Barkla

Physicist, born in Widnes, Cheshire, NW England, UK. He became professor of physics at London (1909–13) and of natural philosophy at Edinburgh (1913–44). He conducted notable research into X-rays and other short-wave emissions, and was awarded the 1917 Nobel Prize for Physics. Charles Glover Barkla (June 7, 1877 – October 23, 1944) was a British physicist. …

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Charles Godfrey Leland - Life, Select bibliography, Further reading

Writer, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) (1841–5), and in Heidelberg, Munich, and Paris. He returned to Philadelphia, and after studying law he turned to a career as a journalist for periodicals in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. While he was the editor of Graham's Magazine (1857), he published a German dialect poem, ‘Hans Breit…

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Charles Goodnight

Cattleman, born in Macoupin Co, Illinois, USA. He was a guide and scout in Texas, where he served with the Texas Rangers during the Civil War. He pioneered the movement of cattle ranching into New Mexico (1866) and established the Goodnight and the New Goodnight trails. With John Adair he developed the JA Ranch in Texas (100 000 head of cattle on one million acres) and crossed Angus cattle with b…

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Charles Goodyear - Early life, Marriage and early career, Rubber research, Honor, Death

Inventor, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He followed his father into the hardware business but went bankrupt in 1830, and remained in arrears for the rest of his life, spending time in prison for debt more than once. He began experimenting with rubber in 1834, persevering despite poverty and ridicule. By 1844 he had patented a process (vulcanization) to prevent India rubber from melting in h…

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Charles Gore - Birmingham, Works

Anglican clergyman and theologian, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, where he became a fellow of Trinity College in 1875, and was the first principal of Pusey House in 1884. His contribution to Lux Mundi (1889) abandoned the strict tractarian view of biblical inspiration, and his Bampton Lectures (1891) were equally controversial. He founded the Community of the Resurrection at Pusey House…

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Charles Grandison Finney - Finney's place in the social history of the United States, Finney's theology

Protestant religious leader and educator, born in Warren, Connecticut, USA. Raised on the verge of the frontier in Oneida Co, NY, he studied for the bar but turned to evangelism after an emotional religious conversion (1821). He was ordained a Presbyterian minister (1824), and shortly afterwards launched an eight-year revival campaign that carried him through New York, New England, and the mid-Atl…

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Charles Gwathmey

Architect, born in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. He formed a New York partnership with Robert Siegel (1968), designing primarily houses, and corporate and institutional buildings that Americanized the International style. Gwathmey received his Master of Architecture degree in 1962 from Yale School of Architecture, where he won both The William Wirt Winchester Fellowship as the outstanding…

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Charles H(amilton) Houston - Biography, Legacy, Further reading

Lawyer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He studied at Amherst College (1915) and Harvard Law School (1922), and taught and served as vice-dean at Howard University (1915–35) and practised law in Washington (1924–50). He initiated the strategy for many celebrated civil-rights cases brought before the US Supreme Court by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People…

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Charles H(ard) Townes - Awards, Representation

Physicist, born in Greenville, South Carolina, USA. He taught at the California Institute of Technology (1937–9), then moved to Bell Telephone Laboratories (1939–47). While at Columbia University (1948–61), he invented the maser (1953–4), and for the scientific work behind this he was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize for Physics (shared with two Russian physicists). With his brother-in-law, Arthur…

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Charles Hale Hoyt

Playwright, born in Concord, New Hampshire, USA. A successful writer of farces, he later turned to social satire, lampooning the railroads in A Hole in the Ground (1887), and prohibition in A Temperance Town (1893). By a landslide, Hoyt was the 19th-century playwright who did the most to combine baseball with his love for the theater. Besides having covered Boston Beaneater baseball for the…

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Charles Hamilton

Autograph authority, born in Ludington, Michigan, USA. He grew up in Flint, MI and made his first acquisition (a Rudyard Kipling autograph) at age 12. He served in the US Army Air Corps (1942–5) and in 1952 began to specialize in identifying handwriting and autographs. He established Charles Hamilton Galleries, Inc, in New York City (1963), the first American auction gallery devoted exclusively t…

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Charles Henry Davis - Early life and career, Civil War service, Post-war service, Legacy

US naval officer and scientist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He surveyed the waters around Nantucket and contributed to the establishment of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (1849). He commanded the Upper Mississippi Flotilla and captured Memphis (1862). Charles Henry Davis (January 16, 1807—February 18, 1877) was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, serving primari…

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Charles Henry Parkhurst - Early years, Later life, Works

Clergyman and reformer, born in Framingham, Massachusetts, USA. Born on a farm, he became a high-school principal, and then was ordained as a Presbyterian minister (1874), preaching in New York City (1880–1918). Although scholarly and reserved, he made a tremendous impact with two sermons (Feb & Mar 1892) in which he attacked the political corruption of New York City government. Backed by the evi…

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Charles Herbert Klein - Fictional people, Other uses

Baseball player, born in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. During his 17 year career as an outfielder, mostly with the Philadelphia Phillies (1928–44), he posted a lifetime batting average of ·320 and hit 300 home runs. He is the only player in the 20th-c to collect 200 or more hits in each of his first five major league seasons. In 1980 he was elected to baseball's Hall of Fame. …

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Charles Heywood

US marine officer, born in Waterville, Maine, USA. Appointed colonel commandant in 1891, he improved Marine Corps administration and oversaw an expansion in which the service quadrupled in size to 7800 officers and men. Major General Charles Heywood (3 October 1839 - 26 February 1915) was the ninth Commandant of the Marine Corps. He was appointed second lieutenant in the Marine Corps from N…

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Charles Hodge - Life, Literary and teaching activities, Character and significance, Hodge and slavery, Bibliography

Protestant theologian, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The son of a Continental Army surgeon, he studied at Princeton (1815) and Princeton Theological Seminary (1819), and taught at the Princeton seminary (from 1820). A powerful advocate for conservative Presbyterian doctrine, he edited the Princeton Review for more than 40 years. His influential Systematic Theology appeared in 1871–2. …

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Charles Horace Mayo

Physician, born in Rochester, Minnesota, USA. After taking his MD from Chicago Medical College (1888), he joined his father and older brother William Mayo in founding the clinic at St Mary's Hospital in Rochester, MN, and he was soon performing surgery on patients from ever widening areas of the USA and the world. His own specialties became the thyroid, the nervous system, and eye operations, and …

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Charles (of Austria-Hungary) I

Emperor of Austria (1916–18, as Karl I) and king of Hungary (1916–19, as Kàroly IV), born at Persenbeug Castle, C Austria. The last of the Habsburg emperors, he succeeded his grand-uncle, Francis Joseph, in 1916, and became heir presumptive on the assassination at Sarajevo (1914) of his uncle, Archduke Francis Ferdinand. In 1919 he was deposed by the Austrian parliament and exiled to Switzerlan…

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Charles (of England) I

King of Britain and Ireland (1625–49), born in Dunfermline, Fife, E Scotland, UK, the second son of James I. He failed in his bid to marry the infanta Maria of Spain (1623), marrying instead the French princess, Henrietta Maria, and thus disturbing the nation, for the marriage articles permitted her the free exercise of the Catholic religion. Three parliaments were summoned and dissolved in the f…

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Charles (of England) II

King of Britain and Ireland (1660–85), born in London, UK, the son of Charles I. As Prince of Wales, he sided with his father in the Civil War, and was then forced into exile. On his father's execution (1649), he assumed the title of king, and was crowned at Scone, Scotland (1651). Leading poorly organized forces into England, he met disastrous defeat at Worcester (1651). The next nine years were…

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Charles (of Spain) II

King of Spain (1665–1700), the last ruler of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty, born in Madrid, Spain. The congenitally handicapped son of Philip IV (reigned 1621–65), he presided over the final decline of Spanish hegemony. Under him Spain joined the League of Augsburg (1686) and the ensuing hostilities against France. To prevent the dismemberment of his patrimony, he bequeathed the entire Spanish Ha…

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Charles (of Spain) III

King of Naples and Sicily (1734–59) before becoming King of Spain (1759–88), born in Madrid, Spain. Generally regarded as an archetypal enlightened despot, he was driven by the belief that the Spanish monarchy and the colonial empire were in need of political, economic, and cultural reform. He encouraged commercial reforms in the colonies, and encouraged an ambitious building programme at home, …

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Charles (Emperor) IV

Holy Roman Emperor (1355–78), German king (1347–78), and King of Bohemia (1346–78). He was raised at the French court and was crowned emperor at Rome by a papal legate. A skilful diplomat, he acquired Brandenburg (1373) and added to his territories in Silesia and Lusatia. His building projects included Charles University in Prague (1348) and the renovation of the cathedral of St Vitus, and he a…

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Charles (of Spain) IV

King of Spain (1788–1808), born in Portici, S Italy, the son of Charles III (reigned 1759–88). His government was largely in the hands of his wife, Maria Luisa (1751–1819) and her favourite, Manuel de Godoy. Nelson destroyed his fleet at Trafalgar (1805), and in 1808 he abdicated under pressure from Napoleon. He spent the rest of his life in exile. Charles IV may refer to: …

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Charles (of France) IX

King of France (1560–74), born in St Germain-en-Laye, NC France. The second son of Henry II and Catherine de' Medici, he succeeded his brother Francis II. His reign coincided with the Wars of Religion. He was completely subject to his mother, whose counsels drove him to authorize the massacre of Huguenots on St Bartholomew's Day (1572), the memory of which was said to have haunted him until his d…

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Charles James Fox

British statesman and foreign secretary (1782, 1783, 1806), born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, became a Liberal MP at 19, and two years later was a junior lord of the Admiralty. He supported Lord North, but in 1772 resigned over American policy. He became secretary of state after North's downfall, and in 1783 formed a coalition with him, which held office for a short period in 1783. He supp…

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Charles Joseph Bonaparte

Lawyer and reformer, born in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, the great-nephew of Napoleon I. He practised law in Baltimore, where he fought the corruption rampant both in the city and state government, and in 1881 founded the Civil Service Reform Association of Maryland and the National Civil Service Reform League. His activities led to a friendship with Theodore Roosevelt who, as president, appointed h…

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Charles Kingsley - Life, Character, Legacy, Bibliography

Writer, born in Holne, Devon, SW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, was ordained in 1842, and lived as curate and rector of Eversley, Hampshire. A ‘Christian Socialist’, he was much involved in schemes for the improvement of working-class life, and his social novels, such as Alton Locke (1850), had great influence at the time. His best-known works are Westward Ho! (1855), Hereward the Wake (1…

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Charles Kuralt - Early Life, Early Career, Hit the Road, Charles, Retirement, Passing Into Controversy, Quotes

Radio and television correspondent, born in Wilmington, North Carolina, USA. A newspaper writer in North Carolina, he joined CBS News (1957), becoming a foreign correspondent in 1959. After 10 years abroad, he began exploring America in his On the Road series, and in 1979 became presenter of CBS's Sunday Morning. He published his memoirs, A Life on the Road (1990). Charles Kuralt (10 Septem…

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Charles Lamb - Selected works

Essayist and poet, born in London, UK. He studied at Christ's Hospital, and worked as a clerk for the East India Company (1792–1825). He achieved success through joint publication with his sister, Mary (1764–1847), of Tales from Shakespear (1807), and they followed this by other works for children. In 1796 his mother was killed by his sister Mary in a fit of insanity. He himself was for a short …

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Charles Lapworth

Geologist, born in Faringdon, Oxfordshire, SC England, UK. In 1864 he became a teacher in Galashiels, where he did important work on the geology of S Scotland and the NW Highlands. He was professor of geology at Birmingham (1881–1913), and wrote especially on graptolites. The term Ordovician was introduced by him. Charles Lapworth (September 20, 1842 – March 13, 1920) was an English geol…

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Charles Laughton - Early life and career, Later career, Private life, Trivia

Film and stage actor, born in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. He trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and first appeared on stage in London in 1926. This was followed by successes in The Cherry Orchard, A Man with Red Hair, and Payment Deferred. He appeared with the Old Vic Company in 1933, played in and produced Shaw's Don Juan in Hell and Major Barbara, and as a Sha…

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Charles Le Brun - Works

Painter and designer, born in Paris, France. He studied in Rome for four years under Poussin and Vouet, and for nearly 40 years (1647–83) exercised a despotic influence over French art and artists. He is usually considered to be the founder of the French school of painting. He helped to found the Academy of Painting and Sculpture in 1648, and was the first director of the Gobelins tapestry works …

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Charles Lock Eastlake - Publications

Architect, furniture designer, and writer, born in Plymouth, Devon, SW England, UK, the nephew of the painter Sir Charles Lock Eastlake. He is best known for his writing. His book Hints on Household Taste in Furniture, Upholstery and Other Details (1868) was especially influential in the USA, where it gave rise to the Eastlake style. He later became a keeper at the National Gallery in London (1878…

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Charles Loring Brace - Fostering and the “Orphan Trains”

Philanthropist, born in Litchfield, Connecticut, USA. A relation of the Beecher family, he was trained in theology but drawn to assisting the urban poor, particularly children. A pioneer in modern philanthropic methods, he promoted self-help, and during his tenure as founder and secretary of the New York City Children's Aid Society (1853–90), he assisted more than 100 000 immigrant children in f…

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Charles Luckman

Corporate executive and architect, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. He was an executive and then president of Pepsodent (1943–6) and its parent, Lever Bros (1946–50). He hired architects, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill to design Lever House in New York. At his request they designed an elevated building that left most of the street level open to pedestrians and created the illusion of a floating f…

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Charles Ludlam - Life, Plays (as playwright), Puppet shows, Plays (as actor), Plays (as director)

Playwright, actor, and director, born in Floral Park, New York, USA. Co-founder in 1967 of the Ridiculous Theatrical Company, he received an Obie for it in 1969. Known for his outrageous, campy portrayals, often of female characters, he also received an Obie in 1973 for his roles in Corn and Camille. He was born in Floral Park, New York, raised in Northport, New York, on Long Island, and re…

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Charles Lynch

American soldier and judge, born in Bedford Co, Virginia, USA. A well-to-do landowner, he became a justice of the peace (1766) and later served in the Virginia House of Burgesses, where he campaigned for independence. He commanded volunteers under Nathanael Greene during the American Revolution. He gained a reputation for high-handedness and extralegality in dealing with Tories, especially during …

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Charles MacArthur - Selected Works

Playwright, screenwriter, and film director, born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. He was the husband of Helen Hayes and the father of James MacArthur. After working as a reporter, he collaborated with Ben Hecht on the classic newspaper play, Front Page (1928), and then on Twentieth Century (1932), both Broadway hits. He went on to write, alone or in collaboration, several other popular plays and s…

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Charles Macintosh - Sources

Manufacturing chemist, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. While trying to find uses for the waste products from gasworks, he developed in 1823 a method of waterproofing cloth, which resulted in the manufacture of the raincoat, or macintosh. Charles Macintosh (December 29, 1766–July 25, 1843) was a Scottish chemist and inventor of waterproof fabrics. He devoted all his spare time to science,…

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Charles Manson - Early life, Musical influence, Covers and tributes, Pop culture references and parodies, References and further reading

Cult leader, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Released from prison in 1967, he set up a commune based on free love and devotion to himself. Members of his cult conducted a series of grisly murders in California in 1969, including that of actress Sharon Tate (1943–69). He and his accomplices were sentenced to death, but were spared the death penalty due to a Supreme Court ruling against capital puni…

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Charles Martel - Consolidation of power, Battle of Tours, After Tours, Death, Legacy, Family and children

Mayor of the palace for the last Merovingian kings of the Franks, the illegitimate son of Pepin of Herstal, and the undisputed head of the Carolingian family by 723. He conducted many campaigns against the Frisians and Saxons, as well as in Aquitaine, Bavaria, and Burgundy. He halted Muslim expansion in W Europe at the Battle of Poitiers (732). Established as effective ruler of much of Gaul, but n…

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Charles Martin (Tornow) Loeffler - Not from Alsace, Career, Works, Sources

Composer and violinist, born in Mülhausen, Alsace, NE France. European trained, he went to the USA in 1881, and after beginning with Leopold Damrosch in New York City he became affiliated with the Boston Symphony (1882–1903). He enjoyed some acclaim in his time for his colourfully impressionistic and often ‘neo-archaic’ music, such as Pagan Poem (1901–7), but although admired by many American…

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Charles Mason

Astronomer, known for the ‘Mason–Dixon Line’ in the USA. As an assistant at Greenwich Observatory, with the English surveyor Jeremiah Dixon (d.1777), he observed the transit of Venus at the Cape of Good Hope in 1761. From 1763 to 1767 Mason and Dixon were engaged to survey the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania, and end an 80-year-old dispute. They reached a point 224 mi W of the Delaw…

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Charles Maurras - Life, Maurras' political thought, Works

Writer, journalist, critic, and political theorist, born in Martigues, S France. Son of a tax collector, he was raised by the Frères (Brothers). He studied at the Collège de Sacré-Coeur in Aix-en-Provence, where in 1880 he contracted an illness which left him permanently deaf. In 1891 in Paris he founded, with Jean Moréas, the école romane, a group of young poets opposed to the Symbolists. Hi…

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