Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 12

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Bruce Nauman - Life and Work, Trivia

Sculptor, born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA. He studied mathematics and art at Wisconsin University. In the 1960s he became a leading exponent of Conceptual Art, using neon lights and holograms in addition to producing minimalist sculptures from more conventional materials. Since 1970 he has worked chiefly with fibreglass and wood, exploring the relationship between sculpture and the gallery space.…

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Bruce Oldfield

Fashion designer, born in London, UK. He taught art, then studied fashion in Kent (1968–71) and in London (1972–3), after which he became a freelance designer. He designed for Bendel's store in New York City, and sold sketches to Yves Saint Laurent. He showed his first collection in London in 1975. He designs evening dresses for members of the royal family and film-stars, as well as making ready…

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Bruce Smith

Police consultant and criminologist, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He worked at the New York Bureau of Municipal Research while completing a degree at Columbia University (1914–16). Through the bureau he was sent to Harrisburg, PA to conduct a police study (1923), which led to a career as a police consultant. He created a uniform international system for reporting crime statistics, publishing …

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Bruce Wasserstein - Books

Investment banker, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at the University of Michigan (1967) and Harvard Business School (1971), and joined the First Boston Corp in 1977, rising to managing director and becoming, with colleague Joseph Perella, a noted leveraged buyout specialist. He and Perella formed their own firm, Wasserstein, Perella & Co, in 1988. His publications include Corporat…

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Bruce Willis

Film actor, born in West Germany. He grew up in New Jersey from the age of two, took up acting in the mid-1970s, and got some small parts in film and television. After moving to Los Angeles, he became widely known for his role as David Addison in the television series Moonlighting (1985–9). He made his film debut in Blind Date (1987), and achieved star status following his role in the first of th…

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brucellosis - Nomenclature, Transmission and incubation, Symptoms, Treatment and prevention, Brucellosis in dogs, Biological warfare

A disease of animals, especially cattle, caused by micro-organisms of genus Brucella, named after British bacteriologist Sir David Bruce (1855–1931); also known as contagious abortion. It can be caught by humans, commonly after eating infected cheese or drinking infected cow's or goat's milk, in which case it is called undulent fever or Malta fever. Brucellosis (Undulant fever or Malta fev…

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Bruges - History, Sights, Famous inhabitants, Miscellaneous, Transport

51°13N 3°14E, pop (2000e) 119 600. Port and capital town of Brugge district, West Flanders province, NW Belgium; 12 km/7 mi S of Zeebrugge; known as ‘the Venice of the north’; chief market town of the Hanseatic League and a major centre of the woollen and cloth trade; connected by canals to several cities and the North Sea; railway; port handles crude oil, coal, iron ore, general cargo, fi…

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bruise - Light bruises, Severe bruises

Damage to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, but without breaking the skin, usually caused by a blow from a blunt instrument or object. Damage to the underlying local blood vessels allows blood to escape into the tissues, resulting in swelling and the red, blue, and yellow discolouration over the affected area. A bruise or contusion or ecchymosis is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt…

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Brunei - History, Politics, Military, Judicial system, Administrative divisions, Geography, Demographics, Culture

Official name State of Brunei Darussalam (Islamic Sultanate of Brunei) Brunei, officially the Sultanate of Brunei (Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam, Arabic: سلطنة بروناي‎, Jawi: برني دارالسلام), is a country located on the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia. The Sultanate of Brunei was very powerful from the 14th through the 16th century. The decl…

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Brunetto Latini

Writer, born in Florence, Tuscany, NC Italy. A Guelph, he was forced into temporary exile by the 1260 Ghibelline victory. There he wrote, in French, the encyclopaedic and very successful Li livres du Trésor. He also wrote, in Italian, La Rettorica, a popularization of Cicero's work, and the poems ‘Tesoretto’ and ‘Favolello’. Brunetto Latini (c.1220 - 1294), who signed his name Burnectu…

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Bruno Apitz - Books

Novelist, born in Leipzig, EC Germany. He worked in a second-hand bookshop and also took up acting. A socialist and communist, he was frequently detained, finally in the Buchenwald concentration camp. After World War 2 he moved to Leipzig and became a journalist and theatre manager, then moved to East Berlin (1955) and began his writing career. His novels depict national socialism and the resistan…

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Bruno Bauer - Biography, Literary controversy, Personality, Major works, Quotes

Protestant theologian and political journalist, born in Eisenberg, EC Germany. He lectured on theology in Berlin (from 1834) and Bonn (from 1839). Beginning as an orthodox follower of Hegel, he shifted towards the Left. Stripped in 1842 of his permission to teach, as a result of his fierce criticism of the Bible and denial of the historical existence of Jesus, he later became a radical atheist. Hi…

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Bruno Bettelheim - Background and career, A movie appearance, Bibliography

Psychotherapist and writer, born in Vienna, Austria. He studied with Freud, whom he revered, and at the University of Vienna (1938). During the Nazi regime, he was imprisoned at Dachau and Buchenwald (1938–9); his 1943 article on his experiences and insights would gain him wide recognition. Upon his release, he moved to the USA and worked at the University of Chicago (1939–42, 1944–73). As head…

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Bruno Kreisky - Life and political career, Political views and programs, Kreisky's legacy

Austrian chancellor (1970–83), born in Vienna, Austria. He studied at Vienna University, joined the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPO) as a young man, and was imprisoned for his political activities from 1935 until he escaped to Sweden in 1938. He returned to Austria, and served in the foreign service (1946–51) and the prime minister's office (1951–3). He was increasingly active in party …

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Bruno Maderna - Biography, Works, Bibliography

Composer and conductor, born in Venice, NE Italy. A child prodigy violinist and conductor, he went on to study composition and conducting. Early in his musical career he composed for films and radio, and taught at the Venice Conservatory, then in 1955 he began to do research into the possibilities of electronic music, founding with Luciano Berio the Studio di Fonologia Musicale of Italian Radio. H…

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Bruno Rossi - Honors

Physicist, born in Venice, NE Italy. In 1940 he became professor of physics at Cornell University. His work includes the study of cosmic rays, showing primary rays to be positively charged particles, and the development of X-ray astronomy. Bruno B. He made major contributions to cosmic ray and particle physics from 1930 through the 1950s, and pioneered X-ray astronomy and space plasma physi…

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Bruno Walter - Biography, Recordings, Written works, Discography, Further reading

Conductor, born in Berlin, Germany. A protégé of Mahler, he was in charge of the Munich Opera (1913–22) and from 1919 was chief conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic. International tours won him a worldwide reputation before he fled the Nazis in 1938. Settling in the USA the next year, he guest-conducted widely over the next two decades, including many appearances at the Metropolitan Opera, and …

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Brussels - Etymology, Brussels as capital of Belgium, Linguistic situation, Universities and colleges, Transport, Conferences and world fairs

50°50N 4°21E, pop (2000e) 1 069 000 (including suburbs). Commercial and cultural city in Brabant province, Belgium; capital of Belgium, lying at the geographical mid-point of the country; divided into the Lower Town, intersected by several branches of the R Senne, and the Upper Town, set on the crest of the hills to the E; inner city surrounded by 18 suburbs with independent administrations; …

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Brussels sprout

A type of cultivated cabbage (Brassica oleracea), thought to have been first grown in Belgium; also spelled brussel sprout; produces shoots or sprouts in all the axils of the leaves on the main stem; sprouts resemble miniature cabbages, and can be harvested over a long period, especially in winter. (Family: Crucifereae). The Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group) is a cultivar …

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Bryan (Charles) Gould

Former British politician, now Vice-Chancellor of Waikato University, New Zealand, born in New Zealand. He studied at Auckland University and Oxford, joined the British diplomatic service, but left to teach at Worcester College, Oxford (1968–74). He entered the House of Commons as a Labour MP in 1974, lost his seat in the 1979 general election, but returned in 1983, having spent the intervening f…

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Bryan Forbes - Career, External references

Actor, scriptwriter, and director, born in London, UK. He studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, London, and made his debut in 1942. He acted on stage and in films in Britain and the USA (1948–60), and formed Beaver Films with Sir Richard Attenborough in 1959. He wrote and produced many films, including The Slipper and the Rose (1976) and International Velvet (1978). Included in the plays …

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Bryant (Charles) Gumbel - Early life, Career, Controversies

Television sports commentator and presenter, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Editor of Black Sports magazine after college, he worked as sportscaster for KNBC in Los Angeles (1972–80). He also covered professional sports for the National Broadcasting Company, winning an Emmy for his 1976 Olympic coverage. Hired by the Today show (1980) to do sports commentary, he then became co-presenter (19…

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Bryn Terfel - Childhood and early career, Faenol Festival, Trivia

Bass baritone, born in Pant-glas, Caernarfonshire, North Wales, UK. He studied at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, and became popularly known after winning the Lieder Prize in the Cardiff Singer of the World competition in 1989. He has since appeared at many of the world's leading opera houses, his roles including Leporello in Don Giovanni at the Salzburg Festival (1994–6), Figaro at the …

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bryophyte - Bryophyte classification, Bryophyte sexuality

A spore-bearing, non-vascular plant belonging to the division Bryophyta, which includes some 25 000 species of moss, liverwort, and hornwort. Bryophytes have conducting cells but lack true vascular tissue; they have rhizoids, thread-like outgrowths which anchor the plant and conduct water, but no true roots. Leaves, if present, are simple structures, usually one cell thick, with a slightly thicke…

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Bryozoa - Ecology, Anatomy, Fossils, Classification

A phylum of small, aquatic animals that typically form colonies comprising a few to a million individuals (zooids); each zooid typically has a tentacle-like feeding apparatus around its mouth; colony forms a calcareous, chitinous, or gelatinous skeleton; c.4000 living species, mostly marine, and attached to hard substrates or seaweeds, rarely to soft sediments; some found in fresh water; abundant …

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bubble chamber

A device for detecting the paths of sub-atomic particles, devised in 1952 by Donald Glaser. The chamber contains a liquid prevented from boiling by pressure. The pressure is briefly released. Before general boiling can take place, the passage of a particle produces a local instability which initiates boiling, forming visible bubbles of gas along its path. The phenomenon is very brief and is operat…

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bubble memory - Prehistory: Twistor memory, Magnetic bubbles, Commercialization

A type of computer memory first produced as a storage medium in the mid-1970s. These devices operate as read/write memories by circulating very small polarized magnetic bubbles which represent single bits. They have the advantage of being extremely sturdy, both mechanically and in terms of their ability to operate over large temperature ranges, but they are relatively slow and expensive. They find…

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Bucaramanga - History, Geography, Climatology and Surface, The City, City's Neighborhoods, People

7°08N 73°10W, pop (2000e) 401 900. Capital of Santander department, NC Colombia; NE of Bogotá, in the Cordillera Oriental at 1018 m/3340 ft; ‘the garden city of Colombia’; founded, 1622; university (1947); coffee, cacao, tobacco, cotton; Parque Santander, Parque García Roviro, El Paragüitas gardens (Jardin Botanico) in Floridablanca suburb; international piano festival (Sep). Buc…

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Bucharest - Geography, Climate, Law and government, History, Demographics, Economy, Transport, Culture, Architecture, Media, Sports

44°25N 26°07E, pop (2000e) 2 066 000. Capital and largest city of Romania, on the R Dambovi?; founded, 14th-c; important commercial centre on the trade route to Constantinople; capital of Wallachia, 1698; capital of Romania, 1861; badly damaged by German bombing in World War 2; airport (Baneasa); railway; university (1864); technical university (1819); oil pipeline link with Ploe?ti; engineer…

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Buck Owens - Biography, Death

Country singer and musician, born in Sherman, Texas, USA. The son of a sharecropper, his childhood was spent in poverty and he had little schooling. He later took up the guitar and eventually settled in Bakersfield, CA (1951), joining a band which he later led and named the Buckaroos. He became known as the pioneer of the electrified ‘Bakersfield’ sound and went on to record a string of hit reco…

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Buckingham Palace - History, Home of the monarch, Modern history, Big Royal Dig graphic reconstructions of Buckingham Palace history

The 600-room residence of the British sovereign in London, UK, and the administrative headquarters of the monarchy. George III bought Buckingham House in 1761 for his wife Queen Charlotte to use as a family home near to St James's Palace. It was reconstructed in the 1820s by George IV. The escalating costs of the project led to the dismissal of the architect, John Nash, on the king's death in 1830…

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Buckinghamshire - Divisions and environs, Physical geography, Economy, Lord Lieutenant, Buckinghamshire County Council, Settlements, Places of interest

pop (2001e) 479 000; area 1883 km²/727 sq mi. County in SC England, UK; drained by the Ouse and Thames Rivers; crossed in the S by the Chiltern Hills; extensive woodland; county town, Aylesbury; chief towns include Bletchley, High Wycombe, Buckingham; Milton Keynes a unitary authority from 1997; mainly agriculture, also furniture, bricks, printing, high technology. Buckinghamshire (ab…

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buckthorn - Classification

A thorny, spreading, deciduous shrub or small tree (Rhamnus catharticus) 4–10 m/13–30 ft, native to Europe and the Mediterranean region; leaves oval, toothed, in opposite pairs; flowers tiny, green, parts in fours; berries 5–10 mm/0·2–0·3 in, black, mildly poisonous, and purgative. (Family: Rhamnaceae.) The Buckthorns Rhamnus are a genus (or two genera, if Frangula is treated as d…

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buckwheat - Cultivation, Trivia

An erect annual (Fagopyrum esculentum) with spear-shaped leaves and a terminal cluster of tiny pink or white flowers; fruit a triangular nut c.6 mm/¼ in long; native to C Asia and cultivated as a substitute for cereals. (Family: Polygonaceae.) Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a plant in the genus Fagopyrum (sometimes merged into genus Polygonum) in the family Polygonaceae. Buck…

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Bucky Harris

Baseball player and manager, born in Port Jervis, New York, USA. As an outstanding second baseman for the Washington Senators, he was made a player-manager (1924) at age 27, earning him the title of ‘boy wonder’. During his 29 years as manager (1924–56), mostly with the Senators and Detroit Tigers, he won three league pennants and two world championships. He was elected to baseball's Hall of Fa…

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Bud Fisher - Thoroughbred horse racing

Cartoonist, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. He studied at Chicago University. then became staff cartoonist of the San Francisco Chronicle (1905), where he introduced a regular strip, A Mutt, illustrating the racing tips of a gambler named Mr A Mutt and involving Mutt's family, cat included (1907). He later moved to the San Francisco Examiner, where Jeff, Mutt's partner, was introduced in 1908, but…

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Bud Powell - Life, Selected compositions, Selected recordings on CD

Jazz pianist, born in New York City, USA. Playing from the age of six, he became involved with the modern jazz movement in the 1940s, with encouragement from Thelonious Monk. A head injury sustained in an attack heralded a series of visits to mental hospitals; nevertheless, he was the most influential jazz pianist of his time. He was the first choice to work and record with top New York players un…

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Bud Wilkinson - Head Coach, External Links

Coach of American football, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. He coached the University of Oklahoma (1947–64) to three national titles, 12 consecutive Big Eight titles, and a National Collegiate Athletic Association record 47-game winning streak (1953–7). He headed President John F Kennedy's Physical Fitness Programme, and in 1964 he ran unsuccessfully for US senator from Oklahoma. Cha…

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Budapest - History, Politics, Districts, Islands, Landmarks and monuments, Tourism, Shopping, Transport, Notable people from Budapest, Sister cities

47°29N 19°05E, pop (2000e) 1 966 000. Capital and largest city of Hungary, on R Danube where it enters the Great Plain; old-world Buda on W bank hills, modern Pest on E bank, unified in 1873; Buda on site of Roman colony of Aquincum; major cultural and trading centre in the 15th-c; scene of popular uprising, crushed by Soviet troops, 1956; Eötvös Loránd University (1635); universities of m…

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Budd Schulberg

Screenwriter, born in New York City, New York, USA. Growing up in Hollywood as the son of early film producer Benjamin P Schulberg, he started working at age 17 as a publicist for Paramount, becoming a scriptwriter at 19. His 1941 novel What Makes Sammy Run? was an inside look at Hollywood. During World War 2 he made documentary films with John Ford. Having flirted with Communism in the 1930s, he …

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Buddha - Depictions of the Buddha in art, Buddha in popular culture

The title of Prince Gautama Siddhartha, the founder of Buddhism, born the son of the rajah of the Sakya tribe ruling in Kapilavastu, Nepal. When about 30 years old he left the luxuries of the court, his beautiful wife, and all earthly ambitions for the life of an ascetic; after six years of austerity and mortification he saw in the contemplative life the perfect way to self-enlightenment. Accordin…

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Buddhaghosa

Buddhist scholar, born near Buddh Gaya, or Ghosa, India. He studied the Buddhist texts in Ceylon, and is best known for the Visuddhimagga (The Path of Purity), a compendium of Buddhist doctrines. Below is a listing of Buddhaghosa's fourteen commentaries (Pāli: atthakatha) on the Pāli Tipitaka: …

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Buddhism - Doctrines, Buddhism after the Buddha, Main Traditions, Buddhist texts, Present state of Buddhism

A tradition of thought and practice originating in India c.2500 years ago, and now a world religion, deriving from the teaching of Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama), who is regarded as one of a continuing series of enlightened beings. The teaching of Buddha is summarized in the Four Noble Truths, the last of which affirms the existence of a path leading to deliverance from the universal human experience…

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budding - General biological meaning, In Virology, In Embryology, In Horticulture

The formation of buds by cell division within a localized area of a shoot. Budding is also a method of sexual reproduction in which a new individual develops as a direct growth off the body of the parent, and may subsequently become detached and lead a separate existence. A new organism is formed by the protrusion of part of another organism. When yeast buds, one cell becomes two cells. Whe…

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Buddy Bolden - Music, Bolden in fiction

Jazz cornetist, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. He is a putative founder of jazz, a figure of mythic significance. He reputedly played his trumpet so powerfully that he could be heard for 10 miles in all directions. No recorded evidence survives, though scholars spent decades searching for an Edison cylinder said to have been made at the beginning of the 20th-c. In 1907, his uncontrollable fi…

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Buddy Holly - Biography, Death, Covers

Rock singer, songwriter, and guitarist, born in Lubbock, Texas, USA. Originally from a country-and-western background, he was also influenced by hill-billy, Mexican, and African-American music. He was the first to add drums and a rhythm-and-blues beat to the basic country style, and his band, The Crickets, was among the first to use the now standard rock-and-roll line-up of two guitars, bass, and …

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Buddy Rich - Multimedia

Drummer and bandleader, born in New York City, USA. A child prodigy, he made his debut with his parents when he was 18 months old, toured Australia when he was six, and was one of the highest paid child performers of the 1930s. Known for his virtuoso drumming, he played with several leading bands of the ‘big band era’, including a period with his own band (1945–7), and formed a very successful …

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budgerigar - Etymology, Characteristics, Habitat and behaviour, Budgerigars in captivity, "Context speaking" budgerigars

A small parrot native to C Australia, and introduced in Florida (Melopsittacus undulatus); common; lives in nomadic flocks; eats grass seeds; nests in tree stumps or logs. It is a popular cage-bird, with many colour variations, but is usually green in the wild. (Family: Psittacidae.) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsi…

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budget - Personal or family budget, Government budget, Corporate budget

A monetary plan for a specified period of future time. A government budget is a statement of forecast expenditure in the following financial year, and of how the revenue needed will be raised (eg by taxation or borrowing). Most commercial organizations of any size prepare budgets to forecast sales revenue, operating costs, capital expenditure, and cash flow. They may also be prepared several years…

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Buenaventura

3°51N 77°06W, pop (2000e) 189 400. Pacific seaport in Cauca department, SW Colombia; on Island of Cascajal in the Bahia de Buenaventura; Colombia's most important Pacific trading port; founded, 1540 (on different site); shrimp fishing, fish canning; trade in coffee, hides, gold, platinum, sugar. Buenaventura is the Spanish version of Bonaventure and the name of See also: …

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Buenos Aires - History, Government and politics, Population, Economy, Culture, Tourism, Transportation, Sports, Internet

34°40S 58°30W, pop (2000e) 3 333 000. Federal capital of Argentina in Gran Buenos Aires federal district, E Argentina; on S bank of R Plate; founded in 1536 as the city of the ‘Puerto de Santa Maria del Buen Aire’; destroyed by Indians, and refounded 1580; formerly capital of the Spanish viceroyalty of La Plata; suburbs include Avellaneda (industrial), Olivos (residential), San Isidro (spor…

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Buffalo - Places, Military, Sport teams, Other uses

42°53N 78°53W, pop (2000e) 292 600. Seat of Erie Co, W New York, USA; port on the Niagara R at the NE end of L Erie; second largest city in the state; railway; two universities (1846, 1867); motor vehicles and vehicle parts, machinery, steel; professional teams, Bills (football), Sabres (ice hockey); Albright-Knox art gallery, science museum. In the United States: In South A…

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Buffalo Bob Smith

Puppeteer and radio producer, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. A vocalist and pianist on local Buffalo, NY radio in the 1930s and 1940s, he started a children's show on WNBC radio in New York (1947) which became the Howdy Doody show (1947–60). One of the first children's television shows, it featured a freckled-faced puppet. He returned with a short-lived revival in 1976. …

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buffer (chemistry)

A system which resists change. In chemistry, usually a solution whose pH is not greatly affected by small additions of strong acids or bases. This is most effective when an acid and its conjugate base are present in approximately equal amounts. Some important buffer systems and the approximate pH at which they operate are: acetate (CH3COOH and CH3COO?), 4–5; carbonate (H2CO3 and HCO3?), 6–8; and…

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buffer (computing)

A temporary storage area in memory for data. Buffers are often used when transmitting data between two devices with different working speeds, such as between a keyboard and the central processor, or the central processor and a printer. Buffer can refer to: In chemistry: In geology: In electronics and computer science: In MMORPG: …

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buffer state

A small state lying between two or more larger and potentially belligerent states, as a means of reducing border friction between them; often specially created for the purpose, though seldom successful. For example, after World War 1, attempts were made to create a buffer state between Germany and France involving Belgium, the Saar, the Rhine area, and Alsace-Lorraine. Other examples of buf…

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building biology - Indoor air quality: criteria for testing, Electromagnetic fields: criteria for testing

The study of the interaction between a building and its environment, especially with respect to the effects upon the health of the occupants. It deals with the location and geometry of the building, its colour scheme, lighting, and furnishings, and the selection of non-toxic and ecologically ‘friendly’ building materials. Building biology (or Baubiologie as it was coined in Germany) is a …

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building society - Origins, 1980s, List of building societies in the United Kingdom that have demutualised

An institution which lends money to enable people to buy property (via a mortgage loan). Their funds are derived from investors who obtain interest on the sum deposited. Interest paid to the society by the borrower is higher than the rate paid out. In the UK there were once some 150 societies, but their numbers have been falling through amalgamations. Following the Building Societies Act (1986) so…

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Buitenzorg - History, Language, Transportation

6°35S 106°47E. Former name of a town in Java, former Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia), founded in 1705 as the seat of the governor-general of the East Indies. Since Indonesian independence it has reverted to its ancient name of Bogor. It is famous for its botanical gardens. Coordinates: 6°36′S 106°48′E Bogor is a city in West Java with a population of approximately 800,000 pe…

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Bujumbura - Growth, Maps, Statistics

3°22S 29°21E, pop (2000e) 400 000. Port and capital of Burundi, C Africa, at NE end of L Tanganyika; altitude 805 m/2641 ft; founded in 1899 by German colonists; airport; university (1960); coffee and cotton processing, brewing, cement, textiles, soap, shoes, metal working; Museum of African Civilization. Bujumbura is the capital city of Burundi. The city lies at the north eastern cor…

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Bulawayo - General information

20°10S 28°43E, pop (2000e) 612 100. Capital of Matabeleland North province, Zimbabwe, 370 km/230 mi SW of Harare; second largest city in Zimbabwe; founded, 1893; airport; railway junction; commercial, industrial, and tourist centre; asphalt, agricultural equipment, confectionery, electrical equipment, tyres, cement; national parks nearby. Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabw…

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bulb - Bulbil

A highly modified shoot forming an underground storage organ. It is composed of overlapping leaves or leaf bases, swollen with food reserves which nourish early growth. The bulbs usually persist from year to year, the reserves being replenished before the plant dies back. A bulb is an underground vertical shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases) that are used as food storage…

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bulbul

A bird native to tropical Africa, Madagascar, and S Asia; short wings, long tail; stiff bristles at base of pointed bill; noisy and gregarious; inhabits woodland or cultivation; eats fruit and insects. (Family: Pycnonotidae, 120 species.) …

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Bulgaria - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Science, technology and telecommunications, Transport, Demographics, Culture, Tourism, Sports

Official name Republic of Bulgaria, Bulgarian Republika Bulgariya, formerly People's Republic of Bulgaria (1941–90) Bulgaria (Bulgarian: България, IPA: [bɤlˈgarijə]), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, IPA: [rɛˈpubliˌkə bɤlˈgarijə]), is a country in Southeastern Europe. Bulgaria is an active member of NAT…

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bulimia nervosa - DSM-IV-TR criteria, History of bulimia nervosa, Causes, Environmental factors

A condition typified by repeated episodes of binge eating and frequent vomiting and purging, associated with a preoccupation with control of body weight and a feeling of lack of control over eating behaviour. The vast majority of patients are female, and patients report a high incidence of relatives who are obese and/or who have had a depressive illness. It is the reverse of anorexia nervosa, with…

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bulk modulus

The negative ratio of a change in pressure applied to a block of some material to the resulting fractional change in volume of the block; symbol K, unit Pa (pascal); also called the modulus of compression. It is constant for a given material, eg for glass, K = 0·37 × 1011Pa. The higher the value of K, the more difficult is the material to compress. Compressibility is 1/K. The bulk mod…

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bull (religion)

An important, formal communication or edict from a pope, originally sealed with his signet-ring (Lat bulla, ‘seal’) and identified by the opening Latin words. It is often used to promulgate major doctrines (eg infallibility, Immaculate Conception). Bull may also refer to: Bull is the name of: …

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bull (zoology)

A male mammal belonging to one of several species; female usually called cow; young called calf; used especially for uncastrated male cattle (male castrated when young called a bullock, ox, or steer; if castrated when fully grown, called a stag). The name is also used with several other species, including large whales, walrus, elephant seal, elephant, and moose. Bull may also refer to: …

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bull terrier - Appearance, Temperament, Health, History, Miscellaneous, Famous Bull Terriers

A breed of dog, developed for bull-baiting in Britain by crossing bulldogs and terriers; powerful body; long tail; ears pointed, erect; head broad with small eyes; coat short; English bull terrier usually white; Staffordshire bull terrier usually reddish fawn. The American pit bull terrier attracted widespread publicity during the 1980s, following several attacks on people; it became subject to co…

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bulldog - Appearance, Temperament, Health, History, Popular Mascot, Bulldogs in the Arts, Quotes

A breed of dog, used in mediaeval Britain for the sport of bull-baiting; heavy body with short, bowed legs and short tail; large round head with flat upturned muzzle; ears and eyes small; short brown or brown and white coat. The Bulldog (often called the English Bulldog or British Bulldog) is a medium-sized dog breed that originated in England. The Bulldog is a relatively small …

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Bulle Ogier

Actress, born in Boulogne-Brillancourt, NC France. After founding a cafe-theatre in Paris, she appeared in the film Les Idoles. Other films include Paulina s'en va (1969, director Andre Techine), La Salamandre (1971), and Circuit Carole (1995, director Emmanuelle Cuau). …

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bulletin board

A form of electronic notice board which occurs frequently in data communications networks, particularly those linking academic institutions; also called a bulletin board system (BBS). The bulletin board hosts notices of meetings, technical papers, or even computer programs. The special feature of bulletin boards is that, since the networks are worldwide, the readership is worldwide. A bulle…

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bullfighting - Origins, Styles of bullfighting, Criticisms of bullfighting

The national sport in Spain, also popular in some regions of S France, and in Latin-American countries. Known as the corrida de toros (Span ‘running of the bulls’) it is regarded as an art in Spain. Leading bullfighters (matadors) are treated as national heroes. Picadors are sent into the bull-ring to weaken the bull before the matador enters the arena to make the final killing. It is perhaps mi…

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bullfrog - Ecology and behaviour, Distribution, Human use, Space flight

Any large frog; name used especially for North American Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog or American bullfrog); also for Rana tigrina (Asian bullfrog) and Pyxicephalus adspersus (South African bullfrog), all of the family Ranidae. Leptodactylus pentadactylus of the family Leptodactylidae is called the South American bullfrog. The American Bull Frog (Rana catesbeiana) is an aquatic frog, a member …

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Bully Hayes

Trader and adventurer, possibly born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The vague details of his birth and early life are balanced by many stories about his later career as a slave trader, swindler, raider, and confidence trickster throughout the Pacific. He was famous for his undocumented cargoes, braggadoccio, and ability to escape arrest. He was killed by a mutinous sailor. William Henry "Bully" H…

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bulrush

An aquatic, rush-like perennial (Scirpus lacustris), found almost everywhere; stems to 3 m/10 ft; leaves in tufts; flowers tiny, perianth reduced to six rough bristles, in oval, brown spikelets. The name is sometimes misapplied to reedmace. (Family: Cyperaceae.) The term bulrush (or sometimes as bullrush) typically refers to tall, herbaceous plants that grow in wetlands. However, as a com…

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bumblebee - Importance, Life, Sting, Bumblebee myths, Species, Associated Parasites, Reference

A large bee found mainly in the temperate N hemisphere. The adults transport pollen on the modified outer surface of the hindleg. They are organized into primitive societies, in which only the queen overwinters to produce the next generation of workers. (Family: Apidae. Genus: Bombus.) The bumblebee (also spelled bumble bee, also known as humblebee) is a flying insect of the genus Bombus in…

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Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND)

Germany's secret service, directly under the control of the chancellor's office. Based in Pullach near Munich, its special task is the collection and exploitation of secret political, military, economic, scientific, and technical information from other countries. It developed from ‘Operation Gehlen’, and was given the name Bundesnachrichtendienst in 1956. Since 1992 it actively cooperates with t…

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Bundestag - Election result

The more powerful of the two houses of parliament of the German Federal Republic, the other being the Bundesrat (‘Federal Council’). Elections for the Bundestag are held every four years in the autumn. It is possible for the Bundestag to be dissolved and elections held before the end of the fixed term, and this has happened twice (in 1972 and 1983). In addition to legislating, the Bundestag sele…

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Bundi - Geography, Demographics, History

Former princely state in present-day Rajasthan, NW India; founded in 1342, an important state at the peak of Rajput glory; Emperor Jahangir separated the state into Bundi and Kota (1625); Bundi continued as an independent state under British rule, and became part of India when it gained independence in 1947. Bundi is a city and a municipality of approximately 88,000 inhabitants (2001) in th…

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bungee jumping

The activity of jumping from a high point to which the jumper is attached by a strong rubber cable fastened to the ankles. The length and tension of the cable is calculated to ensure that the jumper bounces up before reaching the ground. The activity became popular in the early 1990s, and is now practised as a sport in several countries. Bungee jumping (or bungy jumping) is an activity in w…

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bunion

A painful, inflamed hardening and thickening of the skin of the sole of the foot at the base of the great toe. It is often induced by ill-fitting footwear. …

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Bunny Berigan - Early life, Fame, Last years, Iconic figure

Swing trumpeter and singer, born in Hilbert, Wisconsin, USA. He epitomized the Jazz Era, starring in dance bands at the University of Wisconsin as an undergraduate - tall, dark, and handsome playing love songs in a raccoon coat. He won featured billing with several orchestras including Benny Goodman (1935–6, where he had his first hits ‘Sometimes I'm Happy’ and ‘King Porter Stomp’), and twice…

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bunraku

The classical Japanese puppet theatre. Puppets are two-thirds life size, hand-held by a puppet master, generally with two ‘invisible’ assistants in black. The movements are accompanied by a singer-narrator, who voices all the roles, and musicians. Bunraku's greatest popularity was in the 17th–18th-c. Bunraku (Japanese: 文楽), also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form o…

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Bunsen burner - Operation, Use, Regulatory Standards and Guidelines

A gas burner, used mainly in chemistry laboratories. Gas enters through a jet at the lower end of a tube, and is drawn through a side tube whose aperture can be controlled. The controllable gas–air mixture makes possible a flame of quality, ranging from luminous to hot non-luminous. The idea is attributed to German scientist Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, but its first practical construction should be cr…

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bunyip - Characteristics, Explanations, Bunyips in popular culture

In the mythology of the Australian aborigines, the source of evil. He is not to be thought of as a spirit or as a human. The Rainbow Serpent, the mother of life, confined bunyip to a waterhole: he haunts dark and gloomy places. Descriptions of bunyips vary wildly. During the early settlement of Australia, the notion that the bunyip was an actual unknown animal that awaited disco…

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bunyip aristocracy - Dan Deniehy's Bunyip Aristocracy Speech, Colonial Peerage

An unsuccessful local attempt in Australia to create an upper house elected from an order of hereditary baronets for the government of New South Wales in 1853. The proposal was associated with W C Wentworth, and was designed to counter the ‘spirit of democracy’ unleashed by the gold rushes, and to stabilize society with the granting of self-government. The name was first used with witty cynicism…

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buoy

A fixed, floating object attached by a cable or chain to the seabed to mark safe channels, approaches to harbours, and dangers to navigation. Buoys made of wood are known to have been used in the Middle Ages and are probably much older; modern buoys are generally made of steel or fibre-glass reinforced plastic. Buoys may be fitted with bells or whistles, usually operated by the motion of the waves…

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buoyancy - Forces and equilibrium, Archimedes' principle, Density

The upward thrust on an object immersed in liquid or gas, equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. The human body is more buoyant in salt water than in fresh water, as the former is 3% denser. In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object arising from the displacement of the fluid (i.e., a liquid or a gas) in which it is fully or partially immersed. Buoyancy provides …

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Burakumin - Current Numbers, Terminology, Historical origins, End of feudal era, Post-war situation, Burakumin rights movement

An outcaste group in Japanese society, concentrated in about 6000 ghetto communities and numbering 1–3 million; the target of extreme discrimination with regard to employment, marriage, and residential segregation. Their origins go back to the Edo feudal period of the 17th-c, when impoverished Japanese in lowly occupations were segregated. The class was officially abolished in 1871, but to no gre…

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burbot

Elongate, slender-bodied fish (Lota lota) widespread in rivers and lakes of N Eurasia and North America; the only freshwater species in the cod family Gadidae; length up to 1 m/3¼ ft; single barbel beneath mouth; fished commercially in Russia; also called eelpout. The burbot (Lota lota) is a freshwater fish related to the cods. …

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burden of proof - Standard of proof, Examples

The question of which party to litigation must show the existence or not of a disputed fact (the evidentiary burden) and establish it to the required standard (the persuasive or legal burden). In criminal cases, the required standard of proof is normally ‘beyond reasonable doubt’. In most civil cases, the required standard is ‘the balance of probabilities’, called ‘preponderance of the eviden…

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Bureau of Indian Affairs - History

A US government agency, established in 1836, which was notorious in the late 19th-c for its extreme corruption, both in the provision of supplies for client Indians and in the redistribution of Indian lands. It was responsible for implementing the long-term policy of removing Indians from areas of possible white occupation, and destroying indigenous Indian culture. It operated under the Department…

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Buren

Dutch town in the province of Gelderland, a known settlement in the 8th-c and a seigneurie from the early 12th-c. From the end of the 13th-c the lords of Buren came under the rule of the dukes of Gelre, but in the 15th-c came into conflict with Duke Arnold of Gelre, who after his restoration by Charles the Bold gave the seigneury to his cousin Frederick of Egmont. In 1492 the lord of Buren was mad…

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burglary - England and Wales

In some legal systems, a crime which involves entering a building as a trespasser with the intent to commit theft, grievous bodily harm, rape, or cause criminal damage; or, having entered, stealing or attempting to steal anything, or committing or attempting to commit grievous bodily harm. In England and Wales, aggravated burglary, in which the accused is carrying a firearm, imitation firearm, off…

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Burgos - History, Sources and external links

42°21N 3°41W, pop (2000e) 163 000. Capital of Burgos province, NC Spain; on R Arlanzón, 243 km/151 mi N of Madrid; former capital of Old Castile; archbishopric; railway; a world heritage site; home and burial site of El Cid; textiles, motor accessories, silk, chemicals, nails, clothes; Santa Maria de Gerona nuclear power station (1971); cathedral (13th–16th-c), castle; fair and fiestas of …

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Burgoyne Diller

Painter and sculptor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He lived in New York, studied with Hans Hofmann, and was influenced by Piet Mondrian. A member of the American Abstract Artists, a group that emphasized nonrepresentational work, he created spare, flat-surfaced work, as in ‘First Theme’ (1933–4). His sculptures are an extension of his painting style. …

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Burgundy - History, Wine, Culture

pop (2000e) 1 683 000; area 31 582 km²/12 191 sq mi. Region and former province of EC France, comprising departments of Côte-d'Or, Nièvre, Saône-et-Loire, and Yonne; former kingdom of Burgundia (5th–10th-c); famous wine-producing area (eg Beaujolais, Beaune, Chablis); wooded Monts du Morvan (902 m/2959 ft) in C; chief town, Dijon; industry centred on Le Creusot; caves at Arcy-sur-Cu…

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Burke's Peerage - Split in ownership

A reference guide to the aristocratic and titled families of Great Britain, first published by John Burke (1787–1848) in 1826 under the title Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom. Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Founded in 1826 by British genealogist John Burke, and continued by his son, Sir John Bernard Burke, Burke's Peerage is one of the…

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Burkina Faso

Local name Burkina Faso. Formerly Upper Volta (to 1984), then (Fr) République de Haute-Volta …

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Burl Ives - Selected discography

Folksinger, songwriter, and film actor, born in Hunt Township, Illinois, USA. As a child he sang and played banjo in community shows, and after attending Eastern Illinois State Teacher's College, he briefly played professional football. He set out to travel across the USA, working at odd jobs and singing with his guitar to support himself, adding to his repertoire of traditional American folksongs…

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burlesque - Development, New Burlesque, Notable burlesque performers

In Europe, a play satirizing contemporary theatre or theatrical fashion; originally the critical aspect was strong but, by the 19th-c, fantasy and travesty often predominated. It was the training ground for many famous stage, screen, and radio comedians, and was popular up to World War 2. In the USA, the term is used for a sex and comedy show created around 1865 for mainly male audiences. W…

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Burlington (Iowa) - Places, Railways, Other

40º49N 91º14W, pop (2000e) 26 800. Seat of Des Moines Co, SE Iowa, USA; located on the scenic bluffs overlooking the Mississippi R, 94 km/58 mi SSW of Davenport; birthplace of Paul T Baker, Wallace Carothers, Aldo Leopold; airport; railway; machinery, furniture; Snake Alley (1894); Hawkeye Log Cabin Museum; Geode State Park is 20 km/12 mi to the W. Burlington may refer to: …

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Burlington (North Carolina) - Places, Railways, Other

36º06N 79º26W, pop (2000e) 44 900. City in Alamance Co, NC North Carolina, USA; located 32 km/20 mi E of Greensboro; first settled in the 1850s when the North Carolina Railroad established repair shops here; city chartered and incorporated as Burlington in 1893; birthplace of G Robert Blakey; railway; industrial centre in an agricultural region; textiles; Dentzel Menagerie Carousel (1906–10…

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Burlington (Vermont) - Places, Railways, Other

44º29N 73º12W, pop (2000e) 38 900. Seat of Chittenden Co, NW Vermont, USA; port on E side of L Champlain, 54 km/34 mi WNW of Montpelier; settled, 1773; achieved city status, 1865; birthplace of Kevin McKenzie, Grace Coolidge, John Dewey; university (1791); airport; railway; food processing, timber, printing, electronics; Champlain Discovery event (Jun). Burlington may refer to: …

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Burma Road - Other

A road linking the Burmese railhead at Lashio with Kunming, 1150 km/700 mi distant in Yunnan province, China. Completed by the Chinese in 1938, it was of great strategic importance to the Allies during World War 2 until the Japanese conquest of Burma (1942). The Burma Road is a road linking Burma (also called Myanmar) with China. It had a role in World War II, where the British used the B…

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burn

A wound in which tissues are damaged or destroyed by heat or electricity. Burns are classified into partial or full thickness, and then according to what percentage of the body's surface area has been affected. In a partial thickness burn, enough of the surface layer is preserved to allow spontaneous regeneration. Full thickness burns usually require skin grafts. In music: …

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burnet

An erect, tuft-forming perennial, native to Europe, W Asia, and North Africa; leaves mostly basal, slightly bluish, pinnate with oval, toothed leaflets; flowers in a globular head, four sepals, petals absent. The salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor) grows to 40 cm/15 in, flowers green or purple-tinged; crushed foliage smelling of cucumber. The great burnet (sanguisorba officinalis) is a larger plant…

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Burr Tillstrom

Puppeteer, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. With Fran Allison, he created the Kukla, Fran, and Ollie Show on television (1947–57), which featured a cast of hand puppets. It won two Peabody Awards and three Emmys. Franklin Burr Tillstrom (October 13, 1917 in Chicago, Illinois - December 6, 1985 in Palm Springs, California) was a puppeteer and the creator of "Kukla, Fran and Ollie." …

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burrowing owl - Calls, Burrowing owls in fiction, Burrowing owls in music

A small owl native to the Americas (Speotyto cunicularia) (SW Canada to Tierra del Fuego); lives in semi-desert areas; occupies burrows vacated by prairie dogs or other mammals; eats large insects and small vertebrates. (Family: Strigidae.) The Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia, is a small, long-legged owl found throughout open landscapes of North and South America. Burrowing ow…

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Burschenschaft

At the end of the 18th-c, a term which had the same meaning as Studentenschaft (students' association). F L Jahn gave the word political connnotations, and linked it to the fight for liberation from Napoleonic rule. Until June 1815 the Studentenschaft had been divided into various Landsmannschaften, which then amalgamated into the Jenaische Burschenschaft. The union of all students was meant to se…

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bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa, a small fibrous pouch containing fluid, found around joints and tendons to aid movement and reduce friction. Inflammation may be caused by trauma or infection, and leads to pain and swelling, which is aggravated by the movement of the adjacent joint or tendon. Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae, or small sacs of synovial fluid, in the body. When burs…

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Burt Bacharach - Legacy and influence, Selected discography, Hits, Complete Work for Broadway

Composer, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. He played piano in a high school dance band (in Queens, New York City) and studied piano and composition at Mannes School of Music, Berkshire Music Center, and McGill University (Montreal). Drawn to popular music, he played the piano during his army service (1950–2), then worked as accompanist for Vic Damone and other singers. In 1957 he met Hal David…

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Burt Green Wilder

Zoologist, neurologist, and composer, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. After interrupting his education at Harvard to serve as a Union surgeon during the Civil War, he completed his MD (1866) and became a professor of neurology and vertebrate zoology at Cornell University (1867–1910). He was widely known for his meticulous studies of vertebrate brains, though science has rejected his premise t…

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Burt Rutan - Biography, Aircraft designs

Aircraft designer, born in Portland, Oregon, USA. In 1975 he founded the Rutan Aircraft Factory and designed over a hundred aircraft including the Voyager, the first plane to navigate the world without refuelling (1986). He served as a consultant to Beech Aircraft (1985–8) and continued designing experimental planes in Mojave, CA. Elbert Leander "Burt" Rutan (born June 17, 1943 in Estacada…

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Burton Lane - Works for Broadway and Tony Award Nominations

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. In the 1930s he contributed songs to Broadway revues and was a freelance composer in Hollywood. He wrote his first complete score with E Y Harburg for the Broadway musical Hold On to Your Hats (1940), and in 1947 he and Harburg wrote the Broadway classic, Finian's Rainbow. He was president of the American Guild of Authors and Composers (1957–67) and…

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Burton Richter

Particle physicist, born in New York City, USA. He studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and became a professor at Stanford in 1967. Largely responsible for the Stanford Positron–Electron Accelerating Ring, he led a team which discovered the J/? hadron, for which he shared the 1976 Nobel Prize for Physics with Samuel Ting, who independently made the same discovery at the same time…

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Burundi - Politics, Administrative Divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Miscellaneous topics, Further reading

Official name Republic of Burundi 'Burundi (IPA: /bəˈɹʊndɪ/), officially the Republic of Burundi, is a small country in the Great Lakes region of Africa. Geographically isolated, facing population pressures and having sparse resources, Burundi is one of the poorest and most conflict-ridden countries in Africa and in the world. Until the downfall of the monarchy …

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Bury - History, Districts and neighbourhoods, Sport, Education, Media, Attractions, Cuisine, Famous People from Bury, Etymology

53º36N 2º17W, pop (2002e) 63 500. Town in Bury borough, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK; 8 km/5 mi E of Bolton; birthplace of Danny Boyle, Sir John Charnley, Richmal Crompton, Reg Harris; home town of Sir Robert Peel and John Kay; railway; Lancashire Fusiliers Museum. Bury is a former mill town in the north of Greater Manchester in North West England, between Rochdale and Bolton an…

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burying beetle - Reproduction, Species

A medium to large beetle; adults bury corpses of small animals by excavating soil beneath them; eggs laid in tunnels off burial chamber; larvae typically feed on carrion. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Silphidae.) Burying beetles or sexton beetles (genus Nicrophorus) are the best-known members of the family Silphidae (carrion beetles). Burying beetles have large club-like antennae …

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bus (computing) - History, Types of bus service, Decline of the intercity bus, Types of bus, Miscellaneous

A form of wiring within or between computers in which any electronic message to be transferred is sent down the wire and is taken off the wire only by the particular device to which the message is being sent. Inside a computer there are usually an address bus, a data bus, and an input–output bus. A bus is a large automobile intended to carry numerous persons in addition to the driver and s…

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Busby Berkeley - Personal life, Cultural Reference, Selected works

Choreographer and director, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He worked as an actor, stage manager, and dance director, directing his first Broadway show, A Night in Venice, in 1928. He became one of the cinema's most innovative choreographers, noted for his mobile camerawork and dazzling kaleidoscopic routines involving spectacular multitudes of chorus girls. His work enhanced such films as F…

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bushbuck

A spiral-horned antelope (Tragelaphus scriptus) native to Africa S of the Sahara; reddish-brown with white spots or thin white lines; females without horns; inhabits thick undergrowth near water; lives in pairs; nocturnal. …

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bushido - Historical development, Tenets, Seven virtues, Major figures associated with bushido, Further reading

The Japanese notion of ‘way of the warrior’. The samurai code until 1868, which taught personal loyalty to a master, death rather than capture/surrender, and stoic indifference to material goods - a product of Confucian ethics. Like European knights, samurai rode into battle in armour. The bushido tradition is still seen in modern times, eg Japanese officers carried swords in World War 2. Its mo…

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bushmaster

A rare pit viper (Lachesis muta), native to Central and South America; largest venomous snake in the New World; length, up to 3·5 m/11½ ft; the only New World viper to lay eggs; inhabits forests; nocturnal; eats mammals (including small deer); shakes its tail when alarmed, causing loud rustling in undergrowth. Bushmaster is a name that has been applied to a number of things: …

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Bushrod Washington

Judge, born in Westmoreland Co, Virginia, USA, the nephew of George Washington. He fought in the American Revolution and served the Virginia legislature (1787). President John Adams named him to the US Supreme Court (1798–1829) where he usually concurred with Chief Justice John Marshall's decisions. Bushrod Washington (June 5, 1762 – November 26, 1829) served a long but undistinguished c…

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business cycle - Types of business cycle, Preventing Business Cycles, Alternative Interpretations of Business Cycles, Cycles or fluctuations?

The tendency for the aggregate level of real activity in a country to fluctuate over time rather than growing steadily. Such fluctuations have been observed as far back as economic records reach. They are believed to be due to a variety of causes, including irregular timing of changes in techniques and geographical discoveries, natural catastrophes such as earthquakes, political upsets such as war…

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bustard

A large, long-legged, ground-living bird native to Africa, S Europe, Asia, and Australia; prefers open country; walks rather than flies (but flies well); eats large insects (especially locusts and grasshoppers), lizards, and small birds. The birds died out in Britain in 1832 because of hunting and habitat disturbance, and permission for their reintroduction (on to Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire), was …

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Buster Keaton - Biography, Legacy and contribution, Trivia, Filmography, Further Reading

Film comic actor, screenwriter, and producer, born in Piqua, Kansas, USA. The son of medicine show performers, he joined their acrobatic comedy act ‘The Three Keatons’ at age three, and moved on to vaudeville when he was six and already an accomplished acrobat. He entered films with The Butcher Boy (1917), and after brief service in World War 1 he made a series of short films, along with his fir…

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butane - Reactions and uses, Effects and health issues

CH3CH2CH2CH3, boiling point 0°C. An easily liquefied alkane gas, obtained as a petroleum fraction. It is supplied as a liquid under pressure for use as a fuel, as in Calor(r) gas. It has one structural isomer, (CH3)2CH–CH3, isobutane or methylpropane. Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. Butanes are highly flammable, colo…

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Butch Cassidy - Speculated Early days, Life as a Criminal, Death, Aliases, Alleged Friends

Outlaw, born in Beaver, Utah, USA. As a youth he learned cattle rustling and gunfighting. After serving time in Wyoming State Prison (1894–6) he joined the infamous Wild Bunch and was partner with the Sundance Kid. Together they roamed America, robbing banks, trains, and mine stations with the law in constant pursuit. From 1901 they lived mainly in South America, where (according to one theory) t…

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butter - Butter production, Types of butter, History, Shape of Butter Sticks, Worldwide, Storage and cooking

A pale yellow foodstuff derived from the churning of cream, typically used in baking, cooking, or for spreading on bread. Milk fat exists as globules of fat each surrounded by an outer core of protein. This creates the emulsion of oil in water seen in milk. If milk is churned or beaten, collision of the fat globules allows them to gradually increase in size; they lose their protective protein coat…

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butterfly - Etymology, Origin and distribution, Classification, The four stages in the lifecycle of a butterfly, External morphology

An insect belonging to the order Lepidoptera, which comprises the butterflies and moths. Butterflies are usually distinguished from moths by being active during the daytime, by folding their wings upright over their bodies when at rest, and by having small knobs at the tips of their antennae; but there are exceptions. A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera, and belongs to one of …

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butterfly diagram - Radix-2 butterfly diagram

A diagram which plots the location of sunspots on the Sun as a function of date, and is useful for tracking the 11-year solar cycle of activity. It is sometimes referred to as a Maunder diagram, after British astronomer E W Maunder of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, who started systematic solar observations in 1873, and published the original version of this chart in 1904. In the context o…

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butyl - Nomenclature and examples, Other examples, Etymology

CH3CH2CH2CH2–. A four-carbon aliphatic group. In addition to the form given, there are three other isomers: isobutyl (CH3)2CH–CH2–; secondary butyl (CH3)(C2H5)CH–; and tertiary butyl (CH3)3C–. In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl substituent with chemical formula -C4H9 . Each of the two isomers of butane give rise to two isomers of monosubstituted butanes. …

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Buzz Aldrin - Biography, Stalking by Bart Sibrel, Trivia, Aldrin in the movies

Astronaut, born in Montclair, New Jersey, USA. He trained at West Point, flew combat missions in Korea, and later flew in Germany with the 36th Tactical Wing. In 1966 he set a world record by walking in space for 5 h 37 min during the Gemini 12 mission. He was the second man to set foot on the Moon in the Apollo 11 mission in 1969. Colonel Buzz Eugene Aldrin, Sc.D (born January 20, 1930 a…

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buzzard - Buteo species, Other species known as "buzzard":

A large hawk found worldwide (except Australasia and Malaysia); brown, grey, and white; soaring flight, but spends much time perching; kills prey on ground; inhabits woodlands or open country; territorial. (Genus: Buteo, 25 species.) …

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Byblos - Ancient history, Roman period

34°07N 35°39E. An ancient trading city on the Lebanese coast N of Beirut; a world heritage site. It was the chief supplier of papyrus to the Greeks, which they accordingly nicknamed ‘byblos’ - hence the word ‘bible’ (literally, ‘the papyrus book’). Coordinates: 34°07′25″N, 35°39′04″E Byblos (βύβλος) is the Greek name of the Phoenician city Gebal (earlier …

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Byron Janis

Pianist, born in McKeesport, Pennsylvania, USA. After private studies he made a successful debut in 1943 with the National Broadcasting Company Orchestra. He went on to a distinguished international career, continuing to play despite severe arthritis. Byron Janis (born March 24, 1928) is an American pianist widely considered to be one of the twentieth century's greatest classical pianists. …

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byte - Alternate words

A fixed number of bits (binary digits), usually defined as a set of 8 bits. An 8-bit byte can therefore take 256 different values corresponding to the binary numbers 00000000, 00000001, 00000010, through to 11111111. A kilobyte is one thousand bytes (actually 1024); a megabyte is one million bytes (actually 1024 × 1024); a gigabyte is one thousand million bytes (actually 1024 × 1024 × 102…

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Byzantine art - Introduction, Periods, Legacy

The art which flourished from AD 330, when Constantinople (modern Istanbul) became the capital of the Roman Empire, to 1453 when that city fell to the Turks. It was conservative in form, stylized and overwhelmingly theological in content. The church of St Sophia at Istanbul (6th-c), the greatest work of early Byzantine architecture, combines the axial Roman basilican plan with a huge dome; later c…

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Byzantine Empire - Name of the Byzantine Empire, Identity, continuity, and consciousness, Origin, Early history

The E half of the Roman Empire, centred upon Constantinople, formerly Byzantium. Founded in AD 324 by Constantine the Great as the New Rome, and formally inaugurated in AD 330, Constantinople, with its Senate and traditionally named magistracies (eg consuls, praetors), its 14 regions, and its state corn dole, was directly modelled on old imperial Rome. But in two respects it was always different: …

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C Fred Hartt

Geologist and palaeontologist, born in Frederickton, New Brunswick, Canada. He was an explorer and collector in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia in the early 1860s. The leader of several expeditions to Brazil (1865–6, 1867, 1870), he wrote The Geology of Brazil (1870) and became director of Brazil's Geological Survey (1875–8). He founded geological work in that country, where he died of yellow feve…

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C(arl) P(hilipp) E(manuel) Bach - Life and works, Legacy and musical style, Further reading

Composer, born in Weimar, C Germany, the second surviving son of J S Bach. He studied at the Thomasschule, Leipzig, where his father was cantor, and at Frankfurt University. In 1740 he became cembalist to the future Frederick II, and later became Kapellmeister at Hamburg (1767). He was famous for his playing of the organ and clavier, for which his best pieces were composed. He published The True A…

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C(ecil) Day-Lewis - Life, Poetry, Works, Bibliography

Poet, born in Ballintubber, Co Kildare, E Ireland. He studied at Oxford, and became a teacher. During the 1930s he was known as a leading left-wing writer, but in 1939 he broke away from Communism. He was professor of poetry at Oxford (1951–6), and wrote detective stories under the pseudonym of Nicholas Blake. His Collected Poems appeared in 1954, and his autobiographical The Buried Day in 1960. …

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C(harles) Everett Koop

Surgeon and public health official, born in New York City. Surgeon-in-chief of Children's Hospital in Philadelphia, he also taught at the University of Pennsylvania (1948–81). Regarded as a superb paediatric surgeon, his operation separating the Dominican Siamese twins (1974) received international attention. Appointed by President Reagan as Surgeon General of the United States (1981–9), he was …

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C(harles) G(abriel) Seligman - Selected works

Anthropologist, born in London, UK. He trained as a physician in London, then joined the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Straits (1898–9), and carried out subsequent field research in New Guinea, Ceylon, and the Sudan. His principal works include The Veddas (Ceylon) (1911) and Pagan Tribes of the Nilotic Sudan (1932), both co-authored with his wife. His appointment in 1913 to t…

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C(harles) K(ay) Ogden

Linguistic reformer, born in Fleetwood, Lancashire, NW England, UK. He studied classics at Cambridge, was founder-editor of the Cambridge Magazine (1912–22), and founder in 1917 of the Orthological Institute. In the 1920s he conceived the idea of ‘Basic English’, a simplified system of English as an international language with a restricted vocabulary of 850 words, which he developed with the he…

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C(harles) S(tewart) Mott

Automobile executive and philanthropist, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. He studied mechanical engineering and served in the Spanish-American War. He ran the Weston-Mott automobile parts company (1899–1913) and was a leading executive at General Motors (1913–67). He formed the Mott Foundation (1926) to finance cultural, educational, and health programmes, especially in Flint, MI. In response to…

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C(harles) T(albut) Onions

Scholar and lexicographer, born in Edgbaston, West Midlands, C England, UK. He was commissioned to revise and complete the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, eventually published in 1933 and which he continued to revise and enlarge until 1959. Reader in English philology at Oxford University (1927–49), and editor of the journal Medium Aevum (1932–56), his works include an influential Shakespeare…

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C(harles) T(homson) R(ees) Wilson

Physicist, born in Glencorse, Midlothian, EC Scotland, UK. He studied at Manchester and Cambridge universities, where he became professor of natural philosophy (1925–34). While studying cloud formation as a meteorologist, he developed the device called the Wilson cloud chamber. He made use of X-rays to investigate cloud formation due to the presence of ionized particles, and his finding that the …

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C(larence) I(rving) Lewis

Philosopher, born in Stoneham, Massachusetts, USA. Directed to social problems by his father, a shoemaker blacklisted for union activities, and encouraged in philosophy by an elderly woman he met during a summer job, he graduated from Harvard (1905), having studied under William James and Josiah Royce. After earning a PhD (1910) he taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1911–20) and Ha…

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C(onrad) H(al) Waddington - The epigenetic landscape, Waddington as organiser, Selected works

Embryologist and geneticist, born in Evesham, Worcestershire, WC England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and became professor of animal genetics at Edinburgh (1947–70). He introduced important concepts into evolutionary theory, envisaging a mechanism by which Lamarckianism could be incorporated into orthodox Darwinian genetics. He wrote a standard textbook, Principles of Embryology (1956), and also…

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C++ - Philosophy, Standard library, Features introduced in C++, Incompatibility with C, Problems and controversies

A computer programming language, developed from C, to enable the programmer to carry out object-oriented programming. C++ (generally pronounced /si plʌs plʌs/) is a general-purpose, high-level programming language with low-level facilities. Since the 1990s, C++ has been one of the most popular commercial programming languages. Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++ (originally …

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Cabal - Origins of the word, Association with Charles II, Use in revolutionary America

An acronym taken from the initials of the five leading advisers of Charles II of England between 1667 and 1673: Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley Cooper (Shaftesbury), and Lauderdale. The name is misleading, since these five were by no means Charles's only advisers; nor did they agree on a common policy. Arlington and Buckingham were bitter rivals. The overtones of conspiracy and intrigue fo…

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cabbage - Varieties, Cultivation, Related Brassica oleracea varieties

A vegetable (Brassica oleracea) grown for its dense leafy head, which is harvested before the flowers develop and the head elongates. There are numerous cultivars, all derived from wild cabbage, a biennial or perennial with woody, leafy stems and yellow cross-shaped flowers, native to W Europe and the Mediterranean. (Family: Cruciferae.) The cabbage (Brassica oleracea Capitata Group) is a p…

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cabinet - Westminster cabinets, Presidential cabinets, Origins of cabinets

In a parliamentary system, a group of senior ministers usually drawn from the majority party. In Britain (where cabinet government originated), the cabinet has no constitutional status other than the conventions by which it operates. It forms the link between the executive and legislative branches of government, as its members must be drawn from the legislature. Cabinet members are bound by the do…

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cable (electricity) - Fire protection, Types of cable

An insulated conductor used to carry power or signals overhead, underground, or under the sea. The simplest type has a core of conducting material, such as copper, surrounded by an insulating sheath of plastic or rubber. Coaxial cables have another sheath of wire braid under the outer insulation. Telephone communications between countries use multicore cables, although fibre optic cables are now r…

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cable (technology) - Fire protection, Types of cable

A rope or chain (especially in engineering or ship building). It was originally a unit of length equal to a ship's anchor cable - 120 fathoms (219 m). It now represents ? of a nautical mile (185·3 m). A cable is two or more wires or optical fibers bound together, typically in a common protective jacket or sheath. Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as using ca…

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cable television - Technology, Cable television deployments

The distribution of video programmes to subscribers by coaxial cable or fibre-optic links, rather than by broadcast transmission, providing a wide range of choice to individual homes within a specific area. Programmes may originate from satellite transmission to a master antenna installed at the cable centre, as well as from recorded sources. Cable television is a system of providing televi…

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Cabrera

39°15N 2°58E. Small Spanish island in the Balearic Is, Mediterranean Sea; 15 km/9 mi S of Majorca; no permanent population; declared a national park in 1991; tourism. Cabrera refers to: Persons: Other: …

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cacao - Currency system, Cultivation

An evergreen tree native to Central America (Theobroma cacao), widely cultivated elsewhere and of great economic importance; leaves oblong; flowers pink, borne in clusters directly on trunks and older branches; fruit an ovoid yellow pod, leathery and grooved, enclosing up to 100 beans embedded in soft pulp. The beans are dried, roasted, and ground to produce cocoa powder, used in drinks and chocol…

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cactus - Distribution and evolution, Adaptations to dry environment, Uses, Selected important genera, References and external links

A member of a large family of plants typical of arid zones but found in a number of habitats: some occur as epiphytes in the canopy of tropical rainforests where water can also be in short supply; others in high mountains; but almost all are confined to the New World. In the Old World they are paralleled by various members of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), remarkably similar in appearance, and…

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cadence

A melodic or (more commonly) harmonic formula marking the end of a phrase or longer section of music. The ‘perfect’ cadence, formed by dominant–tonic chords, is the one that most often ends a piece. The word (from Lat cadere ‘to fall’) originates from the tendency for a plainchant (or, in early polyphony, a tenor line) to fall to its final note from the one above. Cadence may refer to:…

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cadenza - Notable examples of Cadenzas

An improvised (or improvisatory) passage, usually of a virtuoso and rhythmically free character, which the soloist in a concerto plays as a kind of adjunct to the main body of the piece. In the concertos of Mozart and Beethoven, the main cadenza is heard towards the end of the first movement; later composers, such as Liszt, introduced them at various unpredictable points. During the cadenza the or…

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cadmium

Cd, element 48, density 8·7 g/cm3, melting point 321°C, colour bluish-white. A metal, normally occurring with other metals, especially copper and zinc, as the sulphide, CdS. The metal is recovered for use in low-melting alloys and as an absorber for neutrons in atomic reactors. Cadmium compounds are used as phosphors in colour television tubes. Its commonest oxidation state is +2; its compounds…

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Cadmus - Cadmus in popular culture

According to Greek legend the son of Agenor, King of Tyre; he set off in pursuit of his sister Europa, arrived in Greece, and founded the city of Thebes, teaching the natives to write. He sowed dragons' teeth, from which sprang up armed men. Cadmus, or Kadmos (Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was the son of the king of Phoenicia (Currently Lebanon)and brother of Europa. Cadmus foun…

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caduceus - Caduceus in popular culture, Related pages

In classical mythology, the name of the wand carried by Mercury. It is usually depicted as a central staff with two serpents entwined around it which cross at seven points, representing the seven chakras. In mythology the staff was said to have power over sleep, dreams, happiness, and health, and it has been adopted by the medical profession as their emblem. In some cases, depictions of the…

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Cadwaladr

Prince of Gwynedd, NW Wales, the son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, lord of Gwynedd. He conquered large parts of Wales with his older brother Owain until he was expelled by him (1143) for slaying Anarawd, son of Gruffudd of South Wales. To avenge himself, he brought over Danes from Ireland who, suspecting treachery, blinded him. He was ransomed, but was driven from Meirionydd by his nephews (1146–8), from…

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Cadwallader Colden - Sources

Physician, scientist, and public official, born in Ireland. Of Scottish parentage, he studied at the University of Edinburgh and then studied medicine in London. In 1710 he went to Philadelphia and engaged in business while practising medicine, then moved (1718) to New York City, where he took on several posts with the British colonial government. He continued to pursue his varied interests and wr…

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caecilian - Anatomy, Distribution, Recent discoveries

An amphibian of worldwide tropical order Gymnophiona (163 species); length, up to 1·5 m/5 ft; body worm-like with encircling rings and no legs; some species with fish-like scales; burrows on forest floors or in riverbeds; eats invertebrates. The Caecilians are an order (Gymnophiona or Apoda) of amphibians that resemble earthworms or snakes. Caecilians have degenerate feet, ma…

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Caelum

An inconspicuous S hemisphere constellation. Source: The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 …

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Caen - Geography, Administration, Transport, Education, Miscellaneous

49°10N 0°22W, pop (2000e) 118 000. Port and capital of Calvados department, NW France; on R Orne, 15 km/9 mi S of R Seine; airport; railway; university (1432, refounded 1809); principal seat of William the Conqueror; badly damaged during Normandy campaign in World War 2; tourism, commerce, steel, horse breeding, silk, leather; abbey church of St-Etienne, with tomb of William the Conqueror; C…

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Caernarfon

53°08N 4°16W, pop (2000e) 9800. County town of Gwynedd, NW Wales, UK; on Menai Strait; yachting centre; Galeri arts centre (2005); agricultural trade, plastics, metal products; tourism; Caernarfon Castle (1284), birthplace of Edward II is a world heritage site; investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales, 1969. Caernarfon (the original Welsh spelling is now almost always used in pre…

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Caerphilly - Twin towns

pop (2001e) 169 500; area 279 km²/108 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in S Wales, UK; administrative centre, Hengoed; original home of Caerphilly cheese; Caerphilly Castle (13th-c), the largest in Wales. Caerphilly (Welsh: Caerffili) is a town in Glamorgan, Wales, located at the bottom of the Rhymney Valley. It is the site of Caerphilly Castle, built between 1268 and 1271,…

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Caesar

Roman politician of patrician origins but slender means, whose military genius, as displayed in the Gallic Wars (58–50 BC), enabled Rome to extend her empire permanently to the Atlantic seaboard, but whose ruthless ambition led to the breakdown of the Republican system of government at home. Never one to allow himself to be blocked by constitutional niceties, in 60 BC he joined with Pompey and Cr…

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Caesar Baronius

Church historian, born in Sora, S Italy. He was one of the first pupils of St Philip Neri, and attached himself to his Congregation of the Oratory, becoming its superior in 1593. He wrote the first critical Church history, the Annales Ecclesiastici (1588–1607). He became a cardinal in 1596, and was made Vatican librarian. At subsequent conclaves he was twice nearly elected pope, but on eac…

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Caesar Rodney

American patriot and statesman, born in Dover, Delaware, USA. He served in Delaware's provincial assembly during 1761–76, with only one break, in 1771. A member of the Continental Congress (1774–6), he rode 80 miles on horseback and arrived in Philadelphia on 2 July 1776, just in time to cast a decisive vote in favour of Richard Henry Lee's resolution on American independence. He signed the Decl…

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caesaropapism - Extended use

The direct control exercised by kings or emperors over the church in territories under their own jurisdiction; also, the political theory justifying this practice. It was typical of the Byzantine Empire (edict of Constantine V in 754 claimed emperors to be isapostoloi - equal to the apostles). It is also found in the Russian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, and in England after the 1534 schism, when…

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caffeine - Sources, History of use, Effects, Pharmacology, Extraction of pure caffeine

C8H10N4O2. An alkaloid, also called theine, a weak stimulant of the central nervous system. It is found in both coffee and tea, from which it may be removed by extraction with organic solvents, acidic aqueous solutions, or liquified carbon dioxide. Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant, having the effect of temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness. Beverages…

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Cagliari - History, Main sights, Sport, Climate, Local cuisine

39°13N 9°08E, pop (2000e) 236 000. Seaport and capital of Cagliari province, S Sardinia, Italy; on the S coast, in the Gulf of Cagliari; archbishopric; airport; railway; ferries to mainland Italy; university (1956); oil terminal, petrochemicals, milling, fishing, trade in minerals; cathedral (1312), Roman amphitheatre, museum of archaeology; Sagra di Sant' Efisio costume festival (May). …

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Cahokia - World Heritage Site, History, Monk's Mound, Urban landscape, Ancient city, Prestige burial

A prehistoric city of Middle Mississippi Indians in E St Louis, Illinois, USA, founded c.600 and, at 13 km²/5 sq mi, the largest such settlement in North America; a world heritage site. At its height (c.1050–1250), the population reached c.10 000. The central plaza has 17 platform mounds, notably Monks Mound (c.1200), a 6000 cu m/7850 cu yd earthen pyramid, 316 m/1030 ft by 241 m/790

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Caiaphas

Son-in-law of Annas, eventually appointed by the Romans to be his successor as high priest of Israel (c.18–36). In the New Testament he interrogated Jesus after his arrest (Matt 26; John 18) and Peter after his detention in Jerusalem (Acts 4). Yhosef Bar Kayafa (Hebrew יְהוֹסֵף בַּר קַיָּפָא, jəhoˑsef bar qayːɔfɔʔ), also known as Caiaphas (Greek καϊάφας) in…

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cairn terrier - Appearance, Temperament, Famous Cairns

A breed of dog, developed in N Scotland for driving foxes out of their burrows; small with short legs; thick shaggy brown coat; ears erect and expression alert. The Cairn Terrier is a breed of dog of the terrier category. The breed standard can be found on the Cairn Terrier Club of America website. European Cairns tend to be larger than American Cairns. A notable characteristic …

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Cairns Group

An informal association of agricultural exporting countries, established in Cairns, Australia, in 1986. Its aims are to introduce reforms in international agricultural trade, such as the reduction of export subsidies and internal support measures. Its 17 members (in 2006) account for a third of the world's agricultural exports: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa …

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Cairo - History of Cairo, Cairo Geography, Cairo Infrastructure, Cairo Problems, Miscellaneous

30°03N 31°15E, pop (2000e) 7 630 000. Capital of Egypt and Cairo governorate; at head of R Nile delta, 180 km/112 mi SE of Alexandria; largest African city; originally founded as El Fustat in AD 642; occupied by British, 1882–1946; airport; railway; four universities (1908, 1919, 1950, and Muslim university in Mosque of al-Azhar, 1972); tourism, cement, chemicals, leather, textiles, brewin…

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calabash - Culinary use

A trailing or climbing vine (Lagenaria siceraria), native to warm Old World regions, with white flowers and woody, bottle-shaped fruits; also called bottle gourd. It was the source of the earliest containers, and is still used in this way today. (Family: Cucurbitaceae.) The so called calabash gourd or vine is named after the calabash tree first discovered in the Caribbean as the tree called…

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Calabria - Provinces, Geography, History, Language, Famous Calabresi, Transportation, Tourism sites, Universities, Food specialties, Main football teams

pop (2000e) 2 008 000; area 15 079 km²/5820 sq mi. Region of S Italy, occupying the ‘toe’ of the country, between the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas; capital, Catanzaro; chief towns, Cosenza, Crotone, Reggio di Calabria, Locri; underdeveloped area with mixed Mediterranean agriculture; wheat, olives, figs, wine, citrus fruit; subject to earthquakes, floods, and erosion; Calabria national park…

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Calais - History, Economy, Sights

50°57N 1°52E, pop (2000e) 79 300. Seaport in Pas-de-Calais department, NW France; on the Straits of Dover, at the shortest crossing to England; 34 km/21 mi SE of Dover and 238 km/148 mi N of Paris; captured by England, 1346 (commemorated in Rodin sculpture); retaken by France, 1558; British base in World War 1; centre of heavy fighting in World War 2; airport; railway; ferry services to Do…

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Calamity Jane - Early life, Calamity's claims as a scout, 1870-1876

Legendary frontier figure, born in Princeton, Missouri, USA. Raised in Virginia City, MT (1864), she became an expert markswoman and rider and (dressed as a man) held her own in rough, mining-town society. Allegedly a pony-express rider and then a scout for General George Custer in Wyoming (1870s), she was companion to ‘Wild Bill’ Hickok, and was a heroine during the smallpox epidemic (1878) in …

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Calatayud

41°21N 1°38W, pop (2000e) 18 800. Spanish township near Zaragoza, in the valley of the Jalón; grows crops that need irrigation (cereals, vegetables, fruits); important commercial centre and the hub of communications; ancient Celto-iberian town of Bilbilis c.3 km/1·8 mi distant; destroyed and reconstructed by the Arabs; recaptured in 1120. It is the seat of the comarca of Comunidad d…

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calceolaria

A member of a large genus of annuals, perennials, or shrubs native to Central and South America; wrinkled leaves in opposite pairs; characteristic 2-lipped flowers with lower lip inflated and pouch-like. Commonly grown ornamentals are mainly hybrids with yellow, orange, or red spotted flowers up to 5 cm/2 in diameter. (Genus: Calceolaria, 300–400 species. Family: Scrophulariaceae.) …

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Calchas

A seer on the Greek side during the Trojan War. He advised that Iphigeneia should be sacrificed at Aulis; at Troy he told Agamemnon to return Chryseis, the daughter of the priest of Apollo, to stop the plague. He died in a combat of ‘seeing’ with Mopsos. In Greek mythology, Kalchas Thestórides ("son of Thestor") or Calchas ("brazen") for short, a loyal Argive, was a powerful seer, a gift…

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calcite - Properties, Reactions, Gallery, Further reading

A mineral form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and the main constituent of limestone and marble. It can occur by precipitation from carbonate-rich solutions to form stalactites and stalagmites, and forms the structure of coral reefs. Good crystals formed in vein deposits are transparent, and termed Iceland spar. It is used in the manufacture of Portland cement. The carbonate mineral calcite i…

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calcitonin - Synthesis, Pharmacology, History

A hormone (a polypeptide) synthesized and secreted by ‘C’ cells in the thyroid gland in mammals, and in the ultimobranchial bodies in other vertebrates; sometimes called thyrocalcitonin. It is released in response to elevated blood calcium levels, and lowers extracellular calcium levels. Calcitonin is a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone that is produced in humans primarily by the C cells …

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calcium

Ca, element 20, melting point 839°C. A very reactive, silvery metal only found combined in nature; the metal is obtained by electrolysis. It is the fifth most common element in the Earth's crust, occurring mainly in fluorite (CaF2), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and limestone (CaCO3). It shows an oxidation state of +2 in almost all of its compounds, which are mainly ionic. Ca2+ ions are largely responsibl…

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calculator - Overview, Electronic calculators, Use in education, History, Trivia

A machine designed to perform a range of mathematical operations automatically. Early calculators include devices by Pascal (1647) and Leibniz, and the mechanical and electrically driven adding machines of the early 20th-c. Since the early 1960s, the electronic revolution has seen the development of high-speed calculators of diminishing size and increasing functions for pocket or desk-top use. The…

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Calcutta - Name, History, Geography, Climate, Urban structure, Economy, Civic Administration, Utility Services and Media, Transport, Demographics, Culture

22°36N 88°24E, pop (2000e) 12 750 000. Port capital of West Bengal, E India; on the R Hugli in the R Ganges delta, 128 km/79 mi from the Bay of Bengal; third largest city in India; chief port of E India; founded by the British East India Company, 1690; capital of British India, 1773–1912; airport (Dum Dum); railway; three universities; textiles, chemicals, paper, metal, jute, crafts; Queen…

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caldera - Caldera formation, Notable calderas

A large volcanic crater formed when the remains of a volcano subside down into a magma chamber, emptied after a violent eruption. The caldera may subsequently fill with water, and become a crater lake - a notable example being Crater Lake in Oregon, USA. A caldera is a volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a volcano into itself, making it a large, special form of volcanic crater. …

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Caledonian Canal - Bibliography

A line of inland navigation following the Great Glen (Glen More) in Highland, Scotland, UK; extends from Inverness (NE) to Loch Eil near Fort William (SW), thus linking North Sea and Irish Sea; passes through Lochs Ness, Oich, and Lochy and 35 km/22 mi of man-made channels (1803–47); 29 locks; total length 96 km/60 mi; built by Telford. The Caledonian Canal in Scotland connects the Sco…

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calendar - Calendar systems, Calendar subdivisions, Other calendar types, Uses, Currently used calendars, Physical calendars

Any system which establishes the beginning, end, and divisions of a year, and the order of its internal units of time, typically days, weeks, and months. Calendars are an essential means of regulating human affairs, holding a specially important place in relation to repeated social and scientific events and in fixing religious festivals. The day is the universally recognized natural unit of time b…

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Calgacus

Caledonian chieftain in N Britain, leader of the tribes defeated by Agricola at the Battle of Mons Graupius. Agricola's biographer, Tacitus, attributes to him a heroic speech on the eve of the battle, with a ringing denunciation of Roman imperialism. Calgacus (sometimes Galgacus) was the leader of the Caledonian Confederacy who fought the Roman army of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at the Battle o…

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Calgary - Geography and climate, Attractions, Demographics, Government and politics, Economy, Infrastructure, Military, Local media, Famous Calgarians

51°05N 114°05W, pop (2000e) 795 500. Town in S Alberta, Canada, on the Bow R, near foothills of Rocky Mts; centre of rich grain and livestock area; rapid growth following arrival of Canadian Pacific Railway, 1883; oil found to the S, 1914; airport; communications and transport centre; university (1945); meat packing, oil refining; ice hockey team, Calgary Flames; football team, Calgary Stamped…

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calibration

The verification or rectification of a measure or mark by comparison with a known standard or by experiment. For example, the scale on a thermometer may be checked by subjecting it to standard conditions, such as the freezing point and boiling point of water. The term also applies to determining points on a blank scale. Calibration refers to the process of determining the relation between t…

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California - Name, History, Economy, Transportation, Law and government, Important cities and towns, Education, Professional sports teams

pop (2000e) 33 871 600; area 411 033 km²/158 706 sq mi. State in SW USA, divided into 58 counties; the ‘Golden State’; originally populated by several Indian tribes; discovered by the Spanish, 1542; colonized mid-18th-c; developed after gold discovered in the Mother Lode, 1848; ceded to the USA by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848; joined the Union as the 31st state, 1850; major US …

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California gold rush - Discovery of gold and aftermath, Who were the Forty-Niners, Path of the gold

On 19 January 1848, James Marshall discovered gold while working on the construction of a sawmill for John Sutter in Coloma, California. Rich deposits of silver were also found and these discoveries sparked a mass influx of fortune-hunters. New methods of mining were introduced, the hydraulic process being invented in 1852, and quartz mining also became popular. Much of present-day Coloma is part …

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Caligula - Early life, Emperor, Caligula's insanity, Alternative views

Roman emperor (37–41), the youngest son of Germanicus and Agrippina, born in Antium. Brought up in an army camp, he was nicknamed Caligula from his little soldier's boots (caligae). His official name, once emperor, was Gaius. Extravagant, autocratic, vicious, and mentally unstable, he wreaked havoc with the finances of the state, and terrorized those around him, until he was assassinated. Under h…

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caliph - Origins of the caliphate, The Role of a Caliphate, The Removal of the Caliphate

A Muslim ruler, the title given to the temporal and spiritual head of the Muslim community after the death of Mohammed (632). Following Mohammed's death, his friend and disciple Abu-Bakr became the first caliph. The first four caliphs, Abu-Bakr, Omar, Uthman, and Ali, along with Mohammed, are regarded by Sunni Muslims as the ‘rightly guided’ caliphs. The title then became hereditary, and was use…

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calisthenics - United States usage, Australian usage, Other uses, Related terms

The art and practice of bodily exercises designed to produce beauty and grace rather than muscular development. They are often performed with the aid of hand-held apparatus, such as rings and clubs. Similar exercises were first seen in Germany in the 19th-c. United States calisthenics is a type of exercise consisting of a variety of simple movements usually performed without weights or othe…

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Callao - Government

12°05S 77°08W, pop (2000e) 688 000. Port province contiguous with Lima, W Peru; handles 75% of Peru's imports and c.25% of its exports; occupied by Chile (1879–84); linked by rail and road to Lima (one of the first railways in South America, 1851); Real Felipe fortress (1774). Callao (Spanish: El Callao) is the largest and most important port in Peru. As part of the decentr…

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calligraphy - East Asian calligraphy, Indian Calligraphy, Tibetan Calligraphy, Persian calligraphy, Islamic calligraphy, Western calligraphy, Tools

The art of penmanship, or writing at its most formal. Chinese emperors were expected to practise calligraphy. It is a major art form in many countries of E Asia and in Arabic-speaking countries, and there has been a revival of interest in Europe and America since the 19th-c. In painting or drawing, ‘calligraphic’ means linear, freely-handled, and rhythmic, resembling a fine piece of formal handw…

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Callimachus - Bibliography

Greek sculptor, working in Athens in the late 5th-c BC. Vitruvius says he invented the architectural Corinthian capital. Several statues have been identified as his, including the ‘Draped Venus’ in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Callimachus (Greek: Καλλίμαχος; His Pinakes (tablets), 120 volumes long, provided the complete and chronologically arranged catalogue of the Library, l…

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Callimachus - Bibliography

Greek poet, grammarian, and critic, born in Cyrene, N Libya. He became head of the Alexandrian Library, and prepared a catalogue of it, in 120 volumes. He wrote numerous prose works which have not survived, a number of Hymns and Epigrams, and a long elegiac poem, Aitia, among others. Callimachus (Greek: Καλλίμαχος; His Pinakes (tablets), 120 volumes long, provided the complete and…

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calliope - Calliope in fiction

A steam organ patented by J C Stoddard of Worcester, MA, in 1855. Most calliopes had about 15–30 whistles, operated by a keyboard, but some had many more. They were fitted to the top decks of river showboats, and could be heard for miles around playing popular tunes. They are also heard as part of some merry-go-rounds in amusement parks. In Greek mythology, Calliope (Kaliope or Kalliope) (…

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Calliope - Calliope in fiction

In Greek mythology, the Muse of epic poetry. She is sometimes said to be the mother of Orpheus. In Greek mythology, Calliope (Kaliope or Kalliope) (Greek: Καλλιόπη, beautiful-voiced) was the muse of epic poetry, daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne, and is now best known as Homer's muse, the inspiration for The Iliad and The Odyssey. She is always seen with a writing tab…

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Callisto (mythology) - Myth, Origin of the myth, Popular culture

In Greek mythology, an Arcadian nymph attendant upon Artemis. Loved by Zeus, she became pregnant, and was sent away from the virgin band. Hera changed her into a she-bear; and after 15 years had passed, her son tried to spear her. Zeus took pity on them, and changed her into the constellation Ursa Major and her son into Arctophylax. As a follower of Artemis, Callisto, whom Hesiod said was t…

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Callistratus

Athenian orator and statesman, whose eloquence is said to have fired the imagination of the youthful Demosthenes. In 366 BC he allowed the Thebans to occupy Oropus, and was prosecuted, but defended himself successfully in a brilliant speech. He was prosecuted again in 361 for his Spartan sympathies and was condemned to death, but went into exile before sentence was pronounced. He returned from exi…

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callus (bone) - Callum, Development, Treatment, Diabetes

The tissue formed during the repair of a fracture. Fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage are formed to seal and unite the ends of the bone (a provisional callus), being gradually replaced by mature bone (a permanent callus). In dermatology, a callus (or callous) is an especially toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard as a response to repeated contact or pressure. S…

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callus (skin) - Callum, Development, Treatment, Diabetes

An acquired area of localized thickening of the epidermal layer of skin, due to continued physical trauma. In dermatology, a callus (or callous) is an especially toughened area of skin which has become relatively thick and hard as a response to repeated contact or pressure. String instrument players develop calluses where their fingers make contact with the strings, but these calluses…

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calmodulin - Other calcium-binding proteins

One of a group of intracellular proteins widely distributed in plants and animals. It binds with calcium to form the calmodulin–calcium complex, which activates enzymes involved in basic cellular processes (eg mitosis, motility, and neurotransmitter release). Calmodulin is a small, acidic protein approximately 148 amino acids long (16706 Dalton) and, as such, is a favorite for testing prot…

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calorie - Nutritional and food labels, Versions

In thermodynamics, an old unit of heat, symbol cal; 1 cal = 4·184 J (joule, SI unit); defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water from 14·5°C to 15·5°C. The calorie is an extremely small unit of energy, the average person requiring 2·5 million calories per day. To overcome the obvious problem in counting such small units, the preferred term in scie…

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calorimetry

The measurement of energy transferred in some physical or chemical process, such as the energy absorbed from its surroundings by a solid melting to a liquid, or the energy evolved by burning some substance. In nutrition, calorimeters are used to measure the number of calories in a given substance, or to measure the heat output of humans, equivalent to caloric expenditure. Some of these are suffici…

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Calotype

A very early method of photography patented by Fox Talbot in 1841, using paper sensitized with silver iodide to produce a negative image. The calotype was an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Fox Talbot, using paper sheets coated with silver iodide. You need two soft brushes, several vials, white watercolor paper preferably without watermarks, silver nitra…

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Calouste (Sarkis) Gulbenkian

Financier, industrialist, and diplomat, born in Scutari, NW Turkey. He entered his father's oil business in 1888, and became a naturalized British subject in 1902. After a lifetime of oil deals between Europe, the USA, and the Arab countries, he left $70 million and vast art collections to finance an international Gulbenkian Foundation. Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian (Scutari, Turkey, 29 March …

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Calvary - Other uses of the name, References in popular culture

The site where Jesus was crucified, presumed to be a place of execution just outside Jerusalem. The term appears in the Authorized Version of the Bible (Luke 23.33). Calvary (Golgotha) is the English-language name given to the hill on which Jesus was crucified. Calvary is mentioned in all four of the accounts of Jesus' crucifixion in the Christian canonical Gospels: …

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Calvert Vaux

Landscape designer and architect, born in London, UK. Emigrating at 25, he designed country houses and published Villas and Gardens (1852). A pioneer in the public parks movement, he joined (1857–72) Frederick Law Olmstead, and together they produced the winning design for New York City's Central Park. He later designed Ottawa's parliament grounds, which influenced Canadian landscape design. …

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Calvin (Marshall) Trillin - Books

Writer, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. A Yale graduate, he was a New Yorker staff writer (1963) and columnist for the Nation and national syndication (1978). His essays reported sympathetically on ordinary American life and passionately on food, and were collected in such volumes as American Fried (1974). Calvin (Bud) Marshall Trillin (born in Kansas City, Missouri, December 5, 1935) i…

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Calvin (Richard) Klein - Creating the Calvin Klein empire, Acquisition by Phillips-Van Heusen, Current licenses

Fashion designer, born in New York City, USA. He graduated from New York's Fashion Institute of Technology in 1962, gained experience in New York, and set up his own firm in 1968. He quickly achieved recognition, and became known for understatement and the simple but sophisticated style of his clothes, including designer jeans. He later added designer accessories, cosmetics, and homeware. I…

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Calvinism - Historical background, General description, Summaries of Calvinist theology, Attempts to reform Calvinism, Other variations in Calvinism

A term with at least three applications. 1 The theology of the 16th-c Protestant reformer, John Calvin. 2 The principal doctrines of 17th-c Calvinist scholars, including the ‘five points of Calvinism’ affirmed by the Synod of Dort (1618–19). 3 More broadly, the beliefs of those Churches in the Reformed tradition which arose under the influence of Calvin, and the impact they had on the societies…

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Calypso (astronomy)

The 14th natural satellite of Saturn, discovered in 1980, moving along the same orbit as Tethys; distance from the planet 295 000 km/183 000 mi; diameter 30 km/19 mi. Calypso may refer to: Related spellings: …

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calypso (music)

A song tradition from Trinidad, with roots in West African music. It regularly features satirical, social, political, or other topical comment sung to the accompaniment of guitar and maracas, or steel drums, with a syncopated beat. Among the best known calypsonians are (Mighty) Sparrow (real name Slinger Francisco, 1935– ), (Mighty) Shadow (real name Winston Bailey, born late 1930s), David Rudder…

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Camargue - Geography, Flora and fauna, Regional park, Human influence

area 750 km²/290 sq mi. District in R Rhône delta, SE France; alluvial island, mainly saltmarsh and lagoon; Etang de Vaccares nature reserve for migratory birds; information centre at Ginès; rice and vines on reclaimed land (N); centre for breeding bulls and horses; chief locality, Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer; tourism, with boating and riding. The Camargue is located south of Arles, Fran…

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Cambodia - Naming, History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Foreign relations, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture and sport, Transport

Official name (from 1993) Kingdom of Cambodia, Khmer Preah Reach Ana Pak Kampuchea. Formerly Kampuchea (1975–89) and Khmer Republic (1970–5) The Kingdom of Cambodia (Khmer: transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in Southeast Asia with a population of more than 13 million. Cambodia is the successor state of the once powerful Khmer Empire, which ruled most …

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Camborne - Mining, Mining related, Camborne School of Mines, World's first "car" journey

50º12N 5º19W, pop (2002e) 35 900. Town in Cornwall, SW England, UK; linked with neighbouring Redruth; 18 km/11 mi W of Truro; birthplace of William Bickford and Arthur Woolf; scenic coastline and beaches; former tin-mining centre; railway; Camborne School of Mining; tourism. Camborne (Cornish: Kammbronn, 'Crooked Hill') was once one of the richest mining areas in the world and is loca…

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Cambrai - Twin towns, Sources

50º17N 3º23E, pop (2002e) 33 500. Town in Nord department, N France; located on the R Escaut, S of Roubaix; known as Camaracum under the Romans; former walled town, it was badly damaged in both world wars but retains many noteworthy old limestone buldings; site of the first major tank battle in history (20 Nov 1917); pre 1914 it had a prosperous textile economy based on the fabric cambric; now…

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Cambridge (Maryland) - History, Government, Affiliations, Transport, Sport, Health, Multicultural Cambridge, Religion, Fiction, Trivia

38º34N 76º04W, pop (2000e) 10 900. Seat of Dorchester Co, Maryland, USA; located on the Choptank R, close to Chesapeake Bay, 92 km/57 mi SE of Annapolis; founded, 1684; birthplace of John Barth; Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge; Meredith House and Nield Museum; Bazel Church where Harriet Tubman worshipped; county courthouse (1852). The city of Cambridge is an old English university…

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Cambridge (Massachusetts) - History, Government, Affiliations, Transport, Sport, Health, Multicultural Cambridge, Religion, Fiction, Trivia

42°22N 71°06W, pop (2000e) 101 400. Seat of Middlesex Co, E Massachusetts, USA; on one side of the Charles R, with Boston on the other; founded, 1630; city status, 1846; the first printing press in the USA set up here in 1640; Harvard University (1636) is the oldest US college; Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1859) moved from Boston in 1915; railway; electronics, glass, scientific instr…

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Cambridge (Ohio) - History, Government, Affiliations, Transport, Sport, Health, Multicultural Cambridge, Religion, Fiction, Trivia

40º02N 81º35W, pop (2000e) 11 500. Seat of Guernsey Co, Ohio, USA; located E of Columbus; noted for its glass manufacture since early 1900s; birthplace of William Boyd and John H Glenn. The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. Cambridge is best known for the University of Cambridge, which includes …

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Cambridge (UK) - History, Government, Affiliations, Transport, Sport, Health, Multicultural Cambridge, Religion, Fiction, Trivia

52°12N 0°07E, pop (2000e) 121 200. County town of Cambridgeshire, EC England, UK; on the R Cam (Granta); 82 km/51 mi N of London; Roman settlement AD 70; airfield; railway; radio, electronics, printing, publishing, scientific instruments, tourism; one of the world's great universities, established 13th-c (Peterhouse, 1284); Churches of St Benedict and the Holy Sepulchre, King's College Chape…

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Cambridge Platonists - Representatives, Works of the Cambridge Platonists

A group of 17th-c philosophers and theologians centred on Cambridge University. Their most prominent members were Benjamin Whichcote, Henry More, Nathanael Culverwel, Richard Cumberland, and Ralph Cudworth. The movement looked in a general way to the Platonic and Neoplatonic traditions of thought, and tried to establish a strictly rational basis for ethics and religion. The Cambridge Platon…

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Cambridgeshire - Economy, Settlements, Places of interest, Famous people from Cambridgeshire

pop (2001e) 552 700; area 3409 km²/1316 sq mi. County of EC England, UK; drained by the Nene, Ouse, and Cam Rivers; flat fenland to the N; county town, Cambridge; chief towns include Peterborough (unitary authority, 1998), Ely, Huntingdon; grain, vegetables, food processing, electronics, engineering. Since 1998 the City of Peterborough has been a separately administered area, as a uni…

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camcorder - History, Overview, Consumer camcorders, Uses, Formats, Digital camcorders and operating systems

A small, portable video camera with an integral narrow-gauge videotape recorder, also known as the camera cassette recorder (CCR). It offers immediate play-back through a domestic television receiver. A camcorder is a portable electronic device (generally a digital camera) for recording video images and audio onto a storage device. Video cameras were originally designed for broa…

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Camden (New Jersey) - People with the surname Camden

39°56N 75°07W, pop (2000e) 79 900. Seat of Camden Co, W New Jersey, USA; a port on the E bank of the Delaware R, opposite Philadelphia; city status, 1828; railway; university (1934); oil refining, textiles, food processing, radio and television equipment; formerly a major shipbuilding port (yards closed in 1967); home of Walt Whitman (1873–92). Camden may refer to: …

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Camden (Ohio) - People with the surname Camden

39º37N 84º38W, pop (2000e) 2300. Town in Preble Co, SW Ohio, USA; situated along Seven Mile Creek, 32 km/20 mi N of Hamilton; incorporated, 1832; rich agricultural region with hog, corn, soybean production; birthplace of Sherwood Anderson; Preble County Historical Farm; Black Walnut Festival (Oct). Camden may refer to: …

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Camden (South Carolina) - People with the surname Camden

34º16N 80º36W, pop (2001e) 6700. Seat of Kershaw Co, C South Carolina, USA; located on the R Wateree near L Wateree, just NE of Columbia; one of the state's oldest inland towns; birthplace of Bernard Baruch and Lane Kirkland; site of the Battle of Camden (1780); Historic Camden Revolutionary War Site; rebuilt mansion of General Cornwallis; Goodale State Park nearby. Camden may refer to: …

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Camden (UK) - People with the surname Camden

51°33N 0°09W, pop (2001e) 198 000. Borough of N Greater London, UK; includes suburbs of Hampstead, St Pancras, and Holborn; named after an 18th-c Lord Chancellor; university (1826); railway stations at Euston (1849), King's Cross (1852), St Pancras (1874); British Museum, John Keats House, Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Post Office Tower (1964). Camden may refer to: …

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camel - Camel hybrids, Adaptations to desert environment, Cuisine

A mammal of the family Camelidae (2 species): the Bactrian (or two-humped) camel (Camelus bactrianus) from cold deserts in C Asia, and domesticated elsewhere, and the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius); eats any vegetation; drinks salt water if necessary; closes slit-like nostrils to exclude sand; humps are stores of energy-rich fats. The two species may interbreed: the offspring has one hump; males …

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camellia

An evergreen shrub or tree, native to China, Japan, and SE Asia; leaves alternate, leathery, glossy green; flowers usually large and showy, often scented, 4–7 petals, but often numerous in cultivars, white, pink, or crimson; popular ornamentals. The genus includes the tea plant. (Genus: Camellia, 82 species. Family: Theaceae.) Camellia (Tsubaki in Japanese) is a genus of flowering plants i…

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Camelopardalis

A large constellation in the N hemisphere, also known as Camelopardus. It lacks any bright stars. Source: The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed., The Hipparcos Catalogue, ESA SP-1200 …

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Camelot - Early appearances, Identifications, In popular culture

The legendary capital of King Arthur's Britain. It is variously located at Cadbury in the West Country, Colchester (Camulodunum), and Winchester. Camelot is the most famous castle associated with the legendary King Arthur. Later romance depicts as the fantastic capital of Arthur's realm, from which he fought many of the battles that made up his life; The city is mentioned …

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cameo

A method of carving a relief image into a shell or semi-precious stone with different coloured layers. It was popular in the Roman Empire, and has been used ever since in W European art, often copied in glass and ceramic. Cameo is a method of carving, or an item of jewellery made in this manner. The effect of "cameo" also refers to a proof coin that has frosted lettering and features, provi…

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camera - Description, History

An apparatus which produces an image of an external scene. In the early camera obscura (literally ‘darkened room’), first developed in 11th-c China, light passing through a small hole or lens formed a picture on the opposite wall. Portable versions in boxes served as artist's guides in landscape drawing, and early 19th-c attempts to record the image led to the first photographic camera: a light-…

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camera operator

The member of a film production crew, formerly termed lighting cameraman or cinematographer, responsible under the director for the artistic and technical quality of the picture. Camera operators choose the camera viewpoint and lens angle, and direct the character and distribution of lighting for both set and artists to create the dramatic mood required. During rehearsal and shooting they decide t…

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Cameron Diaz - Filmography

Film actress, born in San Diego, CA, USA. She left home at 16 and for the next five years travelled through Japan, Australia, Mexico, and Europe. On returning to America aged 21, she began working as a model. Her big break into the cinema came in 1994, when she auditioned for a small part in The Mask and was offered the lead. She then worked in a series of low-budget films, including The Last Supp…

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Cameroon - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Education, Miscellaneous topics

Official name Republic of Cameroon, Fr République du Cameroon Cameroon, officially the Republic of Cameroon, is a unitary republic of central Africa. Cameroon, a German colony at the time of World War I, was split among the French and British as war spoils after the defeat of Germany. In 1960, French Cameroun became independent as the Republic of Cameroun, and merged with the souther…

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Camille Bombois

Primitive painter, born in Venarey-les-Laumes, EC France. He worked in a travelling circus, and as a labourer, painting as a hobby. By 1923 he had been discovered by collectors and was able to devote all his time to painting his very personal landscapes, and pictures of wrestlers and acrobats. Camille Bombois (February 3, 1883 – June 6, 1970) was a French naïve painter especially noted f…

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Camille Claudel - Early years, Creative period, Confinement, Legacy, Related links

Sculptor, born in La Fère-en-Tardenois, N France, the sister of the poet Paul Claudel. She became the student, model, and mistress of August Rodin, producing works which, while close to his, nonetheless show great individuality. After a fiery relationship, Claudel and Rodin parted company in 1898, but she continued to sculpt and achieved great renown around the beginning of the 20th-c. However, t…

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Camille Pissarro - Early life and work, Artist and mentor

Impressionist artist, born in St Thomas, West Indies. He went to Paris (1855), where he was much influenced by Corot's landscapes. Most of his works were painted in the countryside round Paris, such as ‘Boulevard Montmartre’ (1897, National Gallery, London). The leader of the original Impressionists, he was the only one to exhibit at all eight of the Group exhibitions in Paris from 1874 to 1886.…

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Camillo Boito

Architect and writer, born in Rome, Latium, Italy. The brother of composer and writer Arrigo Boito, as an architect he opposed eclecticism and saw mediaeval architecture as a pointer for modern Italian architecture. Among his notable buildings were the Gallarate hospital (1871), the Palazzo delle Debite in Padua (1873), and the retirement home for musicians, the Giuseppe Verdi in Milan (1899). He …

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Camillo Golgi

Cell biologist, born in Corteno, N Italy. As professor of pathology at Pavia (1876–1918), he discovered the Golgi bodies in animal cells which, through their affinity for metallic salts, become readily visible under the microscope. His work opened up a new field of research into the central nervous system, sense organs, muscles, and glands. He shared the 1906 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicin…

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Camorra - Background, Presence In America

In Naples and S Italy, a generic term applied to practices based in corporate institutions and practices of the poor, which developed during the 19th-c into a complex network of patronage, clientelism, protection, and ultimately crime. As with the Sicilian Mafia, which it resembles, no single Camorra organization has ever existed. The Camorra is a mafia-like criminal organization, or secret…

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Camp David - Establishment, Post-World War II era, Notable events at Camp David, Modern usage, Gallery

The US presidential retreat established in 1942 by President Roosevelt in Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland, USA. Originally known as ‘Shangri La’, it was renamed in 1953 after President Eisenhower's grandson. The retreat covers 81 ha/200 acres and includes a main residence (Aspen Lodge), conference hall, and office. It has been used for a number of historic meetings between heads of state. …

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Camp David Accords - Background, The talks, Terms of the agreements, Consequences, Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties

The framework for ‘a just, comprehensive, and durable settlement of the Middle East conflict’, reached by Egyptian President Sadat, Israeli Prime Minister Begin, and US President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, MD, in September 1978. Based on the principle of exchanging land for peace embodied in UN Security Council Resolution 242, the accords laid the foundation for the March 1979 peace treaty betw…

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campanile - Other uses

The Italian name for a bell tower, usually tall and detached from the main building. The earliest known campanile was square, and attached to St Peter's, Rome, in the mid-8th-c AD. The most famous example is the circular Leaning Tower of Pisa, with eight arcaded storeys. A campanile (pronounced [ˌkæmp ə ˈniːl e]) is, especially in Italy, a free-standing bell tower (Italian campana, 'be…

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camphor - History, Reactions, Biosynthesis

C10H16O, melting point 179°C. A colourless, waxy material (a terpene), occurring especially in the tree Cinnamonium camphora, and also synthesized from ?–pinene. It is used in many lotions, mainly for its characteristic odour. Camphorated oil is a 20% solution of camphor in olive oil. The word camphor derives from the French word camphre, itself from Medieval Latin camfora, from Arabic ka…

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Campinas - History, Title and symbols, City twinning, Metropolitan Region of Campinas, Economy, Transportation, Communications, Media, Ecology, Climate

22°54S 47°60W, pop (2000e) 1 108 000. Town in São Paulo state, Sudeste region, SE Brazil; NW of São Paulo; agricultural institute; international and national airports; railway; two universities (1941, 1962); cotton, maize, sugar cane, coffee; cathedral, old market, colonial buildings. Coordinates: 22°54′00″S, 47°03′25″W Campinas is a city and county (município)…

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camshaft

A rotating shaft upon which cams are fixed. A cam is a flat plate cut to a defined shape which rotates about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the plate. The shape of the cams and their relative orientation actuate and time the lifting of valves as part of an engine's operating cycle. The camshaft is an apparatus used in piston engines to operate poppet valves. The cams force the valves…

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Canaan - Etymology, Canaan in Mesopotamian inscriptions, Egyptian Canaan, Biblical Canaanites, Phoenician Canaanites

The land of the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, living in the coastal areas of modern Israel and Syria, but perhaps also extending inland to the Jordan R and the Dead Sea. It was divided into various city-states during the early 2nd millennium BC, but mostly fell under the control of Israelites and other powers from the late 13th-c BC. The name can be traced to one of the sons of Ham (Gen 9–10)…

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Canada - History, Government, Law, Foreign relations and military, Administrative divisions, Geography and climate, Economy, Language, International rankings

Formerly British North America (to 1867) Canada (pronounced /'kænədə/ in English and /kanada/ in French) is the world's second-largest country by total area, occupying most of northern North America. Extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, Canada shares land borders with the United States to the south and to the northwest. …

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Canada Day - History, Newfoundland and Labrador specific events, Trivia

A public holiday in Canada (observed 1 Jul), the anniversary of the union of the provinces in 1867; formerly known as Dominion Day. Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canada's national holiday. Canada Day celebrates the creation of the dominion of Canada through the British North America Act on July 1, 1867, uniting three British territories — the Province of Canada, made…

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Canada goose - Appearance, Taxonomy, Gallery

A goose native to North America, and introduced in Europe and New Zealand (Branta canadensis); head and neck black with white chin; eats grass and water plants; migrates; females often return to own birthplace to breed, producing many local races and variations. (Family: Anatidae.) The Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) belongs to the Branta genus of geese, which contains species with largely…

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Canada Lee

Actor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He grew up in Harlem and left home at age 14, seeking to be a jockey. Failing in that, he took up boxing and won over 200 bouts (1925–30) until his eyesight was impaired. He took up acting in 1934 and played several important stage roles, including the controversial Bigger Thomas in Native Son (1941). He was the first African-American to play a ‘white…

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Canadian literature - Characteristics of Canadian literature, The problem of Canadian literature, Traits of Canadian literature

Canadian literature is written in both English and French. The two traditions are overlapping but distinct, not least because the French is older and more embattled within an idealized past. This may be why it is more noted for its poetry, much of it in late Symbolist style, following Saint-Denis-Garneau. Writers in English have generally preferred prose. Humorists such as Stephen Leacock, novelis…

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Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) - History, Freight trains, Passenger trains, Hotels, Special trains, Locomotives, The Canadian Pacific Railway in Canadian culture

A transcontinental railway, constructed 1881–5, linking the Dominion of Canada with British Columbia. Carried out with large government cash subsidies and enormous land grants to the railway company, the project represented an act of political will and an engineering triumph. It produced a chain of western railway towns terminating in Vancouver on the Pacific coast. In 1922 a second transcontinen…

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Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks

A group of five national parks (Banff, Jasper, Waterton Lakes, Kootenay, Yoho) in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Together with the Burgess Shale site - an important geological fossil region in the Selkirk Mts of British Columbia - these constitute a world heritage site. The Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage Site is located in the Canadian Rockies. It consists of four natio…

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canal - Ancient canals, Cities on water, Industrial revolution, Modern uses, Miscellaneous, Famous canals and lists

An artificial watercourse for inland navigation or for connecting seas. The first modern canal in the UK was the Sankey Brook from the Mersey to St Helens, built by Henry Berry between 1755 and 1772. Rather more famous was the canal from Worsley to Manchester built by James Brindley for the Duke of Bridgewater, opened in 1761. Thousands of miles of canal were built, and they were the major method …

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Canaletto - Early career, Work in England, Works

Painter, born in Venice, NE Italy. He studied at Rome, then painted a renowned series of views in Venice, many as souvenirs for foreign visitors. He spent most of the years 1746–56 in England, where his views of London and elsewhere proved extremely popular. He later returned to Venice and was elected to the Venice Academy in 1763. Giovanni Antonio Canale (Venice, Republic of Venice, Octob…

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canary

A small finch, native to the Old World; prized as a songbird; also known as serin. All domestic varieties of the cage canary were developed from one species, Serinus canaria, from the Canary Is. (Genus: Serinus, 32 species. Family: Fringillidae.) …

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Canary Islands - History, Physical geography, Political geography

Local name Islas Canarias The Canary Islands IPA/kəˈnæɹɪ ˈaɪləndz/ (Spanish Islas Canarias /ˈiz.las kaˈnarjas/) (28° 06'N, 15° 24'W) are an archipelago of the Kingdom of Spain consisting of seven islands of volcanic origin in the Atlantic Ocean. The name derives probably from Berber North African tribes (the Canarii), in Berber language the islands are called T…

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canasta - Canasta for Two or Three Players

A card game similar to rummy. It derives from the Spanish word canasta (‘basket’), probably referring to the tray into which cards were discarded. The game originated in Uruguay in the 1940s. Its most popular form is played with two standard packs of playing cards and four jokers. The object is to collect as many cards of the same denomination as possible. All cards have points value, but jokers…

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Canberra - History, Geography, Governance, Economy, Demographics, Education, Culture, Infrastructure

35°18S 149°08E, pop (2000e) 308 300. National and regional capital in Australian Capital Territory, SE Australia, on the Molonglo R; planned by US architect Walter Burley Griffin (after a competition, 1911); building started in 1913; has extensive parks and gardens; Commonwealth Parliament moved from Melbourne, 1927; airport; railway; two universities (1946, 1989); Australian War Memorial, Nat…

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Cancer - History, Causes and pathophysiology, Epidemiology, Prevention, Diagnosing cancer, Treatment of cancer, Coping with cancer, Social impact

An inconspicuous N constellation of the zodiac, lying between Gemini and Leo. It contains an open star cluster, Praesepe, just visible by eye. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion or by implantation into distant sit…

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cancer - History, Causes and pathophysiology, Epidemiology, Prevention, Diagnosing cancer, Treatment of cancer, Coping with cancer, Social impact

A general term to denote all forms of malignant tumour. Tumours occur when the cells of a tissue or organ multiply in an uncontrolled fashion unrelated to the biological requirements of the body and not to meet the needs of repair or of normal replacement. In contrast to benign tumours, which enlarge in a specific place, and cause damage by pressure on adjacent tissues, malignant tumours invade, d…

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candela - Definition

Base SI unit of luminous intensity; symbol cd; defined as the luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 × 1012 Hz, and has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian; obsolete name candle. Since the 16th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1979, the candela has been defined as follows: …

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candidiasis - Overview, History and taxonomic classification, Alternative views

A disease caused by Candida albicans, a yeast which normally inhabits the gut and vagina without causing symptoms. In debilitating conditions and when the immune system is depressed, it may invade the surface of the skin and the mucous membranes of the vagina and gastro-intestinal tract, including the mouth, where white patches can be seen with the naked eye. This is known as thrush. In rare cases…

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