Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 13

Cambridge Encyclopedia

candle

A light source typically consisting of a wax cylinder (stearic acid, paraffin wax, etc) with a central fibrous wick, known from ancient times (at least 3000 BC). Light is generated by burning liquid wax melted by the flame and drawn up the wick by capillary action. The International Standard Candle was a measure of light-source intensity, now replaced by the candela. A candle is a light sou…

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cane rat

An African cavy-like rodent; large (length, up to 75 cm/30 in; weight, 9 kg/20 lb); short tail and broad blunt snout; lives near water; may damage sugar-cane plantations. (Family: Thryonomyidae.) The genus Thryonomys, also know as cane rats, is a genus of rodent found in Africa south of the Sahara. …

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Canes Venatici

An inconspicuous constellation in the N hemisphere which includes the famous Whirlpool Galaxy. Source: The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 …

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Canidae - Classification, Dentition

The dog family of carnivores (36 species), usually with slender legs, lean muzzles, large erect ears, and bushy tails; four toes on hind feet, usually five on front; blunt claws not retractable; colour usually without stripes or spots; small canids may hunt alone by stalking then pouncing; larger may hunt in packs and run prey to exhaustion. Canidae is the family of carnivorous and omnivoro…

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canine parvovirus - Infection, Prevention and contamination, Further reading

A serious viral infection of dogs and other canids, which emerged in the late 1970s. Its highly infectious nature was evidenced by its appearance in most countries around the world within a very short time. The most characteristic feature of the disease is very severe persistent diarrhoea with blood, and there may be vomiting and a high fever. Puppies may die of shock and dehydration very soon aft…

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Canis Major - Notable deep sky objects

A constellation in the S hemisphere, partly in the Milky Way. It includes Sirius, the brightest star in our sky. Canis Major (IPA: /ˈkeɪnɪs ˈmeɪdʒə/, Latin: greater dog) is one of the 88 modern constellations, and was also in Ptolemy's list of 48 constellations. It is said to represent one of the dogs following Orion the hunter (see also the constellations of Orion, Canis Minor…

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Canis Minor

A small N hemisphere constellation. Its brightest star is Procyon, just 3·5 parsec away, and the eighth brightest star in the sky. It has a faint white dwarf companion. Source: The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 …

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canker (botany)

A general term for a localized disease of woody plants, in which bark formation is prevented; typically caused by bacteria or fungi. Canker and anthracnose are general terms for a large number of different plant diseases, characterised by broadly similar symptoms including the appearance of small areas of dead tissue, which grow slowly, often over a period of years. Different cankers …

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canker (zoology)

A disease of animals, characterized by open sores or ulcers; name used for several conditions, such as inflammation of a horse's foot involving a fluid discharge, eczema on a dog's ear, an abscess on a bird, or an infestation of mites in the ear of a cat (ear canker, or otodectic mange). Canker and anthracnose are general terms for a large number of different plant diseases, characterised b…

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canna

A tuberous perennial, native to Central and tropical North America; leaves broadly lance-shaped, stalks sheathing stem; flowers in a spike, three sepals, three petals, 4–6 stamens, petal-like and brightly coloured; fruit a warty capsule; often grown for the showy flowers. Canna edulis provides the starch Queensland arrowroot. The hard, round seeds of Canna indica have been used as shot. (Genus: C…

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cannabis - Species, Description, Taxonomy, Geographical distribution, Reproduction, Etymology

A preparation of the plant Cannabis sativa, widely used as a recreational drug for its euphoric, relaxing properties: its extracts are found as hashish and marijuana. The plant, also called ganja or hemp, is an annual growing to 2·5 m/8 ft; its leaves have 5–7 narrow, toothed, spreading, finger-like lobes; there are tiny green flowers in terminal clusters, with males and females on separate pl…

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Cannes - Demographics, Culture

43°33N 7°00E, pop (2000e) 72 600. Fashionable resort town on the French Riviera in Alpes-Maritimes department, SE France, on the Golfe de la Napoule; airport; railway; fruit, flowers, textiles; major tourist centre, with many beaches and yachting harbours; mild winter and temperate summer climate; casinos; International Film Festival (May), International Fireworks Festival (Aug). Cannes…

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canning - History, Double Seams, Other home food preservation methods, Canning companies

A food preservation process relying on the sterilization of foods by heating in a container sealed before or immediately after the heat treatment. The idea was first applied in 1810 by Nicolas Appert (c.1750–1841) to foods sealed in bottles and heated, but since 1839 in cans made of tinned thin steel sheet. Aluminium or plastic sometimes now replaces steel. Internal coatings are chosen to resist …

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canoe - Ambiguity over the word canoe, Design and construction, Types of canoes, Use, Image gallery

A small, double-ended open craft propelled with paddles. There are two main types: a vessel carrying three or four people, made from a light wooden framework, traditionally covered with birch bark or hides, but latterly using thin wooden planks; and the Pacific dugout canoe, often fitted with an outrigger, which could be made capable of ocean voyages. Maori war canoes were up to 20 m/70 ft long,…

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canoeing - Sport, Recreational, Other Forms

A water sport practised in canoes, developed by British barrister John Macgregor (1825–92) in 1865. The Canoe Club was formed the following year. Two types of canoe are used in competition: the kayak, which has a keel, with the canoeist sitting in the boat, and the Canadian canoe, which has no keel, with the canoeist kneeling. The number of persons per craft varies between one and four. Ca…

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canon (music) - Types of canons, How voices in a canon are named, Elaborate use of canon technique

A strictly ordered texture in which polyphony is derived from a single line by imitation of itself at fixed intervals of time and pitch. In other words, all the canonic parts are the same, but they overlap each other. The term canon originally referred to the verbal, symbolic, or cryptic ‘rule’ by which the imitations are formed. The most rigid and ingenious forms of canon are not strictl…

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canon (of RC Mass)

The eucharistic prayer or prayer of consecration in the Roman Catholic Mass, so called from the rule that established its unchanging form. Uses of "canon" related to the primary meaning above include: Other uses of "canon", with entirely separate origins include: …

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canon (religion)

In Christianity, a list of the inspired writings regarded as comprising Holy Scripture. The precise limits of the Old and New Testament canons were debated in the early Christian centuries, and Protestants and Roman Catholics still differ regarding the inclusion of some works. The term is also sometimes used to comprise the rules regarding liturgy, the life and discipline of the Church, and other …

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canon (title)

The ecclesiastical title of clergy attached to cathedrals or certain endowed churches; either secular or, if living under semi-monastic rule, regular (eg Augustinian). In the Church of England, residentiary canons are the salaried staff of a cathedral, responsible for the upkeep of the building; non-residentiary canons are unsalaried, but have certain privileges, including rights with regard to th…

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canon law - Canons of the Apostles, Catholic Church, Orthodox Churches, Anglican Churches

In the Roman Catholic Church, a body of rules or laws to be observed in matters of faith, morals, and discipline. It developed out of the decisions of the Councils of the Church, and the decrees of popes and influential bishops. A notable compilation was made by Gratian in his Decretum (1140), which, with later additions, formed the Corpus juris canonici (completely revised in 1917 and 1983). Pre-…

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canonization - Historical development of the process, Current practice, Previous practice

The culmination of a lengthy process in the Roman Catholic Church whereby, after a long process of enquiry, a deceased individual is declared a saint, or entitled to public veneration. It confers various honours, such as a festival day, and the dedication of churches to his/her memory. In the Orthodox Church, there is a similar but less formal procedure. Canonization is the process of decla…

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Cantabria - Geography, Famous Cantabrians

pop (2000e) 531 000; area 5289 km²/2041 sq mi. Autonomous region of N Spain, co-extensive with the modern province of Santander; stretches across the Cordillera Cantabrica (1382 m/4534 ft) to the headwaters of the R Ebro; capital, Santander. Cantabria is an autonomous community of Spain, containing one province (also called Cantabria). Area: 5,321 km² Transp…

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Cantabrian Mountains - Geography

Mountain range in N Spain, extending 500 km/310 mi W–E from Galicia along the Bay of Biscay to the Pyrenees, and forming a barrier between the sea and the C plateau (Meseta) of Spain; highest point, the Picos de Europa massif (2648 m/8688 ft); rich in minerals, and a source of hydroelectric power. Cantabrian Mountains (Cordillera Cantábrica in Spanish)is a mountain chain which extends…

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cantata - Media

Music which is ‘sung’. The Italian solo cantata of the 17th–18th-c was a setting of secular (usually amatory) verses, alternating recitative and aria. Lutheran cantatas (eg those of Bach) were church compositions for soloists, choir, and instruments. More recent cantatas, whether sacred or secular, are usually choral and orchestral pieces, with or without soloists; many are festival or commemor…

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Canterbury - History, Government, Transport, Educational establishments, Trivia, Affiliations

51°17N 1°05E, pop (2001e) 135 300. Market town in Kent, SE England, UK; St Augustine began the conversion of England to Christianity here, 597; Archbishopric founded 602; Thomas Becket murdered (1170) in Canterbury Cathedral; seat of the Primate of the Anglican Church; important literary associations with Chaucer, Marlowe, Defoe, Dickens, and Maugham; railway; University of Kent (1965); touris…

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cantilever - In bridges, towers, and buildings, In aircraft, In MEMS

A horizontal building element where the part hidden within the building bears a downward force, and the other part projects outside without external bracing, and so appears to be self-supporting. It is often used to dramatic effect in modern architecture. A cantilever is a beam anchored at one end and projecting into space. Cantilever construction allows for long structures without external…

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canton

A territorial division of land. In Switzerland, cantons have their own separate governments; in France, cantons are sub-divisions of arrondissements, which are themselves sub-divisions of the regional départements. See also: Kanton Canton or canton may refer to: Places in China: Places in the United States: Other places: …

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Canton (USA)

40°48N 81°23W, pop (2000e) 80 800. Seat of Stark Co, E Ohio, USA; railway; iron and steel industry; home and burial place of President McKinley, 25th US president; National Professional Football Hall of Fame. See also: Kanton Canton or canton may refer to: Places in China: Places in the United States: Other places: …

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Canvass White - Birth, Engineer

Civil engineer, born in Whiteshyboro, New York, USA. In 1816 he became an assistant to Benjamin Wright, chief engineer of the Erie Canal. In 1817–18 he was sent to England to study construction methods, and on his return he surveyed improved routes for the canal. He also developed a high-quality cement (patented 1820), and worked on other canals and water projects. Canvass White (September…

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canyon - Largest canyons, Well-known canyons, Canyons on other planetary bodies, Trivia

A deep valley with almost vertical sides which have been cut by a river, often in arid or semi-arid regions. Submarine canyons form on continental slopes, and are thought to have been eroded by turbidity currents. A famous example is the Grand Canyon in Arizona. Canyons often form in areas of limestone rock. The definition of "largest canyon" is rather imprecise, as …

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Cao Yu - Biography and Works

Playwright, born in Tianjin, E China. The most significant 20th-c playwright in China, he studied Western literature at Qinghua University (1930–4). His best-known work, Thunderstorm, was staged in 1935; other major plays included Metamorphosis (1940) and Family (1941). After the foundation of the People's Republic in 1949 he was appointed to numerous official posts. In 1979 he wrote the play The…

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Cap Vert - Language, Newspapers, Miscellaneous topics, External links

The most westerly point of the African continent, in Dakar region, W Senegal; 2980 km/1850 mi ENE of Natal (Brazil). The Republic of Cape Verde or Cape Verde (Portuguese: Cabo Verde, pron. More Cape Verdeans live abroad than in Cape Verde, with significant emigrant Cape Verdean communities in the United States (500,000 Cape Verdians), Portugal (80,000) and Angola (45,000). …

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capacitance - Capacitors, Energy, Capacitance and 'displacement current', Capacitance/inductance duality, Elastance, Stray capacitance

The measure of a system's ability to store electric charge; symbol C, units F (farad); for a capacitor comprising two separate parallel conductors, the capacitance is equal to the charge on one conductor divided by the potential difference between the two. For an electrical circuit, elements are usually quoted as µF (microfarad, 10?6 F) or pF (picofarad, 10?12 F). Capacitance is a measur…

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Cape Breton Island - History, Geography, Demographics, Economy, Traditional Music, Notable facts

pop (2000e) 200 500; area 10 295 km²/3974 sq mi. Island in Nova Scotia, Canada; separated from mainland by the Strait of Canso; almost bisected by Bras d'Or Lake (arm of the sea); chief towns, Sydney, Glace Bay, Louisburg; Cape Breton Highlands National Park in NW (1936); many people of Scottish descent, with Gaelic still spoken; dairy farming, fishing, timber, coal mining, gypsum, tourism;…

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Cape Cod - Geography, Climate, History, Tourism, Sports, Islands off Cape Cod

A sandy peninsula of SE Massachusetts, USA; length 105 km/65 mi; width up to 32 km/20 mi; bounded E by the Atlantic and W by Cape Cod Bay; crossed by the 13 km/8 mi Cape Cod Canal; on 15 May 1602 Bartholomew Gosnold recorded, ‘Near this cape...we took great store of codfish...and called it Cape Cod’; pilgrims from the Mayflower landed near Provincetown in November 1620; airfield at Provinc…

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Cape Town - Geography, Government, Demographics, Economy, Tourism, Transport, Universities

33°56S 18°28E, pop (2000e) Greater Cape Town 1 285 000. Seaport capital of Western Cape province, South Africa; on Table Bay at the foot of Table Mt; legislative capital of South Africa; founded as a victualling station for the Dutch East India Company, 1652; occupied by the British, 1795; airport; railway; university (1829); cathedral; commerce, vehicles, chemicals, textiles; trade in wool, …

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Cape Verde - Language, Newspapers, Miscellaneous topics, External links

Official name Republic of Cape Verde, Port República de Cabo Verde The Republic of Cape Verde or Cape Verde (Portuguese: Cabo Verde, pron. More Cape Verdeans live abroad than in Cape Verde, with significant emigrant Cape Verdean communities in the United States (500,000 Cape Verdians), Portugal (80,000) and Angola (45,000). Authors: Manuel Lopes - Movimento Claridade, Alm…

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caper

A sprawling, deciduous, spiny shrub (Capparis spinosa), native to S Europe; leaves alternate, oval, slightly fleshy; flowers 5–7 cm/2–2¾ in in diameter, 4-petalled, white with numerous long purple stamens. The young flower buds are pickled as capers. (Family: Capparidaceae.) A Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) is a biennial spiny shrub that bears rounded, rather fleshy leaves and big pinkish…

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capercaillie - Characteristics, Behaviour and ecology, Courting and reproduction, Conservation, Hybrids

A large grouse native to Europe and N Asia, also known as capercailzie; usually solitary; forest-dwelling; males have special mating calls, and display by leaping into the air, flapping their wings. (Genus: Tetrao, 2 species. Family: Tetraonidae.) The Capercaillie (also spelt Capercailzie), Wood Grouse or Western Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is the largest member of the grouse family. Th…

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capillary - Types, Trivia

A minute, thin-walled blood vessel situated between arterioles and venules. It is the site of the exchange of materials (oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and other waste products) between capillary blood and surrounding tissues, which occurs by diffusion across the capillary wall. The term is also used to denote a small lymphatic channel. In an immune response, the endothelial cells of th…

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capital (accountancy) - Unorthodox capital city arrangements, Capital as symbol, Strategic importance of capitals, Largest national capital cities

Business sources of finance to buy assets, such as buildings, machinery, stocks, or investment in other firms. Equity capital is supplied by shareholders, either by buying shares or by ploughing back profits into the business. Loan capital or debt is borrowed from a financial institution or individual, and interest is paid. Capital gearing or (US) leverage is the ratio of capital raised by debt to…

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capital (architecture) - Ancient capitals, Classical capitals, Indo-Corinthian capitals, Byzantine and Gothic capitals

The top part of a column, pilaster, or pier, identifiable in classical architecture as one of the five main orders: Doric, Tuscan, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite. Romanesque and Gothic types include basket, bell, crocket, cushion, protomai (with animal figures), scalloped, and water-leaf. From the prominent position it occupies in all monumental buildings, the capital is often selected fo…

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capital (economics) - Capital in classical economic theory, Broadening the definition of capital

Productive assets. These include fixed capital (ie buildings, machinery, and equipment) and circulating capital (ie stocks of inputs and finished products, and work in progress). It also includes intellectual capital, such as patents and copyright. In discussing the whole economy, land would not be included, and net credit is zero. In discussing a particular firm, land would be included with fixed…

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capital gains tax (CGT) - Australia, Belgium, Germany, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, United States, Criticisms

A tax on the increase in the value of assets. This is usually payable only when an asset is realized by sale or bequest. CGT is levied in various countries - in the UK since 1965. It is usually payable only on gains in any year in excess of some minimum amount, and in the UK only on gains on excess of the rise in the Retail Price Index since the asset was acquired. In the UK, CGT is not payable in…

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capital punishment - The death penalty worldwide, History, Abolitionism in different countries, Capital punishment debate, Religious views

Sentence of death passed by a judicial body following trial. Capital punishment for murder has been abolished in the UK since 1969, although proposals for its reinstatement are regularly debated by parliament, and it theoretically remains the penalty for high treason and certain other statutory offences, such as piracy with violence. It is still available in several states of the USA, and in many …

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capitalism - Etymology, Perspectives on the characteristics of capitalism, History of capitalism, Political advocacy

A set of economic arrangements which developed in the 19th-c in Western societies following the Industrial Revolution, though with antecedents in other societies, notably 11th-c China. The concept derives from the writings of Marx, and rests upon the private ownership of the means of production by the capitalist class, or bourgeoisie. The workers, or proletariat, own nothing but their labour, and …

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Capitol - Capitols in the United States, Other capitols

The building on Capitol Hill, Washington, District of Columbia, USA, in which the US Congress meets. It was designed in 1792 by William Thornton (1759–1828), but a succession of architects supervised its construction. In 1814 the British set fire to the unfinished structure, and it was not until 1827 that it was finally completed by Benjamin Latrobe and Charles Bulfinch. The dome was added by Tho…

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Capitoline Hill - History

The highest of the seven hills upon which Rome was built. Once the political and religious centre of Ancient Rome, it is now the site of the Piazza del Campidoglio, designed by Michelangelo, and of the city's administrative offices. Coordinates: 41.890873°?N 12.483988°?E The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smalles…

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Cappadocia - Etymology, History, Tourism in Cappadocia

Ancient name for the mountainous region of C Turkey, between the Black Sea and the Taurus Mts; a poor area without good natural defences, it tended to be ruled by whatever power was dominant in Asia Minor; a province of the Roman Empire from AD 17; noted for its eroded landscape features and cave dwellings in the Göreme valley; carpet making; largest town, Nev?ehir. In ancient geography, C…

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Capri - History, Capri in literature, Main sights, Tourism, Transportation

area 10·5 km²/4 sq mi. Island in Napoli province, Campania, Italy, in the Tyrrhenian Sea; length 6 km/4 mi; maximum width 2·5 km/1·5 mi; rugged limestone crags rise to 589 m/1932 ft; capital, Capri; Blue Grotto on N coast; major tourist centre; home of Emperor Tiberius. Capri (Italian pronunciation Cápri, usual English pronunciation Caprí) is an Italian island off the Sorrent…

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Capricornus - Stars with planets

A S constellation of the zodiac, lying between Sagittarius and Aquarius. Source: The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 …

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capsid

A small to medium-sized bug that typically feeds on plants; occasionally predatory; c.10 000 species, distributed worldwide. (Order: Heteroptera. Family: Miridae.) A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. The capsid serves three main purposes?: Once the virus has infected the cell, it will sooner or later start replicating itself, using the "infrastructure" of the infected cell.…

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car

The general name used in the UK for a passenger-carrying, self-propelled vehicle designed for normal domestic use on roads. The vehicle itself is made up of a number of systems, all of which may be discussed and constructed in isolation, but whose combined functioning produces the final vehicle. Thus the motive power system includes the engine (of whatever type), and its fuel supply, and the lubri…

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carabinieri - History, Organisation, The Carabinieri in Italian culture, Criticism

In 16th–18th-c Italy, a marksman in the cavalry corps; today, a corps established by Vittorio Emanuele I in 1814 and organized by Colonel Provana di Bussolino. The corps became an arm of the armed forces in 1861 and is currently assigned to civil, military, and judicial duties. The Carabinieri is the shortened (and common) name for the Arma dei Carabinieri, an Italian military corps of the…

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caracal

A member of the cat family, native to Africa and S Asia (Felis caracal); reddish-brown; slender with long legs, short tail, long tufted ears; inhabits savannah and dry woodland; eats birds, rodents, and small antelopes; easily tamed. The Caracal, also called Persian lynx or African lynx (Caracal caracal, sometimes Felis caracal), is a fiercely territorial medium-sized cat. Caracals are …

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caracara

A large, broad-winged falcon; native to S USA and South America; inhabits open country to considerable altitudes; eats many types of animal or carrion; will rob other birds of prey. (Family: Falconidae, 10 species.) Caracaras are birds of prey in the family Falconidae. …

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Caracas - History, Law and government, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Colleges and universities, Sports, Culture, Museums and theaters

10°30N 66°55W, pop (2000e) 2 208 000. Federal capital of Venezuela; altitude, 960 m/3150 ft; founded in 1567; often damaged by earthquakes; major growth since the 1940s, greater than any other Latin-American capital; airport; airfield; railway; metro; three universities (1725, 1953, 1970); mountain pass gives access to port (La Guaira) and airport; commercial, cultural, and industrial centr…

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Caractacus - History, Caratacus's name, Legend

A chief of the Catuvellauni, the son of Cunobelinus. He mounted a gallant but unsuccessful guerrilla operation in Wales against the Romans in the years following the Claudian conquest (43). Betrayed by the Brigantian queen, Cartimandua, he was taken to Rome (51), where he was exhibited in triumph, and pardoned by Claudius. Caratacus (Brythonic *Caratācos, Greek Καράτακος; …

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Caradoc Evans

Short-story writer and novelist, born in Llanfihangel-ar-Arth, Carmarthenshire, SW Wales, UK. He became a journalist in London in 1906, and published his first collection of short stories, My People in 1915. His stories were bitter satires of the Welsh people, depicting them as hypocrites, greedy, and lustful. His play Taffy (1923) added to his self-defined reputation as ‘the best-hated man in Wa…

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Caran d'Ache

Caricaturist, born in Moscow, Russia. He studied in Moscow, then moved to Paris, where he became a contributor to many periodicals. He was a pioneer in the development of the bande dessinée (French comic strip), and a major influence on H M Bateman. His pseudonym came from the Russian word for ‘pencil’. Caran d'Ache (pseudonym of Emmanuel Poiré — Moscow, 1858 - 1909) was a French sati…

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Caravaggio - Biography, Caravaggio the artist, Chronology of major works

Baroque painter, born in Caravaggio, N Italy, whence his nickname. He studied in Milan and Venice, and went to Rome, where Cardinal del Monte became his chief patron. His works include several altarpieces and religious paintings, using dramatic contrasts of light and shade, notably several paintings of St Matthew (1599–1603) and ‘Christ at Emmaus’ (c.1602–3, National Gallery, London). In 1606,…

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caravel

A sailing vessel with up to four masts developed by the Portuguese in the 15th-c. It had lateen rig sails with long curved spars. A caravel is a small, highly maneuverable, two or three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages of exploration beginning in the 15th century. The explorers soon came to prefer smaller carracks of around 100?tons, or the light three-m…

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caraway

A much-branched annual (Carum carvi), growing to 1 m/3¼ ft, native to Europe; leaves finely divided into narrow lance-shaped lobes; flowers small, borne in umbels 2–4 cm/¾–1½ in across, petals whitish, deeply notched; fruit (the ‘seeds’) 3–6 mm/?–¼ in, ribbed, strong-smelling when crushed. The fruits are widely used as a spice and for flavouring bread, cakes, and cheese; they are a…

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carbide - Examples, Types of carbides, Properties

Any compound of carbon, especially those in which carbon is ionic. It is often used specifically for calcium carbide, CaC2, a salt of acetylene, which may be regenerated by the addition of water: CaC2 + 2H2O?Ca(OH)2 + C2H2. In chemistry, Carbide may refer to three different things: 1. A salt corresponding to the ion C4− can be called a methide. A sa…

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carbohydrate - Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, Nutrition, Catabolism, Anabolism

A non-nitrogen-containing compound based on carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, generally with two hydrogen atoms per atom of oxygen. The molecules may be small (glucose) or large (cellulose, starch). Most carbohydrates comprise one or more 6-carbon units, of which glucose is by far the most abundant. Starch is a polymer of glucose which is digestible by humans. Cellulose, another glucose polymer, is no…

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carbon - Applications, History and Etymology, Allotropes, Organic compounds, Precautions

C, element 6. It has two main forms: graphite (the stable form, very soft and black with a density of c.2 g/cm3) and diamond (the hardest substance known, density 3·5 g/cm3). Various molecular forms called fullerenes were discovered in the 1980s. Both graphite and diamond melt above 3500°C. Coal is mainly graphite, but also contains amorphous (non-crystalline) carbon, occurring as well as ‘ca…

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carbon cycle - Carbon in the atmosphere, Carbon in the biosphere, Carbon in the Oceans, Carbon cycle modelling

The cycle through which carbon is transferred between the biological (biotic) and nonbiological (abiotic) parts of the global ecosystem. It involves the fixation of gaseous carbon dioxide during photosynthesis to form complex organic molecules, as well as the subsequent processes through which it ultimately returns to the atmosphere by respiration and decomposition. The carbon cycle is the …

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Carbonari - Organisation, Relations with the Church, History, Members of the Carbonari, Carbonari in Literature, Notes and References

Members of the Neapolitan secret society known as Carboneria, linked with freemasonry and probably founded under Napoleonic occupation. Liberal and loosely nationalist in outlook, they played a major role in the Neapolitan revolution of 1820 (by which time membership may have numbered 300 000–500 000) and in the early stages of the Risorgimento, but its failure provoked a crisis in the Carboner…

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carbonic acid

H2CO3; the hydrated form of carbon dioxide (CO2). It is a weak acid, dissociating in two stages to give hydrogen carbonate (HCO3?) and carbonate (CO32?) ions. Natural waters are generally saturated with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and their pH is generally determined by the amount of bicarbonate and carbonate ions present. Rain water containing pure carbonic acid has a pH of about 5. …

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carbonyl - Reactivity, α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, Other organic carbonyl compounds, Inorganic carbonyl compounds

The group CO, (1) in organic compounds, found in aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amides; (2) in inorganic compounds, found as co-ordinated carbon monoxide. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e.g. A carbonyl group characterizes the following types of compounds (where -CO de…

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carbuncle - As a medical term, In the Bible, In heraldry

An infection in sweat glands and under the skin. It forms multiple confluent abscesses that discharge pus onto the surface through two or more tracts. A carbuncle is an abscess larger than a boil, usually with one or more openings draining pus onto the skin. It is treated by drainage of the carbuncle, once it begins to "point" (begin to open to the surface), along with administration …

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Carcassonne - Geography, History, Main sights, Economy, Miscellaneous, In popular culture

43°13N 2°20E, pop (2000e) 47 100. Ancient city and capital of Aude department, S France, on R Aude and Canal du Midi, in foothills of Pyrenees; railway; bishopric; hosiery, tanning, wine; the Cité (altitude 200 m/650 ft) is the best preserved example of a French mediaeval fortified town, with a double circuit of walls and towers (world heritage site); basilica of St Nazaire (5th-c, rebuilt …

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Carchemish - The site, History, Rediscovery and exploration, Kings of Carchemish

An ancient trading city in N Syria controlling one of the main crossing points of the Euphrates. It was ruled by the Hittites in the second millennium BC, survived the destruction of the Hittite empire (c.1200 BC), and remained an important centre of Hittite culture until its conquest by Assyria in 716 BC. Carchemish (called Europus by the Romans) was an important ancient city of the Mitann…

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carcinogen - IARC classification of carcinogens

An agent which is capable of inducing cancer in tissues exposed to it. Several carcinogens have been identified by studies of the frequency of specific tumours in relation to different occupations, lifestyles, exposure to injurious chemical agents, drugs, ionizing radiations, ultraviolet light, and certain tumour-inducing (oncogenic) viruses. Exposure to such agents does not cause cancer immediate…

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cardamom - Types of cardamom and their distribution

A perennial native to India (Elettaria cardamomum), also cultivated in Sri Lanka; rhizomatous; stem to 3·5 m/11½ ft; leaves in two rows, stalks sheathing; flowers small, white with blue and yellow markings, in clusters 60 cm/2 ft long on leafless stems near the ground; fruit a capsule 2 cm/¾ in long. The dried ripe fruits are used as spice, especially in curries. (Family: Zingiberaceae.) …

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Cardiff - Geography, History, Demographics, Economy, Culture, media, sport and tourism, Government and politics, Transport, Education

51°30N 3°13W, pop (2001e) 305 300. Capital of Wales, in Cardiff county, S Wales, UK; also administrative centre of Rhondda Cynon Taff county council; at the mouth of the Taff, Rhymney, and Ely Rivers, on the Bristol Channel; Roman fort, 1st-c AD; Norman castle, c.1090; city charter, 1147; expansion in 19th-c as trade in coal grew; decline with the loss of coal and steel industries in recent de…

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Cardiff Arms Park - History, Cricket

Welsh rugby and cricket ground, the home ground of Cardiff Rugby Club from1876. It became the venue for the Welsh national team in 1884 (sharing the matches with St Helen's Swansea until 1954) and for Glamorgan County Cricket Club in 1888. It has also been used for athletics, boxing, greyhound racing, and international football. The Arms Park has hosted some of the most famous matches in rugby his…

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Cardigan Bay

Scenic inlet of the Irish Sea indenting the W coast of Wales, c.105 km/65 mi long from SSW to NNE; coastal resort towns include Pwllheli and Criccieth on the Lleyn Peninsula, Harlech, Barmouth, Aberystwyth, and the ferry port of Fishguard. Cardigan Bay (Welsh: Bae Ceredigion or Bae Aberteifi) is a large inlet of the Irish Sea, indenting the west coast of Wales between the Llŷn and Pembro…

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Cardiganshire - Geography, Government

pop (2001e) 75 400; area 1797 km² / 694 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in W Wales, UK; administrative centre, Aberystwyth; other chief town, Cardigan; tourism, crafts, agriculture; Aberystwyth university and National Library of Wales; Devil's Bridge (12th-c). Cardiganshire (Welsh: Sir Aberteifi) is a traditional county in Wales that came into being in 1282. In…

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cardinal (ornithology)

Either of two species of bird of genus Cardinalis, native to the Americas: the red or northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), and the vermilion cardinal (Cardinalis phoeniceus); males bright red. The name is sometimes used for other (unrelated) red birds. (Family: Emberizidae.) Cardinal may refer to: There are places that have the name Cardinal in North America: …

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cardinal (religion)

A name originally given to one of the parish priests, bishops, or district deacons of Rome, then applied to a senior dignitary of the Roman Catholic Church, being a priest or bishop nominated by a pope to act as counsellor. His duties are largely administrative, as head of a diocese, a curial office, an ecclesiastical commission, or a Roman congregation. The office carries special insignia, such a…

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carding - Hand carding, Machine carding, History

The blending and disentanglement of fibres prior to subsequent spinning processes. The fibres are passed between a series of rollers covered in projecting steel wires and rotating at different speeds. Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed fibers to prepare them as textiles. A large variety of fibers can be carded, anything from dog hair, to llama, to soy silk (a fiber ma…

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Carel Fabritius - List of works

Painter, born in Beemster, The Netherlands. He studied under Rembrandt, and from c.1650 lived mainly in Delft, where he was killed in an explosion. Vermeer was much influenced by Fabritius's sensitive experiments in composition and the painting of light as in the tiny ‘View of Delft’ (1652, National Gallery, London). Fabritius was born in the ten-year old Beemster polder, where he is thou…

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cargo cult - Overview, History, Other instances of cargo cults, Analogues in Western culture, Popular References

The Melanesian variety of a widely occurring type of social movement (millenarianism) in which people look to some supernatural event to bring them prosperity. It is so-called because in Melanesia, in numerous instances, people performed rituals in an effort to obtain European material goods (referred to as ‘cargo’). The movement first appeared in the late 19th-c, and was popular in the 1930s. …

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Carib - Cannibalism and patriarchy

American Indian groups of the Lesser Antilles and neighbouring South America (the Guianas and Venezuela); also the name of the largest family of South American Indian languages. The island Caribs were maritime people and warriors, who drove the Arawak from the area. Most were slaughtered by Spaniards in the 15th-c, and the survivors mixed with Spanish conquerors and later Negro slaves. The mainlan…

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Caribbean Community (CARICOM) - Membership, Structure, CARICOM projects

An association chiefly of former British colonies in the Caribbean Sea, some of which (Barbados, Jamaica, and the Leeward Is except for the Virgin and Windward Is) existed as the Caribbean Federation, with the aim of full self-government, until the establishment of the West Indies Federation (1958–63). When Jamaica became independent in 1962, the Federation was dissolved. In 1969 certain of the r…

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Caribbean literature - Territories included in the category "West Indian", Development of the idea of West Indian literature

Caribbean literature begins with the rejection of colonial status by the West Indian islands. Influenced by the Harlem Renaissance, Claude McKay asserted the black viewpoint in Banana Bottom (1933); C L R James's Minty Alley (1936) led to a new realism. The post-war years brought a number of important novelists, among them Roger Mais (1905–55), eg Brother Man (1954); George Lamming, eg In the Cel…

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Caribbean Sea - History, Geology, Ecology, Weather, Economy and human activity, Popular culture

area 2 515 900 km²/971 000 sq mi. Arm of the Atlantic Ocean between the West Indies and Central and South America; linked to the Pacific by the Panama Canal; depth 6 m/20 ft on continental shelf off Nicaragua to 5058 m/16 594 ft on floor of Venezuelan Basin; deepest point, Cayman Trench, 6950 m/22 802 ft; visited by Columbus, 1493; main island groups, Greater and Lesser Antilles; ma…

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caricature - History, Notable caricaturists

A mock portraiture, usually graphic rather than painted, in which features are exaggerated for humorous or satirical effect. Early practitioners included the Carracci in late 16th-c Bologna. Bernini was a brilliant caricaturist. Modern political caricature was invented in mid-18th-c England (Gillray, Rowlandson), and has flourished ever since. Modern US practitioners include David Levine and Al Hi…

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carillon - Musical characteristics, Carillons worldwide

A set of bells, usually with a compass of two octaves or more, installed in a tower or other high construction, and operated mechanically or by hand to play melodies or more complex polyphonic music. Many carillons are incorporated into elaborate public clocks, especially on the European mainland. A carillon (Dutch: beiaard) is a musical instrument composed of at least 23 cup-shaped bells p…

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carinatae

A generally obsolete term used for birds which fly. The group Carinatae was distinct from the group Ratitae. In phylogenetic taxonomy, the Carinatae are considered the last common ancestor of Neornithes (living birds) and Ichthyornis (an extinct seabird of the Cretaceous). Defined in this way, the group includes all living birds, including ratites (ostrich, emu, etc.), as well as neog…

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Carl (August Nicolas) Rosa - Species, Diseases, Cultivation, Care, History, Perfume, Rose hips, Notable rose growers

Impresario and violinist, born in Hamburg, N Germany. He became konzertmeister there in 1863, and appeared in London as a soloist in 1866. In 1873 he founded the Carl Rosa Opera Company, giving a great impulse to opera sung in English, and also to operas by English composers. A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. The flowers of most species…

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Carl (August) Nielsen - Life, Music, Historic Recordings, Sources

Composer, born in Nørre-Lyndelse, C Denmark. He studied at the Copenhagen Conservatory (1884–6), and became conductor at the Royal Theatre (1908–14) and with the Copenhagen Musical Society (1915–27). He is particularly known for his six symphonies, and he also wrote concertos, choral and chamber music, the tragic opera Saul and David (1902), the comic opera Masquerade (1906), and a huge organ …

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Carl (August) Sandburg - Biography, Works, Memorials, Sandburg in song, Listen to

Poet, born in Galesburg, Illinois, USA. After trying various jobs, fighting in the Spanish–American War, and graduating from Lombard College, he became a journalist in Chicago, and started to write for Poetry. His work reflects industrial America, and includes Chicago Poems (1915) and Good Morning, America (1928). His Complete Poems gained him the Pulitzer Prize in 1950. Interested in American fo…

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Carl (Bert) Albert - Legislative Strategist, Albert, Twice, Only "A Heartbeat Away", Trivia

US politician, born near McAlester, Oklahoma, USA. He studied at the universities of Oklahoma and Oxford, then practised as a lawyer in Oklahoma. He became a Democratic member of the US House of Representatives (1947–77), and as majority leader (from 1962) created an alliance between Northern liberals and Southern ‘boll weevils’ to ensure the passage of President Johnson's Great Society legisla…

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Carl (Clinton) Van Doren - Publications

Writer and critic, born in Hope, Illinois, USA, the brother of Mark Van Doren. He studied at the University of Illinois (1907 BA) and Columbia University (1911 PhD). He taught at the University of Illinois (1907–8), and Columbia (1911–30), and was headmaster of the Brearley School (New York City) (1916–19). Editor of the Nation (1919–22), Century (1922–5), and the Library Guild (1926–34), he…

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Carl (Edward) Sagan - Education and scientific career, Scientific achievements, Scientific advocacy, Social concerns, Popularization of science, Personality

Astronomer and writer, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the universities of Chicago and California (Berkeley), taught at Berkeley, Stanford, Harvard, and the Smithsonian Institution, and became professor of astronomy and space science at Cornell (1970). As director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies there, he was closely associated with the NASA programme of Solar System exploration …

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Carl (Ethan) Akeley

Naturalist and explorer, born in Clarendon, New York, USA. He worked as a taxidermist in Rochester, NY, and then at the Milwaukee Museum. By the time he joined the staff at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago (1895), he was perfecting new techniques for making large habitat groups of wild animals - sculpting realistic forms on which real skins, horns, and other bodily parts were placed.…

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Carl (Gustav) Hempel - Biography, Bibliography

Philosopher, born in Oranienburg, Germany. A prominent logical positivist of the Berlin school, he emigrated to the USA (1937) to escape Nazism, and was naturalized in 1944. He taught at Queens College (1940–8), Yale (1948–55), and Princeton (1955–73). In 1973 he became emeritus professor at Princeton, and from 1977 he was a professor at the University of Pittsburgh. His works include Concept F…

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Carl (Gustav) Jung - Introduction, Jungian psychology, Jung's life, The Philemon Foundation, Influence, Recommended Reading, Jung bibliography

Psychiatrist, born in Kesswil, NE Switzerland. He studied medicine at Basel, and worked at the Burghölzli mental clinic in Zürich (1900–9). He met Freud in Vienna in 1907, became his leading collaborator, and was president of the International Psychoanalytic Association (1911–14). He became increasingly critical of Freud's approach, and Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (1911–12, trans The Ps…

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Carl (Michael) Yastrzemski - Regular season stats, Trivia

Baseball player, born in Southampton, New York, USA. During his 23-year career as an outfielder for the Boston Red Sox (1961–83), he hit 452 home runs and won the league Most Valuable Player Award in 1967. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1989. Carl Michael Yastrzemski (pronounced [jəˈstrɛmski]) (born August 22, 1939) was an American Major League Baseball player. T…

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Carl (Philipp) Stamitz

Composer and violinist, born in Mannheim, SWC Germany. He studied under his father, and was a travelling instrumentalist in Paris, London, St Petersburg, Prague, and Nuremberg. In 1794 he became conductor of the orchestra at Jena. He wrote 80 symphonies, one of which was for a double orchestra, and concertos for violin, viola, cello, flute, oboe, clarinet, and harpsichord. Karel Stamic (May…

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Carl (Thomas) Rowan - Background, Controversy, Bibliography

Journalist, born in Ravenscroft, Tennessee, USA. One of the most prominent contemporary black journalists, he was a prizewinning reporter for the Minneapolis Tribune (1950–61), and later (from 1965) became a nationally syndicated columnist, as well as a radio commentator and a panelist (1967–96) on the weekly television show Inside Washington. He also served as ambassador to Finland (1963–4) an…

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Carl (Wilhelm Emil) Milles - Milles' Career in Paris and Sweden, Milles Comes to America, Milles' Final Resting Ground

Sculptor, born in Uppsala, E Sweden. He studied in Paris, and won recognition with the competition for the Sten Sture monument near Uppsala (completed 1925). His other monuments include the Gustav I Vasa statue, and he was especially renowned as a designer of fountains. Much of his work is in the USA, where he settled in 1931, becoming a US citizen in 1945. Noteworthy examples are Wedding of the R…

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Carl (William) Blegen

Archaeologist, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. He studied at the University of Minnesota (1907 BA) and Yale (1920 PhD), then taught at the University of Cincinnati (1927–57), emeritus (1957–71). He became director of the American School of Classical Studies during the difficult years of 1948–9. His major excavations included Troy and Acrocorinth, but he is best known for his discovery (193…

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Carl Andre

Sculptor, born in Quincy, Massachusetts, USA. Best known for his minimalist sculptures of the 1960s, such as ‘Equivalents’, his initial experiments with wood-cutting were inspired by Constantine Brancusi. A job on the Pennsylvania Railroad in the 1960s led to experimentation with mass-produced materials. An interest in mathematics and the philosopher Laozi are evident in his work. He was married…

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Carl Bernstein - Quote

Journalist and writer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. With Bob Woodward (1943– ) he was responsible for unmasking the Watergate cover-up, which resulted in a constitutional crisis and the resignation of President Richard Nixon. For their coverage of the acknowledged investigative story of the 20th-c, Bernstein and Woodward won for the Washington Post the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for pu…

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Carl Bosch - External articles

Chemist, born in Cologne, W Germany, the brother-in-law of Fritz Haber. He became president of I G Farbenindustrie in 1925. He shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1931 for his part in the invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods, notably the Haber–Bosch process, by which hydrogen is obtained from water gas and superheated steam. Carl Bosch (August 27, 1874 – April …

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Carl D(avid) Anderson

Physicist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the California Institute of Technology (1930–77), and became professor there in 1939, working on gamma and cosmic rays. In 1932 he discovered the positron, for which he shared the 1936 Nobel Prize for Physics (with Victor Hess). In 1937, he and S H Neddermeyer announced their discovery of intermediate-mass subatomic particles called mesons (now…

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Carl Davis - The television years, Silent film music

Composer and conductor, born in New York City, USA. He studied in New York and Copenhagen, and in 1958 became assistant conductor of New York City Opera. A prolific composer, among his works for ballet are Liaison Amoureuses (1988, Northern Ballet Theatre), The Savoy Suite (1993, English National Ballet), and Alice in Wonderland (1995, English National Ballet). His music for television includes Th…

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Carl Djerassi - Life, Social impact of scientific work, Bibliography

Chemist and inventor, born in Vienna, Austria. A refugee immigrant to the USA in 1939, he became a research chemist, and eventually, professor of chemistry at Stanford. While working for a little-known firm in Mexico City (1951), he was involved in the testing of the oral contraceptive, lsquo;the pill’, that for the first time made birth control a simple matter for millions of women. Although he …

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Carl F(erdinand) Cori

Biochemist, born in Prague, Czechoslovakia. He studied medicine at Prague University, became a pharmacology assistant in Vienna (1920–2), then emigrated with his wife, Gerty, to work at the State Institute for the Study of Malignant Disease in Buffalo, New York (1922–31). He moved to Washington University, St Louis (1931–66), where they collaborated on investigating the biochemistry of the gluc…

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Carl Friedrich Goerdeler

German politician and lawyer, born in Pila (formerly Schneidemühl), WC Poland. In 1930–7 he was Oberbürgermeister of Leipzig (stepping down in opposition to the NS regime) while also serving as Reichskommissar für Preisüberwachung (commissar for price control, 1931–2, 1934–5). From 1939 he was one of the civil leaders in the opposition against Hitler, whom he was chosen to succeed in case o…

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Carl Giles

Cartoonist, born in London, UK. He trained as an animator and worked for the film-maker Alexander Korda in 1935. From 1937 he produced his distinctive and popular humorous drawings, first for Reynolds News, then (from 1943) for the Express newspapers, celebrating the down-to-earth reactions of ordinary British people to great events. "Carl" Ronald Giles (September 29, 1916 – August 28, 19…

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Carl J(oachim) Friedrich

Political scientist, born in Leipzig, EC Germany. Educated in Germany, he emigrated to the USA in 1922 and began a long teaching career at Harvard (1926–71). He also served as a government adviser to Germany (1946–9), and to Puerto Rico in the 1950s. A prolific writer on comparative political thought, his analyses of totalitarianism and communism were particularly controversial. His book, An Int…

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Carl Larsson - Books about Carl Larsson

Artist, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He studied at the Swedish Academy of Arts (1869–76), visited Paris in 1877, and was the centre of the Scandinavian artists' colony in Grez-sur-Loing (1882–4). The series of 26 watercolours entitled A Home (1894–9), won him international renown and enormous popularity in Sweden. He also produced monumental historical paintings and was an outstanding illustrator…

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Carl Michael Bellman - His Works in English, Trivia

Poet and writer of popular songs, born in Stockholm, Sweden. His most important collections of songs are the Fredmans epistlar (1790, Epistles of Fredman), with their overtones of biblical parody and burlesque, and the Fredmans sånger (1791, Songs of Fredman). The songs combine broad humour and rococo charm, and are still popular throughout Scandinavia. Carl Michael Bellman?(help·…

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Carl Orff - Life, Musical work, References and further reading

Composer, born in Munich, SE Germany. He studied at Munich, where he helped found the Günther music school (1925). The influence of Stravinsky is apparent in his compositions. He is best known for his secular oratorio based on a 13th-c poem, Carmina Burana (1937). Later works include Oedipus (1959) and Prometheus (1966). Carl Orff (July 10, 1895 – March 29, 1982) was a German composer, m…

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Carl Perkins

Rock 'n' roll singer, songwriter, and guitarist, born in Lake City, Tennessee, USA. He performed with his brothers Jay Perkins and Clayton Perkins at country dances and in 1955 began recording for Sun Records. In 1956 the brothers recorded Carl's own ‘Blue Suede Shoes’, which reached the top of the country, pop, and rhythm-and-blues charts. A highly regarded musician, in the 1960s he performed w…

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Carl Ritter - Biography, Works

Geographer, born in Quedlinburg, C Germany. He became professor of geography at Berlin (1829), and director of studies of the Military School. He laid the foundations of modern scientific geography, his most important work, Die Erdkunde (1817, Earth Science), stressing the relation between people and their natural environment. Carl Ritter (August 7, 1779 – September 28, 1859) was a German…

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Carl Ruggles - Biography, Music

Composer, born in Marion, Massachusetts, USA. He was the founder of the Winona Symphony Orchestra, MA (1912), and taught composition at Miami University (1938–43). His radical modernity and individuality met largely with incomprehension, and in later years he concentrated on painting. He destroyed many of his early works, but the best-known and longest of those which survive is the 17-minute orch…

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Carl Schurz - Early life, Politics in the United States, Civil War, Postbellum politics, Interior Secretary, Retirement and death

Journalist and political reformer, born in Liblar, W Germany. Imprisoned after the revolution of 1848, he escaped and arrived in the USA in 1852. He became a politician, lecturer, major-general in the Civil War, journalist, senator (1869–75), and secretary of the interior (1877–81). In the 1880s he was editor of the New York Evening Post and The Nation, and he wrote Lives of Henry Clay (1887) an…

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Carl Spaatz - World War I, World War II, Later life

Aviator, born in Boyertown, Pennsylvania, USA. He trained at West Point, and in World War 1 shot down three German aircraft as commander of the 31st Aero Squadron in France. In 1941 he became chief of air staff, went on to command the air arm in North Africa and Sicily, and became chief of the Strategic Air Force, Europe, in 1944. After the end of the European war he commanded the air force in the…

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Carl Theodor Dreyer - Life and work, Filmography

Film-maker, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. His early career as a journalist and critic led to his writing scripts in 1912. He made his debut as a director with Praesidenten (1919, The President). Later works included La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc (1928) and Vampyr (1932). He returned to journalism in the 1930s and subsequently concentrated on documentaries. His last film was Gertrud (1964). Carl…

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Carl Van Vechten - Books about Van Vechten

Writer and photographer, born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA. He studied at the University of Chicago (1899–1903), and worked for the Chicago American newspaper (1903–6). He moved to New York City and became a music critic, then Paris correspondent for the New York Times (1908–9). A long-time friend of Gertrude Stein, he became friendly with many of her circle. He wrote novels about life in New Yor…

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Carl Vinson

US representative, born in Milledgeville, Georgia, USA, the great-uncle of Samuel Augustus Nunn. A lawyer, prosecuting attorney, and judge, he served in the Georgia House of Representatives (1912–14) before moving on to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, 1914–65). As chairman of the Committee on Naval Affairs (1933–47) he prepared the navy for World War 2, and became chairman of the Arm…

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Carl von Ossietzky - Further reading

Pacifist and writer, born in Hamburg, N Germany. A reluctant conscript in the German army in World War 1, he was co-founder of Nie wieder Krieg (1922, No More War), and editor of the weekly Weltbühne, which exposed German military leaders' secret rearmament activities. Convicted of treason in 1931, his sentence was commuted, but when Hitler became chancellor he was arrested and sent to Papenburg …

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Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Chemist, born in Stralsund, NE Germany. He was apprenticed to an apothecary at Gothenburg, and worked as an apothecary at Malmö, Stockholm, Uppsala, and Köping. Experimenting in his spare time, he probably discovered more new substances than any other experimenter, but did not publish his results immediately, and thus did not receive the same acclaim as others who made similar discoveries later …

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Carl Zeiss - Youth, Life, Publications

Optician and industrialist, born in Weimar, C Germany. In 1846 he established at Jena the factory which became noted for the production of lenses, microscopes, field glasses, and other optical instruments. His business was organized on a system whereby the workers had a share in the profits. Carl Zeiss (September 11, 1816 – December 3, 1888) was an optician commonly known for the company …

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Carl Zuckmayer

Playwright, born in Nackenheim, WC Germany. He emigrated to the USA in 1939, but lived in Switzerland from 1946. His best-known plays are Der Hauptmann von Köpenick (1931, The Captain of Köpenick) and Des Teufels General (1946, The Devil's General), both of which have been filmed. He also wrote essays, novels, film scripts, some poetry, and his autobiography Als wärs ein Stück von mir (1966, A…

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Carl-Gustaf (Arvid) Rossby

Meteorologist, born in Stockholm, Sweden. His early work in meteorology was at the Bergen Institute in Norway under the famous Vilhelm Bjerknes. He went to the USA (1926) on a one-year fellowship to the US Weather Bureau, got married (1929), and became a US citizen (1939). (He would return to Sweden in 1950 at the request of the Swedish government to help found the Institute of Meteorology at the …

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Carla Bley - Discography

Jazz pianist, composer, and bandleader, born in Oakland, California, USA. In 1957 she married pianist Paul Bley (1932– ), and was later divorced. Her best-known work is the unique three-album jazz opera Escalator Over the Hill (1972); she has also been active in the jazz–rock fusion field. She was co-founder of the Jazz Composers' Guild and the Jazz Composers' Orchestra Association. Carla…

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Carle Vernet

Historical and animal painter, born in Bordeaux, SW France, the son of Claude Vernet. He was commissioned by Napoleon to paint battle scenes such as ‘Marengo’ (1804) and ‘Austerlitz’(1804) (now at Versailles), and by Louis XVIII for sporting scenes such as the ‘The Race’ (Louvre). Antoine Charles Horace Vernet (14 August 1758 at Bordeaux – 17 November 1835 in Paris) was a French pai…

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Carlisle - Name, History, Geography, Trade and industry, Sport, Education, Administration, Curse of Carlisle

54°54N 2°55W, pop (2001e) 100 700. County town in Cumbria, NW England, UK; at the W end of Hadrian's Wall, at the confluence of the Eden and Caldew Rivers; important fortress in Scots–English border wars; airfield (Crosby); railway junction; foodstuffs, metal goods, textiles, engineering; cathedral (11th–12th-c), castle (11th-c), Church of St Cuthbert (18th-c); Great Fair (last Saturday in A…

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Carlism - The Origins, History of Carlism, Pretenders to the throne, Carlist ideological landscape, Carlism and Literature, Note

A Spanish dynastic cause and political movement, officially born in 1833, but with origins in the 1820s. Against the claim to the Spanish throne of Isabella II, daughter of Ferdinand VII, Carlists supported the claim of the latter's brother, Don Carlos (1788–1855). In the 19th-c, Carlism attracted widespread popular support chiefly in conservative, Catholic districts of rural N Spain. In 1833–40…

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Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa

Italian general of the carabinieri, born in Saluzzo, Piedmont, NW Italy. He was put in charge of the fight against terrorism in 1978 and in 1982 was appointed prefect of Palermo. He was ambushed and murdered by the Mafia together with his wife and his escort that same year. Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa (September 27, 1920 – 3 September 1982) was a general of the Italian carabinieri notable …

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Carlo Cattaneo

Italian politician, historian, and economist, born in Milan, N Lombardy, Italy. In 1824 he graduated in law and contributed to a number of publications, founding the scientific review Politecnico in 1839. He participated in the Five Days of Milan insurrection, and escaped abroad when the Austrians returned. He later became a deputy in the Italian parliament, although he was in favour of a federali…

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Carlo Collodi

Writer and journalist, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. He tried his hand at journalism and the theatre, but found success writing children's books, including Racconti delle fate (1875), Giannettino (1876), and Storie allegre (1887), but is best known for Le avventure di Pinocchio. Storia di un burattino which appeared in instalments (1880) in the Giornale per i bambini and later in book form …

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Carlo Crivelli - Biography, Sources

Painter of the Venetian school, born in Venice, NE Italy. Trained probably by the Vivarini family in Venice, where he was imprisoned for adultery, he spent most of his time working elsewhere in the Marches of Italy. His style is a highly individual combination of old-fashioned International Gothic opulence with the new Renaissance passion for setting figures in architectural frameworks and against…

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Carlo Emilio Gadda - Bibliography

Writer, born in Milan, Lombardy, N Italy. He fought in World War 1, an experience he later described in Giornale di guerra e di prigionia (1955, 1965). He graduated in engineering but in 1924 began contributing to Solaria. In 1944 he published L'Adalgisa, a collection of short stories set in the Milan area which already show his linguistic experimentalism, and the mixture of literary prose, dialec…

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Carlo Fontana

Architect, born in Bruciato, near Como, N Italy. A pupil of Bernini, he worked as a papal architect in Rome, where he designed many major works including the fountain in the Piazza di San Pietro, and the tombs of Pope Clement XI, Pope Innocent XII, and Queen Christina of Sweden, in St Peter's. He also designed Loyola College in Spain and the Palazzo Durazzo at Genoa. Carlo Fontana (Bruciato…

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Carlo Goldoni - Biography, Goldoni's impact on Italian theatre, Themes, Venetian and Tuscan, Works

Playwright, born in Venice, NE Italy. He studied for the law, and practised intermittently (1731–48), but his real interest was drama. He discovered he had a talent for comedy, and wrote over 250 comic plays in Italian, French, and the Venetian dialect. He was greatly influenced by Molière and the commedia dell'arte, but replaced the commedia dell'arte's stereotyped characters with ‘real’ ones…

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Carlo Levi - Early life, Political activism and exile

Painter and writer, born in Turin, Piedmont, NW Italy. A doctor, he embarked on a career as a Impressionist painter, in opposition to the Fascist accademism (‘Eroe cinese’, 1930–1, Levi Foundation, Rome). A member of the anti-Fascist movement Giustizia e libertà, he was sent into internal exile (1935–6) at Aliano, Lucania, where he was inspired to write Cristo si è fermato ad Eboli (1945), w…

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Carlo Pisacane

Italian patriot and writer, born in Naples, Campania, SW Italy. A former officer in the Bourbon army, he was a volunteer in the 1st Italian Independence War (1848) and took part in the Roman Republic's defence. Considering the failure of the 1848 revolution, he advocated a more democratic and libertarian approach to the social question, which would increase popular participation in revolutionary r…

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Carlo Rosselli - Life, Thought

Italian politician, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. Strongly opposed to Fascism, he became a member of the Unitary Socialist Party in 1925, and with his brother Nello and others published the periodical Non Mollare (Don't Give Up). He was involved in the weekly Quarto Stato (Fourth Estate) with Pietro Nenni but was arrested for helping Filippo Turati leave the country. Exiled to the island of Lipari,…

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Carlo Rubbia - Biography, References and further reading

Physicist, born in Gorizia, NE Italy. He studied at Pisa, Rome, and Columbia universities, and from 1960 headed the proton–antiproton collider team at CERN, Geneva. In 1972 he became professor of physics at Harvard, and in 1989–93 was director-general of CERN, after which he continued his research at CERN. He shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for their work leadi…

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Carlo Sforza - Biography

Italian politician, born in Montignoso, NW Italy. He was foreign affairs minister under Giolitti (1920–1) and signed the Rapallo Treaty with Yugoslavia in 1920. When Fascism came to power he resigned as ambassador to France and remained abroad until 1943. Foreign affairs minister again (1947–51), he strove to promote Italy's entry into NATO and the European cause. Conte Carlo Sforza (Janu…

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Carlos (Saul) Menem - Background, Political career

Argentinian statesman and prime minister (1989–99), born in Anillaco, Argentina. While studying for the legal profession he became politically active in the Peronist movement (the Justice Party), founding the Youth Group in 1955. He was elected president of the Party in La Rioja (1963), and in the same year unsuccessfully contested the governorship of the province, eventually being elected in 198…

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Carlos Acosta - Awards, Companies and Roles, Tocororo - A Cuban Tale

Ballet dancer and choreographer, born near Havana, Cuba. The youngest of 11 children, he had an impoverished childhood, often playing truant from school to play football on the streets. At age nine his father enrolled him in the National Ballet School in Havana where he received free tuition and meals. His exceptional talent earned him a student placement with the Turin Ballet in Italy (1990), and…

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Carlos Castaneda - Biography, Works, Ideas, Brief description of books, Interpretation and criticism (the Castaneda controversy)

Cultural anthropologist and writer, born in Sao Paulo, Brazil. He studied at the University of California, Los Angeles (1962 BA; 1970 PhD), and in 1968 published The Teachings of Don Juan: A Yaqui Way of Knowledge, which he claimed was based on his five-year apprenticeship with a Yaqui Indian sorcerer. (The Yaqui live in NW Mexico and bordering US states.) Because he was so elusive, and because th…

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Carlos Fuentes - Selected works, Bibliography

Novelist and playwright, born in Mexico City, Mexico. He studied at the University of Mexico and the Institut des Hautes Etudes Internationales in Geneva. He became cultural attaché to the Mexican Embassy in Geneva (1950–2), press secretary to the UN Information Centre, Mexico City, and served as the Mexican ambassador to France (1975–7). He became professor of Latin-American Studies at Harvard…

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Carlos Gardel - Birth-place controversy, Trivia, Films, Reference

Popular singer, born in Toulouse, S France. He was brought up in Buenos Aires, and made his name as a tango singer and later as a film star. Probably the best-known Latin-American singer of the 20th-c, he died in an aircraft accident in Medellín, Colombia. Carlos Gardel (11 December 1887/1890 – 24 June 1935) was an enormously popular Argentina-raised tango singer during the inter-war yea…

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Carlos Saura - Filmography

Cinematographer, born in Huesca, NE Spain. He studied film direction at the Instituto de Investigaciones y Experiencias Cinematográficas and taught cinematic production at the Escuela Oficial de Cinematografía. Together with Elías Querejeta, he made 13 films over 16 years which analysed the behaviour of the middle classes under the dictatorship of General Franco. Among his best-known films are …

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Carlow (county) - History, Growth, Economy, Sister Cities

pop (2000e) 41 000; area 896 km²/346 sq mi. County in Leinster province, SE Ireland; between the Slieve Ardagh Hills (W) and the Wicklow Mts (E) where the Barrow and Slaney Rivers water rich farm land; Blackstairs Mts rise in the S; capital, Carlow; wheat, barley, sugar beet. Carlow (Ceatharlach in Irish, meaning "four-part lake") is an inland town in the south-east of Ireland in Coun…

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Carlow (town) - History, Growth, Economy, Sister Cities

52°50N 6°55W, pop (2000e) 14 400. Capital of Carlow county, Leinster, SE Ireland; railway; technical college; barley malting, sugar beet, footwear; Carlow Castle (12th-c), cathedral (19th-c), Browne's Hill tumuli. Carlow (Ceatharlach in Irish, meaning "four-part lake") is an inland town in the south-east of Ireland in County Carlow, 84 km from Dublin. The river forms the historic bounda…

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Carmagnola

Condottiere, born in Carmagnola, Piedmont, NW Italy. He served Filippo Maria Visconti and conquered a vast number of territories for the duchy of Milan, among them Brescia and Genoa, which he ruled in 1422–4. He switched to Venice in 1425 and defeated the Visconti forces at Brescia (1426) and Maclodio (1427). Following a number of defeats, he was accused of complicity with Visconti and was execut…

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Carmarthen - History, Famous Citizens, Arthurian legend, Picton's monument, Carmarthen today

51°52N 4°19W, pop (2000e) 15 800. County town of Carmarthenshire, SW Wales, UK; on R Towy, 13 km/8 mi N of the Bristol Channel; chartered, 1227; railway; dairy products, pharmaceuticals, flour milling, agricultural trade. Carmarthen (Welsh Caerfyrddin - caer fort + Myrddin Moridunum, Merlin (origin disputed)) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. When Britannia was…

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Carmarthenshire - Government, Places of interest

pop (2001e) 173 600; area 2398 km²/926 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in SW Wales, UK; drained by R Teifi and R Tywi; administrative centre, Carmarthen; other chief towns, Llanelli, Ammanford; tourism, crafts, agriculture; Laugharne (home of Dylan Thomas); Carreg Cennen and Kidwelly castles; early motor speed trials on Pendine sands. Carmarthenshire (Welsh: Sir Gaerfyrddi…

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Carmelites - Charism, origin and early history, Habit and scapular, Reforms within the order

A Roman Catholic monastic order originating in the 12th-c from the Hermits of Mount Carmel (Israel), seeking the way of life of the prophet Elijah; properly known as the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mt Carmel, or White Friars; abbreviated OCarm. They flourished as mendicant friars in Europe. Carmelite nuns were officially recognized in 1452, reformed by Teresa of Ávila in S…

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Carnac - Other sights around Carnac

A peninsula on the S coast of Brittany, N France, renowned for its megalithic alignments, stone circles, and chambered tombs of Neolithic date. The alignments, unsurpassed elsewhere, run E–W with 7–13 parallel rows each: the best preserved, at Kermario, has seven principal lines up to c.1100 m/3700 ft long with 1029 stones. In all, c.3000 stones survive, extending over some 5 km/3 mi. …

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carnation

A perennial species of pink (Dianthus caryophyllaceus), native to the Mediterranean; leaves tufted; flowers with spreading, slightly frilly petals. Wild carnations have pink, strongly-scented flowers. Ornamental hybrids and garden cultivars are various colours, and may have multiple petals. (Family: Caryophyllaceae.) The Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the N…

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Carneades

Greek philosopher, born in Cyrene. He became head of the Academy, which under his very different, sceptical direction became known as the ‘New Academy’. He had the reputation of a virtuoso dialectician, who could argue equally persuasively for quite opposing points of view. Carneades is known as an Academic Skeptic. So great was his stature and authority that after his death it was his ph…

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Carnegie Hall - Performing arts venues, Architecture, History, Location and folklore

International concert venue located in New York City, USA. Originally the idea of composer Leopold Damrosch, it was left to his son Walter to establish a concert hall in New York City. Walter found a patron in industrial tycoon Andrew Carnegie, and the building was inaugurated in May 1891 with a five-day music festival at which Tchaikovsky conducted several of his works. Today, concerts are perfor…

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Carnic Alps

S Alpine mountain range on the border between Italy and Austria; highest peak is Hohe Warte (2780 m/9121 ft); crossed by the Plöcken Pass. The most important peaks are: The chief passes of the Carnic Alps are: …

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carnitine

A chemical substance (an amine) derived from the essential amino acid, lysine. The oxidation of fatty acids by mammalian cells requires carnitine as an intermediary in the intracellular transport of fatty acids. Although it was once considered a vitamin, carnitine is probably not an essential component of the diet. Most infant formulae based on cow's milk are supplemented with carnitine to the lev…

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Carnival - Origins of the Carnival season, Special celebrations around the world, Funfairs, Abadá

A traditional festive period prior to Lent, celebrated in the Catholic countries of S Europe and their former colonies, and characterized by feasting, sexual licence, dancing, processions, masking, satire, and social levelling. Well known examples are those of Rome, Venice, New Orleans, and Rio de Janeiro. The term is applied by extension to other similar festivals, such as the Notting Hill Carniv…

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carnivore - Characteristics of carnivores, Obligate carnivores, As food

A primarily meat-eating mammal, preying on other vertebrates; lower jaw moves only up and down; canine teeth long; some cheek teeth (carnassials) specialized for cutting flesh; 4–5 clawed toes on each foot. (Order: Carnivora, 7 families, 238 species.) A carnivore (IPA: ['kɑ(r)nivɔ(r)]), meaning 'meat eater' (Latin carne meaning 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour'), is an animal that e…

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carnivorous plant - Trapping mechanisms, Evolution, Ecology and modelling of carnivory, Classification, Cultivation, Popular culture

A plant which traps animals, usually insects and small invertebrates, and secretes digestive enzymes which break down the prey, allowing the resulting products to be absorbed; also known as an insectivorous plant. Carnivorous plants grow in nutrient-poor habitats, and food obtained from prey, especially organic nitrogen, augments that produced by photosynthesis. The carnivorous habit has arisen in…

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Carnot cycle - The Carnot cycle, Properties and significance

The fundamental thermodynamic cycle proposed by French engineer Sadi Carnot in 1824, in an attempt to explain the working of the steam engine. It comprises four stages: isothermal then adiabatic expansions, followed by isothermal and adiabatic compressions. A Carnot engine is the most efficient heat engine possible (Carnot's law). For intake temperature Ti and exhaust temperature To, thermal effic…

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Carol (Ann Warner) Shields - Bibliography

Novelist, born in Oak Park, Illinois, USA. She studied at Hanover College, IN, Exeter University in England, and the University of Ottawa, where she later taught literature. She also held positions at the universities of Columbia and Manitoba, and became professor and chancellor of the University of Winnipeg. Her first novel, Small Ceremonies (1976), received the Canadian Authors Association Award…

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Carol Burnett - Early life, Career, Personal and family life, TV Work, Filmography, Stage Work

Television comedienne and actress, born in San Antonio, Texas, USA. After studying at the University of California, Los Angeles, she made her Broadway debut in a musical, Once Upon a Mattress (1959), and went on to appear in a few other Broadway shows before moving into television, appearing as a regular on the Garry Moore Show (1959–62) and on occasional CBS-TV specials. This led to her own come…

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Carol Gilligan - Biography, In a Different Voice

Psychologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied English at Swarthmore (1958 BA), psychology at Radcliffe (1961 MA), and clinical psychology at Harvard (1964 PhD). After working as a lecturer at the University of Chicago (1965–6), she began teaching at Harvard (1967). She is best known for investigations of how women develop their self-identities and values in a society dominated b…

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Carole King - Discography

Composer-lyricist, born in New York City, New York, USA. Inspired by 1950s rock, she began writing songs in high school. Working with husband-lyricist Gerry Goffin, she wrote some of the biggest hits of the pre-Beatles era including ‘Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?’ (1960) and ‘Up On The Roof’ (1962). In 1970 she began performing her own songs and went on to make several gold albums, includin…

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Carole Lombard - Career, Death, Trivia, Filmography

Film actress, born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA. Raised in California from age six, she made her screen debut at age 12. Her film career was interrupted by an automobile accident, but she recovered to appear in a series of Mack Sennett slapstick comedies, beginning with The Girl from Everywhere (1927). She went on to become one of the most unusual combinations in Hollywood's history: a beautiful, i…

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Carolina

Princess of Orange Nassau, born in Kirchheim-Bolanden, Germany, the daughter of Stadtholder William IV and Anne of Hanover. She married in 1760 Charles Christian, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (Walram line), who was a general in the States' service, and governor of Maastricht. She was used by regents and others to try to obtain the guardianship of William V in place of the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüt…

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Caroline (Elizabeth Sarah) Norton

Writer and reformer, born in London, UK, the granddaughter of Richard Brinsley Sheridan. In 1827 she married a dissolute barrister, the Hon George Chapple Norton (1800–75), and had three sons. She took up writing to support the family, and published a successful book of verse, The Sorrows of Rosalie (1829). In 1836 she separated from her husband, who brought an action of adultery against Lord Me…

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Caroline (Lavinia) Harrison - Reference

US first lady (1889–93), born in Oxford, Ohio, USA. She was well-educated and had artistic and musical talents, and married Benjamin Harrison in 1853. During the 1892 election campaign she fell ill with tuberculosis and died two weeks before Harrison lost that election. Caroline Lavinia Scott Harrison (October 1, 1832 – October 25, 1892), wife of Benjamin Harrison, was First Lady of the …

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Caroline Chisholm - Life in Madras, India, Life in New South Wales, Australia

Social worker and philanthropist, born near Northampton, Northamptonshire, C England, UK. She married an officer in the army of the East India Company, and in 1838 they settled in Windsor, New South Wales. Concerned at the plight of impoverished immigrant women in the colony, she established an office to provide shelter for the new arrivals, then set about finding them work. She persuaded the Brit…

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Caroline Gordon - Selected works

Writer and teacher, born in Trenton, Kentucky, USA. She studied at Bethany College, West Virginia (1916 BA), and married Allen Tate in 1924 (divorced 1954). She worked as a reporter in Tennessee (1920–4), taught at several institutions, including the universities of North Carolina and Columbia, and long lived in Princeton, NJ. She is known for her novels of the American South, such as Penhally (1…

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Caroline Love O'Day

US representative, born in Perry, Georgia, USA. A widely exhibited artist, trained in Europe, she moved with her husband to New York, where she became active in social issues and befriended Eleanor Roosevelt. State associate chairman of the Democratic Party (1932–42), she became commissioner of the New York Board of Social Welfare (1923–34) before going to the US House of Representatives (1935–…

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Carolingian art - History, Illuminated manuscripts, Sculpture and metalwork, Painting, Mosaics, Spolia

A style of art named after Charlemagne, which flourished in what is now France and W Germany from the mid-8th to the early 10th-c. Graeco-Roman and Byzantine stylistic elements were fostered as part of a deliberate classical revival. Carolingian art is the roughly 120-year period from about AD 780 to 900 — during the reign of Charlemagne and his immediate heirs — popularly known as the …

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Carolus Linnaeus - Name, Biography, Linnaean taxonomy, Mankind, Bibliography, Students, Notes and references

Botanist, born in Råshult, SE Sweden. He studied at Lund and Uppsala, where in 1730 he was appointed a botany assistant. He travelled widely on botanical exploration, and is the founder of modern taxonomic botany. His Systema naturae fundamenta botanica (1735), Genera plantarum (1737), and Species plantarum (1753), expound his influential system of classification, based on plant sex organs, and i…

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Carolyn Heilbrun - Notable characteristics, Applications, Occurrence, Production, Price, Compounds, Medicine

Writer and teacher, born in East Orange, New Jersey, USA. She studied at Wellesley (1947 BA) and Columbia University (1951 MA; 1959 PhD). She was a visiting lecturer and professor at many institutions, and taught English at Brooklyn College (1959–60) and Columbia (1960–93). She published scholarly works, but was best known as a writer of popular mystery novels featuring Kate Fansler, also an urb…

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carotene - Carotenemia, The two forms, Carotenoids, Beta Carotene and Cancer, Production, Nomenclature

A class of plant pigments which provide the natural colours of carrots, green vegetables, algae, shrimps, and tomatoes. The carotene of carrots and green vegetables is rich in beta-carotene, of which about 16% is converted to vitamin A in the digestive tract. Chemically, carotene is a terpene. Carotenemia or hypercarotenemia is excess carotene, and unlike excess Vitamin A is non…

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carotenoid - Properties, Physiological effects, Aroma chemicals

A non-water-soluble pigment, usually red to yellow in colour, found in many higher plants, algae, and bacteria. It functions as an accessory photosynthetic pigment. Carotenoids are characterized by a large (35-40 carbon atoms) polyene chain, sometimes terminated by rings. Carotenoids with molecules containing oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls. The un-oxi…

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carp - Types of carp, In Legend

Deep-bodied freshwater fish (Cyprinus carpio) native to Black Sea coasts but now introduced worldwide; thrives in warm pools, lakes, and rivers with rich vegetation; length up to 1 m/3¼ ft; two pairs of barbels on upper jaw; important food fish, used extensively in aquaculture and very popular with anglers; broadly, any member of the large family Cyprinidae. A carp is any of various fres…

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carpal tunnel syndrome - Anatomy, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and prevention, Long term recovery

A weakness of the thumb and hand, with numbness or tingling in the thumb and adjacent two or three fingers. It is caused by pressure on the nerve that supplies the muscles and skin in this area (the median nerve) as it passes through a band of tissue that encircles the wrist (the carpal tunnel). The carpal tunnel is inflexible, and so the median nerve becomes compressed if there is swelling of oth…

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Carpathian Mountains - Geography, Geology, Convention on the protection of the Carpathians, Geology, Divisions

Mountain system of EC Europe, forming the E wing of the great Alpine uplift; extends 1400 km/870 mi in a semi-circle from the Czech Republic to Romania, forming in the middle a boundary with Poland; main divisions (W–E) are the Little Carpathians, White Carpathians, Beskids, Low Tatra, High Tatra, E or Romanian Carpathians, and the Transylvanian Alps; highest point, Mt Gerlach (2655 m/8711 ft…

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carpel - Carpel anatomy

Part of the innermost whorl of a flower, collectively forming the gynecium: it typically consists of an ovary, style, and stigma, which together are sometimes called the pistil. More primitive flowers generally have many carpels; more advanced flowers tend to have fewer, and often fused, carpels. A carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower; The parts of the carpel are: …

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carpenter bee - Behavior

A tropical bee that bores into solid wood or plant pith to make a nest; most species are solitary; a few show a primitive degree of sociality. (Order: Hymenoptera. Family: Anthophoridae.) Carpenter bees (the genus Xylocopa in the subfamily Xylocopinae) are large, hairy bees distributed worldwide, with some 500 described species and subspecies. In the United States, there is one …

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carpet - Carpet types, Production of knotted pile carpet, Carpet binding, Early carpets, Modern carpeting and installation

A floor covering made from wool, silk, jute, mohair, or other fibres, traditionally woven but currently produced by other methods such as bonding or machine-stitching the pile to a base. The technique is thought to have originated in Persia in ancient times, and spread to C Asia, the Caucasus, and Anatolia, where characteristic forms developed as folk art and in court workshops. In the 18th-c, car…

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carrack - Early origins, Advantages, Famous carracks, Carracks in Asia, Trivia, Additional reading

A 15th-c development of the Portuguese caravel, distinguished by having square sails in addition to lateen sails. A carrack or nao was a three- or four-masted sailing ship developed in the Mediterranean in the 15th century. Carracks were the first proper ocean-going ships in Europe; They were the ships in which the Spanish and Portuguese explored the world in the 15th and 16th c…

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Carrickfergus - People, Education, Sport, 2001 Census

54º43N 5º49W, pop (2001e) 27 700. Seaport and resort town in Co Antrim, NE Northern Ireland; on the N side of Belfast Lough, 19 km/12 mi NE of Belfast; William III landed here before the Battle of the Boyne (1690); best preserved Norman castle in Ireland (1180); St Nicholas parish church (13th-c); 17th-c North Gate (restored); former courthouse (1779) is now the town hall; Lughnasa Fair held…

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Carrie (Clinton) Chapman Catt - Controversy, Further reading

Woman suffrage leader, born near Ripon, Wisconsin, USA. Raised on a farm in the frontier tradition of independence, she taught school for a year before studies at Iowa State College (1880 BA). She became principal of an Iowa high school (1881) and by 1883 was superintendent of schools in Mason City, IA. She married a newspaper editor, Les Chapman, and after he died (1886) she worked for a year on …

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Carrie Nye - Biography

Actress, born in Greenwood, Mississippi, USA. She studied at Stephens College in Columbia, MO, and then attended Yale Drama School where she met her future husband, Dick Cavett (married 1964). She made her Broadway debut in 1960 in A Second String, and five years later was nominated for a Tony Award for her role in the musical Half a Sixpence. She gained many further roles on Broadway but her spec…

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carrion crow - Behaviour

A crow native to Europe and Asia (Corvus corone); inhabits open forest, grassland, and cultivation; eats virtually anything; usually black. Grey carrion crows are called hooded crows. (Family: Corvidae.) The Carrion Crow (Corvus corone) can be distinguished from the Common Raven by its size (48–52 cm in length) and from the Hooded Crow by its black plumage, but there is frequent con…

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carrion flower

A flower which attracts pollinating insects, usually flies, by giving off an odour of rotting meat. The flowers or associated parts are usually livid reddish-brown in colour to complete the disguise. Such plants occur in several unrelated families. Stinking flowers or Carrion flowers are flowers that smell like rotting flesh. While a typical flower may be stereotyped as a colorful, sweet-sm…

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carroccio

An ox-drawn chariot used in battle as a rallying point for the troops of the mediaeval communes. It had a central spar with a cross on top, the town's colours, an altar, and a bell called a martinella. Mass was said here before a battle and it also sheltered the wounded. Regarded as a symbol of communal freedom, it was traditionally used for the first time by Ariberto di Intimiano at the Battle of…

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Carroll O'Connor - Credits

Film and television actor, born in New York City, New York, USA. Initially a stage actor in Dublin, London, and Paris, he acted in a number of unmemorable films during the 1950s and 1960s. He starred in CBS's All in the Family (1971–9) and Archie Bunker's Place (1979–83), winning numerous Emmy awards. He played the liberal sheriff on National Broadcasting Company's In the Heat of the Night (1987…

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carrot

A biennial herb (Daucus carota) growing to 1 m/3·3 ft, native to Europe, temperate Asia, and N Africa; leaves divided, leaflets with toothed oval segments; flowers white or pink, borne in dense, rather flat-topped umbels, the central flower usually dark purple; fruits spiny. Wild carrots have tough roots, but the cultivated carrot (subspecies sativus), with a large fleshy orange or whitish tap …

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Carry (Amelia) Nation - Geography, Fiction, Philosophy, Literature, Law, Sports, Christianity, Military, Science, Politics, Education, Mathematics, Medicine, Other

Temperance agitator, born in Garrard Co, Kentucky, USA. Trained as a teacher, she entered the temperance movement in 1890. A large, powerful woman of volcanic emotions, she went on hymn-singing, saloon-smashing expeditions with a hatchet in many US cities, attacking what she considered to be illegal drinking places. Frequently imprisoned and fined for breach of the peace, she would sell her hatche…

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cartel - Overview

An agreement by a number of companies in the same industry to fix prices and/or quantities, thus avoiding cut-price competition or overproduction. It is often seen as not being in the public interest, since it does not allow market forces to operate freely. Many countries have made cartels illegal. A cartel is a group of formally independent producers whose goal is to increase their collect…

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Carter Glass

US senator, representative, and newspaper publisher, born in Lynchburg, Virginia, USA. Starting at 14 as a printer's assistant on his father's newspaper, he became an editor, and by 1895 owned three newspapers. An active Democrat, he served in the Virginia Senate and then in the US House of Representatives (1902–18). He was secretary of the Treasury (1918–20), leaving to fill a vacancy in the US…

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Cartesian product - Cartesian square and n-ary product, Cartesian product of functions

In mathematics, the set of all possible ordered pairs from two sets, A and B, formed by taking one element of A and one of B. If A = {1,2} and B = {a,b}, the Cartesian product A × B is the set {(1,a),(2,a),(1,b),(2,b)}. In mathematics, the Cartesian product (or direct product) of two sets X and Y, denoted X × Y, is the set of all possible ordered pairs whose first component is…

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Carthage - Question of Carthage, Founding of Carthage, Life in Carthage, Carthaginian military, Religion, Carthaginian ethnicity and citizenship

36°54N 10°16E. Ancient town in Tunisia, N Africa, now a suburb of Tunis; a world heritage site; reputedly founded by the Phoenicians in 814 BC; destroyed by Rome following the Punic Wars, 146 BC; refounded by Caesar and Octavian (29 BC); restored as capital by the Vandals, AD 439–533, but destroyed again by the Arabs, 698; the few remains include the Roman baths of Antonius, the old harbour, an…

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cartilage - Composition, Types of cartilage, Growth and development, Diseases / Medicine, Invertebrate cartilage

Tissue supplementary to bone in the skeleton, which may be temporary (as in the process of endochondrial ossification) or permanent (as in the nose, ear, and larynx); sometimes called gristle. It is composed of living cells surrounded by an intercellular substance containing collagen and/or elastin fibres. It is not hard or strong (so can be easily cut or damaged by high pressure), and is relative…

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Cartimandua

Pro-Roman queen of the Brigantes, the British Celtic tribe that inhabited what is today the N of England. She protected the N borders of the Roman province of Britain after the conquest (43), until her overthrow by her husband, the anti-Roman Venutius, in 68–9. Cartimandua (or Cartismandua, ruled ca.43 - 69) was a queen of the Brigantes nation of northern England during the Roman Empire's …

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cartography - History, Technological changes, Map types, Map design

The method of construction of maps and charts. Through the use of symbols, lettering, and shading techniques, data concerning an area (eg its relief, land use, and population density) are portrayed on a map in such a way that it can be interpreted by the user to find out information about a place. Data for mapping come from many sources, such as fieldwork, surveying, and remote sensing. Increasing…

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cartoon - Historical meaning, Print media, Motion pictures, In science

Originally, a full-size outline drawing which would be transferred to the wall or panel ready for painting; used in this way by painters since the Middle Ages, the word comes from the Italian cartone ‘thick paper’. Raphael's famous cartoons, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, are in full colour, being designed for tapestries. When in 19th-c London a competition was held for frescoes in the House…

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Cary Grant - Legacy, Quotations, Trivia, Further reading

Film actor, born in Bristol, SW England, UK. He went to Hollywood in 1928, played opposite Marlene Dietrich and Mae West, and from the late 1930s developed in leading comedy roles, especially under the direction of Howard Hawks, such as Bringing Up Baby (1938) and His Girl Friday (1940). He also provided several memorable performances for Hitchcock in Suspicion (1941), Notorious (1946), To Catch a…

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caryatid

A sculptured female figure, used as a column or support for an entablature or other building element. The name derives from the ancient Greek women of Caryae sold into slavery. It is also used in a general sense for any column or support carved in human form. A caryatid (also spelt Karyatid), is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a p…

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Caryl (Whittier) Chessman - Crime and Conviction, Legal Appeals, Literary Appeals, Execution, Chessman in popular culture

Convict and writer, born in St Joseph, Michigan, USA. He was sentenced to death in 1948 on 17 charges of kidnapping, robbery, and rape, but was granted eight stays of execution by the Governor of California amounting to a record period of 12 years under sentence of death, without a reprieve. During this period he maintained his innocence and conducted a brilliant legal battle from prison, learned …

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Casablanca - History, Demographics, Notable physical landmarks, Transport, List of main Casablanca's locations, Sister Cities, Economy

33°20N 71°25W, pop (2000e) 3 141 000. Seaport in Centre province, W Morocco; on the Atlantic coast 290 km/180 mi SW of Tangiers; founded by the Portuguese as Casa Branca, 1515; seriously damaged by an earthquake in 1755 and rebuilt; French occupation, 1907; meeting place of Churchill and Roosevelt, 1943; airport; railway; university; tourism, banking, fishing, textiles, food processing, gla…

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Cascade Range - History, Geography, High Cascades, Protected areas, Provincial Parks

Mountain range in W North America; extends over 1120 km/700 mi from N California, through Oregon and Washington to British Columbia; named after the cascades of the Columbia R where it passes through the range in a canyon c.1200 m/4000 ft deep; highest point, Mt Rainier (4392 m/14 409 ft), Washington; other high peaks, Mts Adams (3742 m/12 277 ft), Baker (3285 m/10 777 ft), Hood (3424…

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case

A grammatical category, associated primarily with nouns and pronouns, which registers the syntactic relations between words in a sentence. In inflectional languages, nouns have a range of variant forms, with affixes marking the various cases, as in Latin mensa (‘table’, nominative), mensam (accusative), and mensae (genitive). The cases have important grammatical functions: the nominative typical…

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case hardening - History, Applications, Case hardening in wood

A method of hardening tool steels or components subject to hard wear, such as gears. The object is heated in an atmosphere, or in contact with some substance (eg in a hydrocarbon oil), which alters its surface composition to that of a harder alloy. Aluminium steels are heated in an atmosphere of ammonia, which introduces nitrogen into the surface layer. Case hardening or surface hardening i…

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casein

The main protein in milk and cheese, rich in associated calcium and phosphorus. Casein is heat-stable, but is precipitated at a pH of about 4·2 (mildly acid). This is exploited in cheese-making, where the initial step is the precipitation of the curd (casein and fat) from the whey. Casein can also be precipitated by rennet, the digestive enzyme of the calf. Casein is the predominant phosph…

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Casey Jones - Beginnings, Death, Jones as folk hero in art, Museums in Casey Jones's honor

Railroader and folk hero, born in SE Missouri, USA. He grew up in Cayce, KY and became a railroad engineer. On 30 April 1900, he was driving the Cannonball Express southward when he saw a freight train on the track ahead (and there is some question as to whether he was at fault for going so fast at this point). Instead of jumping, he stayed in the cab and tried to brake the train, giving his co-wo…

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Casey Stengel - Playing career, Yankee manager, Casey's Amazin' Mets, Views on managing, Honors, Source, Trivia

Baseball player and manager, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. One of baseball's authentic ‘characters’ and a manager of eccentric genius, he abandoned dental school and began his distinguished six-decade career in Kankakee, IL in 1910. In 1912–25 he played outfield in the major leagues (1925–31 in the minors) compiling career averages of ·964 for fielding and ·284 for batting. Coaching an…

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cashew

A small evergreen tree (Anacardium occidentale), native to South America; leaves oval, alternate; flowers in terminal clusters, petals red, narrow, and reflexed; the receptacle thick, fleshy, pear-shaped in fruit, and bearing the curved nut. It is cultivated in Africa and Asia for cashew nuts and cashew apples (the receptacles). (Family: Anacardiaceae.) …

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Casimir Delavigne

Poet and playwright, born in Le Havre, NW France. The publication of Messéniennes (1818–43) unleashed patriotic enthusiasm. He wrote lighter comedies, such as La Popularité (1838), where he developed fashionable themes, but it was his historical dramas which brought enormous success. Les Enfants d'Edouard (1833) or Les Vêpres Siciliennes inspired an operatic commission by Verdi for the Grande …

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Casimir Funk - Life, Contribution to science

Biochemist, born in Warsaw, Poland. He studied in Berlin and Bern, and became head of the biochemical department at the Cancer Hospital Research Institute, London (1913–15). He emigrated to the USA in 1915, and later headed a research institute in Warsaw (1923–7) and Paris (1928–39). He was best known for his work on vitamins, which he identified and named vitamines in 1912. Kazimierz Fu…

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casino - Gambling in casinos, Security

An establishment where gambling takes place, the best-known casino games being roulette, blackjack, and craps. The first legal casino opened in Baden-Baden in 1765, and rules governing their operation are very strict in most countries. Among the world's most famous casino locations are the US cities of Las Vegas, NV, and Atlantic City, NJ. A casino is a facility that accommodates certain ty…

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Casiodoro de Reina

Translator of the ‘Bear’ Bible (1569), born in Granada, S Spain, of Moorish descent. The Bible is named after the emblem of a bear tasting honey on the title-page, which has been traced to the Bavarian printer Mattias Apiarius, ‘the bee-keeper’. Reina turned Protestant and fled from Spain in 1557, spending the next 12 years on the first complete translation of the Bible into Castilian, La Bibl…

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Caspar (Willard) Weinberger - Early life, Political career, Secretary of Defense, Iran-Contra Affair, Later career, Death

US statesman, born in San Francisco, California, USA. After military service (1941–5) he worked as a lawyer, before entering politics as a member of the California state legislature in 1952. He was state finance director of California during Ronald Reagan's governorship (1968–9). He served in the Nixon and Ford administrations, then became secretary of defense after Reagan's election victory in …

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Caspar David Friedrich - Life, Works, Quotes, Selected works

Painter, born in Greifswald, NE Germany. He studied at the Academy of Copenhagen (1794–8), then settled in Dresden. His work portrays landscapes as vast and desolate expanses in which people, often seen as solitary figures, are depicted as melancholy spectators of Nature's power. He taught at the Dresden Academy from 1816, and became a professor in 1824. Caspar David Friedrich (September 5…

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Casper

42°51N 106°19W, pop (2000e) 49 600. Seat of Natrona Co, EC Wyoming, USA, on the North Platte R; largest city in the state; town expanded rapidly after oil discovered in the 1890s; airfield; railway; distributing, processing and trade centre in a farming, sheep/cattle ranching and mineral-rich area; oil refineries, oil-related industries; coal and open-pit uranium mining nearby; tourist centre;…

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Caspian Sea - Geography, History, Fauna, International disputes, Characteristics and ecology, Transportation, Freezing

area 371 000 km²/143 200 sq mi. Largest inland body of water on Earth, surrounded on three sides by republics of the former USSR, and in the S by Iran; c.28 m/90 ft below sea-level, but much variation in level; maximum depth, 980 m/3215 ft in S; shallow N area, average depth 5·2 m/17 ft; low salinity; frozen in N for several months in severe winters; no outlet and no tides; pollution …

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Cass Gilbert - Notable works

Architect, born in Zanesville, Ohio, USA. He studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He designed the first tower skyscraper, the 60-storey Woolworth Building in New York City (1912), at that time the tallest building in the world. He also designed the US Customs House in New York City (1907), the Supreme Court Building in Washington, DC (1935), and the campuses of the universities of…

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Cassander

Ruler of Macedon after the death of his father Antipater in 319 BC, and its king from 305 BC. An active figure in the power struggle after Alexander's death (323 BC), he murdered Alexander's mother, widow, and son, and contributed to the defeat of Antigonus I Monophthalmos at Ipsus in 301 BC. He first appears at the court of Alexander the Great at Babylon, where he defended his father again…

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Cassandra - Troilus and Criseyde, Modern adaptations, Modern usage

In Greek legend, the daughter of Priam, King of Troy. She was favoured by Apollo, who gave her the gift of prophecy. Because she did not return his love, he decreed that while she would always tell the truth, she would never be believed. After the fall of Troy she was allotted to Agamemnon, and murdered on her arrival in Argos. In Greek mythology, Cassandra (Greek: Κασσάνδρα "she w…

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cassava - Processing, Uses, Cassava hay, Cassava pests

A food plant (Manihot esculenta), also called manioc, probably first cultivated by the Maya of Mexico, and now an important crop throughout the tropics. It ranges from low herbs to shrubs or slender trees, with fleshy, tuberous roots and fan-shaped, 5–9-lobed leaves. The raw roots are poisonous, containing a cyanide-producing sugar which must be destroyed by a complex process of grating, pressing…

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Cassiodorus (Flavius Magnus Aurelius) - Life, Works, Further reading

Roman writer and monk, born in Scylaceum (Squillace), Calabria. He was secretary to the Ostrogothic king, Theodoric, quaestor and praetorian prefect, sole consul in 514, and after Theodoric's death (526) chief minister to Queen Amalasontha. His Institutiones is an encyclopedic course of study for the monks of the Vivarium, which he founded and to which he retired. Flavius Magnus Aurelius Ca…

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Cassiopeia (astronomy)

A large N constellation that includes rich star fields in the Milky Way. A supernova of 1572 appeared in this constellation. It contains Cassiopeia A, the strongest radio source in the sky after the Sun. About 3 kiloparsec away, it is the remnant of a supernova estimated to have exploded c.1667, but which went unseen. Cassiopeia can refer to: …

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Cassiopeia (mythology)

In Greek mythology, the beautiful daughter of Arabus who gave his name to the country called Arabia. She is said to have been the wife of King Cepheus of Ethiopia by whom she bore Andromeda. Cassiopeia was turned into a constellation. …

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cassiterite

The mineral form of tin oxide (SnO2), a black, hard, dense material originally formed in hydrothermal veins associated with igneous rocks, though many deposits are alluvial. It is the main ore of tin. Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2. …

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Cassius

Roman soldier and politician. An opponent of Caesar during the civil war with Pompey, he was pardoned by him after Pharsalus (48 BC). Despite gaining polical advancement through Caesar and the promise of the post of Governor of Syria, he later turned against him again, and played a leading part in the conspiracy to murder him (44 BC). He raised an army in Syria, defeated Dolabella, and marched aga…

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cassowary

A large flightless bird native to S Australasia; eats seeds and fruit; inhabits forests; naked head has a bony outgrowth (casque), used as a shovel to uncover food; feet with long claws; its kick may be fatal. (Genus: Casuarius, 3 species. Family: Casuariidae.) Cassowaries (genus Casuarius) are very large flightless birds native to the tropical forests of New Guinea and northeastern Austral…

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cast iron - Grey cast iron, Other cast iron alloys, Recycling of cast iron, Historical uses

The primary product of the blast furnace: iron with about 4% carbon (pig iron). It has a low melting point and solidifies well into the shape of the mould. It is therefore valuable for casting, but has to be purified or modified before being used for manufacture. It machines well, but its defects are brittleness and lack of tensile strength. Cast iron can be treated to modify the form of the carbo…

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caste - Etymology of the English word caste, Definitions, Castes in India, Caste System in Pakistan

A system of inequality, most prevalent in Hindu Indian society, in which status is determined by the membership of a particular lineage and associated occupational group into which a person is born. The groups are ordered according to a notion of religious purity or spirituality; thus, the Brahmin or priest caste, as the most spiritual of occupations, claims highest status. Contact between castes …

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Castelfranco Veneto

45º40N 11º56E, pop (2001e) 31 400. Town in Veneto region, NE Italy; 26 km/16 mi W of Treviso; founded (1199) by Trevisians to defend against attacks from Vicenza and Padua; continually at war with the Venetian Republic until annexed in 1866; now a busy agricultural, industrial and cultural centre; birthplace of Tina Anselmi and Giorgione; 12th-c castle; cathedral with altarpiece (c.1504) by …

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Castile or Castille

Central region and a component kingdom of Spain. The United County of Castile was formed in 970, and during the 11th-c and most of the 12th-c was subject to the suzerainty of Léon or Navarre. Hegemony over Léon was established in 1188, and the union of Castilian and Leonese crowns took place in 1230. The union of crowns with the Kingdom of Aragón (1469–79), the conquest of Granada (1492), and …

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casting - Expendable mold casting, Nonexpendable mold casting, Cooling rate, Shrinkage

The pouring of molten metal into a mould, where it solidifies into an ingot of manageable size for further processing, or into a desired final shape. Some metals can be continuously cast, solidified metal being removed at one end of a continuous length as more molten metal is added at the beginning. Some alloys (often containing zinc) can be die-cast, ie cast under pressure into a complex re-usabl…

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castle - Definition, Design, History, Influence of castles in Britain, Bibliography

Castles were the products of feudal society as it spread across Europe and into the Crusader kingdoms. Found in France from the mid-10th-c, they reached England as a result of the Norman Conquest, where they were built in large numbers by the new Norman elite. The earliest English castles were normally earthen mounds surrounded by ditches and topped by wooden towers. In 12th-c England, castle-buil…

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Castlebar - History, Culture

53°52N 9°17W, pop (2000e) 7800. Capital of Mayo county, Connacht, W Ireland, on R Castlebar; residential and agricultural market town; Irish Land League founded here in 1879; airfield; railway; linen, hats, bacon; international song contest (Oct). Castlebar (Caisleán an Bharraigh in Irish) is the county town of, and at the centre of, County Mayo, Ireland. The town is connected by railwa…

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Castor and Pollux - Provenance, Mythology

Two heroes of classical mythology, known as the Dioscuri, usually pictured as twin brothers on horseback. They were children of Leda, at least one being fathered by Zeus. After death they became divine beings, and were turned into the constellation Gemini. They appear in the form of St Elmo's Fire to help mariners, and were an important early cult at Rome. The Gemini or Gemini twins, known …

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castration - Castration in humans, Castration in psychoanalysis and literary theory, Castration in veterinary practice, Miscellaneous

The surgical removal of the sex glands (testes or ovaries). When carried out in children, secondary sexual characteristics do not develop. In adults, physical changes are less marked, but the individuals are sterile. In contrast with surgical castration, medical castration consists of giving drugs that block the normal effects of male or female sex hormones. It is used in the treatment of some for…

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castrato - History of castratism, Modern castrati and similar voices, Popular references, Famous castrati

A male singer who underwent castration before puberty in order to preserve his treble voice. The practice probably originated at the Vatican in the 16th-c to compensate for the absence of women's voices from the choirs. Castrati took many of the leading roles in Italian opera during the 17th-c and 18th-c, the most famous being Carlo Broschi, known as Farinelli (1705–82). They ceased to be used in…

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Castries - History, Tourism, Transportation, Political Institutions, Gallery

14°01N 60°59W, pop (2000e) 56 500. Port and capital town of St Lucia, Windward Is, E Caribbean, on NW coast; founded, 1650; rebuilt after a fire in 1948; airport; foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, textiles, wood, rubber and metal products, printing, chemicals, tourism. Castries, population 11 147 (1991), is the capital city of Saint Lucia, a country in the West Indies. The mai…

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cat - Nomenclature, Scientific classification, Characteristics, Reproduction and genetics, Domestication, Overpopulation, Varieties of domestic cat, History and mythology

A carnivorous mammal of the family Felidae; name popularly used for the domestic cat, Felis catus, other species having individual names (lion, tiger, etc); domestic cats known in Egypt 4000 years ago and may have evolved there from the wild cat (or caffre cat); numerous modern breeds, classed as hairless, long-haired, British short-haired (stocky breeds, descended from European ancestors - called…

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catacombs

Subterranean Jewish or early Christian cemeteries found in certain parts of the Roman world - notably Rome itself - where soft rocks made the tunnelling of passages and carving of burial niches easy. The practice is believed to have been derived from ancient Jewish cave burials. The original catacombs are a network of underground burial galleries near San Sebastiano fuori le mura, in Rome. …

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catalepsy

The adoption of a body posture which would normally be unsustainable; also referred to as waxy flexibility. It occurs in serious psychotic illness or as a hysterical reaction. Catalepsy is a condition characterized most often by rigidity of the extremities and by decreased sensitivity to pain. Professionals once believed this disorder was the result of (controllable) mental stat…

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Catalonia - History, Language, Transportation in Catalonia, Law and government of Catalonia, Politics of Catalonia, Environmental policy

pop (2000e) 6 038 000; area 31 932 km²/12 320 sq mi. Autonomous region of NE Spain, comprising the provinces of Barcelona, Girona (Gerona), Lleida (Lérida), and Tarragona, and formerly including Roussillon and Cerdana; area with a distinctive culture and Romance language; united with Aragón, 1137; created a mediaeval trading empire, 13th–14th-c; part of Spain following union of Castili…

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catalysis - Definitions, Catalysts and reaction energetics, Types of catalysts, Poisoning of a Catalyst, Notable examples

The acceleration or slowing of a chemical reaction by the action of a material (catalyst) which is recovered unchanged at the end of the reaction. It is of immense importance in chemistry and biology, accelerating reactions that otherwise proceed very slowly, although they are energetically favourable. Catalysts include iron in the Haber process for ammonia, and chlorophyll in photosynthesis. Cata…

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catalytic converter - Functions, Catalyst poisoning and deactivation, Technical details, Regulations, Diagnostics

An antipollution device fitted to a car exhaust system, now standard in Japan and the USA, and becoming quite common in Europe. It contains a platinum catalyst for chemically converting unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides to compounds harmless to the environment. A catalytic converter (colloquially, "cat" or "catcon") is a device used to reduce the toxicity of emissions from an intern…

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catamaran - History, Catamaran sailing, Catamaran designs, Catamarans for passenger transport, Powered catamarans, Mega catamarans

A twin-hulled vessel of Tamil origin, offering advantages in speed and stability. Propelled nowadays either by sail or power, it has become very popular as a yacht design in the past 25 years, and the advantages of the design have also proved attractive to firms introducing a new generation of car/passenger ferries. A catamaran (from Tamil kattu "to tie" and maram "wood, tree") is a type of…

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Catania - Main sights

37°31N 15°06E, pop (2000e) 364 000. Port and capital of Catania province, Sicily, S Italy; 160 km/100 mi SE of Palermo, at foot of Mt Etna, on E coast; archbishopric; airport; railway; university (1444); agricultural trade, shipbuilding, textiles, paper, footwear, sulphur processing, tourism. Catania is the second largest city of Sicily and is the capital of the province which bears i…

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cataplexy

The sudden loss of all muscle tone. It is usually associated with narcolepsy. Cataplexy is a medical condition which often affects people who have narcolepsy, a disorder whose principal signs are EDS (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness), sleep attacks, and disturbed nighttime sleep. Cataplexy manifests itself as muscular weakness which may range from a barely perceptible slacken…

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cataract - Causes, Epidemiology, Cataract surgery, Prevention, Types of cataracts

Opacities in the lens of the eye which cause slowly progressive loss of vision. Senile cataract is the most common type, but cataracts may also follow excessive exposure to ultraviolet light, or injury to the eye, as well as being a complication of diabetes and other conditions associated with rapid changes in the solute concentration of body fluids. Congenital cataracts occur as a rare genetic di…

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catastrophe theory - Elementary catastrophes, Potential functions of one active variable, Potential functions of two active variables

The mathematical study of sudden change, such as the bursting of a bubble, in contrast to continuous change. For example, in Necker's cube, the location of a dot appears first either in the centre of one face or in a corner of another face, then suddenly changes. It is not possible to say in which face any one viewer will first see it, but it always changes suddenly. Catastrophe theory was created…

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catatonia - Treatment, Catatonia in popular culture

A psychiatric state in which there is stupor associated with catalepsy, or overactivity associated with stereotyped behaviour. This condition was first described by the German physician Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (1828–99) in 1874, and is seen particularly in manic-depressive illnesses and schizophrenia. There may be repetitive movements, the repetition of sounds or phrases the patient has heard (echol…

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Cate Blanchett - Filmography, Awards won, Awards nominated, Quotes

Actress, born in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. She studied at the National Institute of Dramatic Art in Sydney and began her career with the Sydney Theatre Company. Television roles followed which led to her feature film debut in Paradise Road (1997). Further successes include Elizabeth (1998, Golden Globe, BAFTA, Oscar nomination), An Ideal Husband (1999), The Talented Mr Ripley (1999), Veronic…

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catechism - Traditional Format, Early Christian history, Catholic catechisms, Protestant catechisms, Non-Christian catechisms, Bibliography

A manual of Christian doctrine, in question-and-answer form. It derived from the early Church period of instruction for new converts, and was later applied to the instruction of adults baptized in infancy. Such manuals became popular after the Reformation, eg the Heidelberg Catechism (1563). These were intended for instruction, preparation for confirmation, and confessional purposes. Some have avo…

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catecholamine

The chemical classification of a group of biologically important components widely distributed among animals and plants. Those occurring in mammalian tissues are dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, all of which have important roles in the functioning of the sympathetic and central nervous systems. They are crucial in the control of blood pressure, and in the ‘flight or fight’ response. …

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Categorical Imperative - Nature of the concept, The first formulation, The second formulation, The third formulation, Formal criticism

A principle introduced into ethics by Kant to distinguish the overriding, objective force of moral injunctions (eg ‘do not lie’) from the hypothetical imperatives of other prescriptions (eg ‘if you want to avoid cancer, stop smoking’). He formulated the principle as ‘act so that you can will the principle of your action to become a universal law’ or ‘act so that you treat humanity as an end…

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catenary - Suspension bridges, The inverted catenary arch, Towed Cables, Other uses of the term

In mathematics, the plane curve in which an ‘ideal’ chain hangs under its own weight. The simplest Cartesian equation is . In mathematics, the catenary is the shape of a hanging flexible chain or cable when supported at its ends and acted upon by a uniform gravitational force (its own weight). The word catenary is derived from the Latin word catena, which means "chain". …

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catenation

In chemistry, chain formation by bonding between atoms of the same element. It is seen most strikingly in carbon compounds, but is also found with other elements, especially sulphur. Catenation is the ability of a chemical element to form covalent bonds with itself, resulting in ring, chain and cage molecules. The element most well known for its catenation is carbon, with organic chem…

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caterpillar - Anatomy, Defense, Behaviour, External features of a caterpillar, Photo gallery

The larval stage of butterflies and moths (Order: Lepidoptera), usually feeding on plants; occasionally also used for the larvae of sawflies (Order: Hymenoptera). A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths). Caterpillars have long segmented bodies. Sawfly larvae (Hymenoptera) superficially resemble caterpilla…

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Catesby Ap Roger Jones - Notes and references

Confederate naval officer, born in Fairfield, Virginia, USA. The nephew of Thomas Ap Catesby Jones, he served in the US Navy (1836–61) and the Confederate States navy (1861–5). He commanded the CSS Virginia (ex-Merrimac) during the three-hour indecisive contest with the USS Monitor (1862). Catesby ap Roger Jones (April 15, 1821 - June 20, 1877) was an officer in the U.S. Navy who became a…

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catfish - Southern tradition, Other catfish

Any of about 28 families of typically elongate bottom-living fishes; flattened head, smooth skin, long barbels around mouth; habits often sluggish, nocturnal; several important as food fish and in the aquarium trade; includes freshwater families Siluridae, Bagridae, Clariidae, Ictaluridae, and marine Ariidae, Plotosidae. Catfish (order Siluriformes) are a diverse group of fish. All catfish,…

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catgut

A tough cord prepared from the intestines of sheep (sometimes horse or ass, but never a cat). The intestine is cleaned, steeped in alkali, and sterilized by sulphur fumes. It has been used for musical instrument strings and surgical sutures (now replaced for the most part by synthetic fibres). Cat seems to be derived from kit ‘fiddle’. The substance is used for the strings of harps, violi…

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cathedral - History and organization

The chief church of a bishop of a diocese; originally, the church which contained the throne of the bishop, then the mother church of the diocese. The most famous are the W European Gothic cathedrals built in the Middle Ages, such as those at Reims and Chartres, France (both 13th-c). In many towns, they were the centre around which social and cultural as well as religious life developed. The large…

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Catherine de' Medici - Early life, Life with Henry II, As queen, After Henry II's death

Queen of France, the wife of Henry II, and regent (1560–74), born in Florence, NC Italy, the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino. Married at 14, she was slighted at the French court, but during the minority of her sons, Francis II (1559–60) and Charles IX (1560–3), she assumed political influence which she retained as queen mother until 1588. She tried to pursue moderation and tolera…

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Cath - Awards, Other Career Highlights, Actress - Main Filmography, Producer - Filmography, Self - Filmography, Archive Footage

Actress, born in Paris, France. She made her film debut in Les Collégiennes (1956), and became well known through the unexpected popularity of the musical Les Parapluies de Cherbourg (1964, The Umbrellas of Cherbourg). Her films include Belle de Jour (1967), Le Sauvage (1975), Le Dernier Métro (1980, The Last Metro), Indochine (1992), Place Vendôme (1999), Dancer in the Dark (2000), and Les Tem…

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Catherine Helen Spence - Early life, Journalism and literature, Social Work and Issues, Bibliography

Writer and feminist, born near Melrose, Scottish Borders, SE Scotland, UK. She arrived in Adelaide in 1839 with her parents, and later worked as a governess. Clare Morrison (1854) was the first novel of Australian life written by a woman, and she followed it with four more novels. Her early preoccupation with social problems, especially of the destitute and the young, led her more into the public …

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Catherine Howard - Rise and fall, Catherine Howard in artwork, In film, Historiography, Bibliography

Fifth wife of Henry VIII, a granddaughter of the 2nd Duke of Norfolk. She was married to the king in the same month as he divorced Anne of Cleves (July 1540). However, after Henry learned of Catherine's alleged premarital affairs (1541), she was arrested for treason, and beheaded, together with her cousin Lady Jane Rochford, in the Tower of London. All persons supposed privy to her conduct, as wel…

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Catherine McAuley

Founder of a religious order, born in Dublin, Ireland. She was left money by her protestant foster-parents, and founded the Roman Catholic House of Mercy, an institution for educating the poor. She took her vows in 1831, and founded the order of the Sisters of Mercy. The Venerable Mother Catherine McAuley (1778-1841) was an Irish nun, who founded the Sisters of Mercy in 1831. The Order has …

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Catherine of Arag - Infanta of Aragon and Castile, Princess of Wales, Queen consort of England, Later years

Queen consort of England, the first wife of Henry VIII (1509–33), born in Alcalá de Henares, C Spain, the fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. She was first married in 1501 to Arthur (1486–1502), the son of Henry VII, and following his early death was betrothed to her brother-in-law Henry, then a boy of 11. She married him in 1509, and bore him five children, but only the Princes…

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Catherine of Braganza

Wife of Charles II of England, born in Vila Viçosa, E Portugal, the daughter of King John IV of Portugal. She was married to Charles in 1662 as part of an alliance between England and Portugal, but failed to produce an heir. She helped to convert him to Catholicism just before his death, after which she returned to Portugal (1692). Catherine of Braganza (November 25, 1638 – November 30, …

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Catherine of Valois

Queen consort of England, the wife of Henry V, and the youngest daughter of Charles VI (‘the Foolish’) of France. After a stormy courtship, when England and France went to war over Henry's dowry demands, she married Henry at Troyes in 1420. In 1421 she gave birth to a son, the future Henry VI. After Henry's death in France in 1422, she secretly married Owen Tudor, a Welsh squire, despite parliam…

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Catherine Parr - Family, Early marriages, Queen consort of England, Final marriage and death, Remains, In film, Historiography

Sixth wife of Henry VIII, the daughter of Sir Thomas Parr of Kendal. She first married Edward Borough, then Lord Latimer, and in 1543 became Queen of England by marrying Henry VIII. A learned, tolerant, and tactful woman, she persuaded Henry to restore the succession to his daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth, and showed her stepchildren much kindness. Very soon after Henry's death (1547) she married …

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Catherine Zeta-Jones - Selected filmography

Actress and singer, born in Swansea, SC Wales, UK. She became known through her role in the BBC television series The Darling Buds of May (1991), and went on to feature-film success with The Mask of Zorro (1998), Entrapment (1999), and The Haunting (1999). Later films include Traffic (2000), in which she co-starred with husband Michael Douglas (married 2000), Chicago (2002, BAFTA and Oscar Best Su…

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catheter

A fine tube made of rubber or synthetic material for insertion into parts of the body cavities, such as the bladder, blood vessels, the chambers of the heart, and the respiratory passages. It is used either to introduce drugs and fluids, to withdraw blood and body fluids for analysis, or to measure pressure or rates of flow. In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body…

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cathode - Flow of electrons, Chemistry cathode, Electronics and physics cathode

In electrolysis and gas discharge tubes, the negative electrode by which electrons enter the cell or tube. In a battery, the cathode is the positive terminal by which electrons enter the battery. For a circuit connected to a battery, conventional current flows from the positive cathode of the battery through the circuit to the negative anode. A cation is a positive ion that moves towards the negat…

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Cathy Freeman - Achievements

Athlete, born in Mackay, Queensland, NE Australia. At age 17 she won her first gold medal at the 1990 Commonwealth Games as a member of the 4 x 100 m women's relay team, and was named Young Australian of the Year. She won gold again at the 1994 Commonwealth Games in the 200 m and 400 m events, becoming the first athlete in Commonwealth history to achieve such a feat. Her carrying of both the Ab…

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Catiline - Life, Legacy

An impoverished Roman politician of patrician extraction who tried to exploit the economic unrest of Rome and Italy in the 60s BC for his own political ends. His conspiracy against the state was foiled by Cicero late in 63 BC, and he fell in battle early in 62 BC. Lucius Sergius Catilina (110 BC?–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is bes…

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Cato Street conspiracy

A plot in February 1820, formulated by Arthur Thistlewood (1770–1820) and fellow radical conspirators, to blow up the British Tory cabinet as it attended a dinner at the house of the Earl of Harrowby. The plot was infiltrated by a government agent, and the leaders were arrested and hanged. The Cato Street Conspiracy was an attempt to murder all the British cabinet ministers in 1820. …

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Catskill Mountains - Geography, Geology, Name, The Catskill Mountains in culture

Mountain group in SE New York State, USA; part of the Appalachian system; rises to 1282 m/4206 ft at Slide Mt; New York recreational area. The Catskill Mountains (also known as simply the Catskills), a natural area in New York State northwest of New York City and southwest of Albany, are not, despite their popular name, true geological mountains, but rather a mature dissected platea…

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