Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 11

Cambridge Encyclopedia

Bob Paisley - Career details

Football manager, born in Hetton-le-Hole, Durham, NE England, UK. A player with the amateur side Bishop Auckland, he joined Liverpool in 1939, and spent nearly 50 years at the club. It was during his spell as manager (1974–83) that Liverpool enjoyed their greatest years, and became the most successful club side in England. Manager of the Year on six occasions, he continued to be involved with the…

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Bob Pettit - Louisiana State University, Pro basketball, Revolutionizing the “power forward”

Basketball player, born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. He studied at Louisiana State University, joined the Milwaukee (later the St Louis) Hawks in the National Basketball Association (NBA) in 1954, and stayed with the franchise right through to 1965. He led the NBA in both scoring (twice) and rebounding, helping the Hawks to one championship. Throughout his career he averaged 26·4 points per ga…

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Bob Richards

Track and field athlete and Protestant minister, born in Champaign, Illinois, USA. A juvenile delinquent as a teenager, he found himself through religion and sports. He was ordained a minister in the Church of the Brethren (1946), and then became the only two-time Olympic gold medallist in the pole vault (1952, 1956). He accepted the pastorate of a Brethren church in Long Beach, CA (1957) but cont…

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Bob Ross - Video game, References and notes

Painting instructor, born in Daytona, Florida, USA. Dropping out of school in the ninth grade, he served in the US Air Force, where he took his first painting lesson at an Anchorage, Alaska United Service Organizations club. After the service he attended various art schools until he learned the technique of ‘wet on wet’ from William Alexander (later his bitter rival), applying oil paints directl…

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Bob Swaim

French film-maker, originally from the USA. He came to Paris to study anthropology, then made a number of short films and advertisements. La Nuit de Saint-Germain-des-Près (1977) became a television series. His most successful film to date is La Balance (1982), a story of police and informers, which won a César for best film. After graduating from "Vaugirard" in 1970, Swaim spent most of …

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Bob Wills

Country music fiddler, singer, bandleader, and songwriter, born in Kosse, Texas, USA. He played in bands in the late-1920s. In 1934 he formed the Texas Playboys, a band popular in the SW, before moving to California (1942) to perform in films and dance halls. Although he was a traditional hoedown fiddler, his band helped popularize Western swing in the 1950s and 1960s with an eclectic repertory of…

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Bob Woodward - Career, Awards and recognition, Style and criticism, Personal

Journalist, born in Geneva, Illinois, USA. A reporter for the Washington Post (1971–8), he became metropolitan editor and assistant managing editor (from 1981), and was best known for unmasking, with Carl Bernstein, the Watergate scandal and cover-up. Their coverage of the investigative story of the century won almost every major journalistic prize, including a 1973 public service Pulitzer Prize …

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Bobby Charlton - Early life, Joining the first team, Munich, The success of 1966, European glory

Footballer, born in Ashington, Northumberland, NE England, UK, the brother of Jack Charlton. He spent most of his career playing with Manchester United, making his debut in 1956. He survived the Munich air disaster (1958), winning three League Championship medals, an FA Cup-winner's medal (1963), and a European Cup-winner's medal (1968). He won 105 caps for England, scored 49 goals for the nationa…

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Bobby Darin - Early years, Music career, Acting career, Later years, Death, Legacy, Discography (partial), Filmography

Popular singer, songwriter, and actor, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at the Bronx High School of Science and Hunter College, and entered showbusiness as a demo writer and singer at the popular Brill Building venue in New York City. His first hit song, ‘Splish Splash’ (1958), was followed by the 1959 hits ‘Dream Lover’ and ‘Queen of the Hop’. His single ‘Mack the Knife’ w…

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Bobby Fischer - Early years, 1956-1967, Fischer-Karpov 1975, Disappearance and aftermath (1975 to present)

Chess player, born in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Raised in Brooklyn after his parents divorced in 1945, he learned to play chess when he was six and won the US junior and senior titles at age 14. In 1972 he captured the world championship from Boris Spassky in Reykjavik, Iceland, while competing for what was then the largest purse ($250,000) offered in any sport outside boxing. Amid praise for his ‘…

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Bobby Jones

Golfer, born in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. One of golf's greats during the 1920s ‘golden age’ of sports, he became the only player ever to win a recognized Grand Slam in golf (four major championships in a single year) when he won the US and British Opens, and the US and British Amateurs in 1930. During 1922–30, while earning his BA from Georgia School (now Institute) of Technology, another BA from…

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Bobby Knight - Playing career, Coaching career, Knight's basketball philosophy, Controversy, The end of an era

Basketball coach, born in Massillon, Ohio, USA. He played on the Ohio State 1960 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) champion team, then became assistant coach (1963) and head coach (1965–70) at West Point. He became coach at Indiana University (1971) and led his team to three NCAA championships (1976, 1981, 1987), and his Indiana teams never had a losing season. He coached the Americ…

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Bobby Locke - Results in major championships

Golfer, born in Germiston, NE South Africa. A slow, methodical player, he won four British Open championships (1949, 1950, 1952 and 1957), and between 1947 and 1950 won 11 events on the US tour circuit. NT = No tournament LA = Low Amateur DNP = Did not play WD = Withdrew CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Green background …

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Bobby Moore - Career, After football, Trivia

Footballer, born in London, UK. In a long career with West Ham United (1958–74) and later Fulham (1974–7), he played 1000 matches at senior level, receiving an FA Cup-winner's Medal in 1964 and a European Cup-winner's Cup Medal in 1965. He was capped 108 times (107 in succession), 90 of them as captain, a total only surpassed by Peter Shilton. He played in the World Cup finals in Chile in 1962, …

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Bobby Orr - International play, Player Agent

Ice hockey player, born in Parry Sound, Ontario, SE Canada. The highest goal-scorer ever in North American National League hockey, he played mainly with the Boston Bruins, and became that city's greatest-ever sporting hero, but by the time he moved to Chicago Black Hawks in the 1976–7 season (for a contract reputed to be worth $3 000 000), his career was already almost over. Six major leg opera…

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Bobby Riggs - Legitimate Career, Tennis Hustler, Battle of the Sexes, Post-tennis, Sources

Tennis player, born in Los Angeles, California, USA. He began playing tennis seriously by age 11 and was coached in his early years at tennis by two women, Dr Esther Bartosh and the coach Eleanor Tennant. As an amateur, he helped the USA win the Davis Cup in 1938, then won the Wimbledon and US singles in 1939. After winning the US singles again in 1941, he turned professional and played for anothe…

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Bobby Sands - Family and early life, Prisoner, Political status protests, Death, Published works, See Also

Irish revolutionary, born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. He joined the IRA in 1972, and was sentenced to five years' imprisonment for possession of guns (1973). In 1977 he was sentenced to 14 years after the bombing of a furniture factory. In 1981, while at Long Kesh prison, Northern Ireland, he went on hunger-strike in protest against the authorities' refusal to treat himself and his fellow…

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Bobby Seale

Political activist and educator, born in Dallas, Texas, USA. One of the original Black Panthers (1966), he gained notoriety for his vociferous demonstrations during and after the 1968 Chicago convention. He was jailed in connection with those riots and was one of 13 Panthers held in connection with the alleged execution of suspected Panther informer Alex Rackley. Later adopting a moderate politica…

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Bobby Short

Singer and pianist, born in Danville, Illinois, USA. Working in obscurity in clubs, he first found success in 1968 with the recording of a concert with Mabel Mercer (1900–84), and began his legendary 36-year engagement at the Café Carlyle in Manhattan. He sparked a revival of Cole Porter's music with a series of albums in the 1970s in which he interpreted various composers' music, establishing a…

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Bobby Thomson - Trivia

Baseball player, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He went to the USA at age two. Playing for the New York Giants, in 1951 he participated in one of baseball's most memorable moments when he hit a home run - called ‘the shot heard around the world’ - in the ninth inning of a deciding play-off game against the Brooklyn Dodgers, to win the National League pennant. A fine outfielder, he hit 20 or mo…

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bobcat - Taxonomy, Physical characteristics, Behavior, Survival, Distribution

A nocturnal member of the cat family native to North America (Felis rufus); resembles a small lynx; length up to 1 m/3¼ ft; brown with dark spots; tail very short; inhabits scrubland and forest; eats birds, rodents, rabbits, and (in winter) deer. The Bobcat (Lynx rufus, or commonly felis rufus) is a wild cat native to North America. The bobcat is an adaptable animal that inhabits wooded …

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Bochum - Twin cities, People affiliated with Bochum

51°28N 7°12E, pop (2000e) 410 000. Industrial and commercial city in the Ruhr valley, Düsseldorf district, W Germany; 59 km/37 mi SSW of Münster; originally developed around the coal and steel industries; railway; university (1965); vehicles, textiles, radio and television sets; home of the German Shakespeare Society. Coordinates: 51°29′N 7°13′E Bochum is a city in…

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Bodhidharma - Biography, Spiritual approach, Portrayals of Bodhidharma, Legends, The lineage of Bodhidharma and his disciples

Monk and founder of the Ch'an (or Zen) sect of Buddhism, born near Chennai (formerly Madras), SE India. He travelled to China in 520, where he had a famous audience with the Emperor. He argued that merit applying to salvation could not be accumulated through good deeds, and taught meditation as the means of return to Buddha's spiritual precepts. Bodhidharma was the Buddhist monk (usually In…

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bodhisattva - Bodhisattvas in Theravada Buddhism, Bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism, Bodhisattva in popular culture

In Mahayana Buddhism, one who has attained the enlightenment of a Buddha but chooses not to pass into Nirvana; voluntarily remaining in the world to help lesser beings attain enlightenment. This example of compassion led to the emphasis in Mahayana on charity and comfort towards others. In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (IPA pronunciation: [ˌbɑ dɪ ˈsæt və]) (Pali: bodhisatta; …

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bodily harm

A criminal offence against the person, being an aggravation of a simple assault and battery. Grievous bodily harm (GBH) involves serious physical injury, such as wounding with a knife, although the injury may be self-inflicted and need not be permanent. Actual bodily harm involves a less serious attack, involving any hurt or injury which causes ill health or discomfort. These terms are not used in…

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Bodleian Library - History, Tower of the Five Orders, The Library today, Digital developments, The Bodleian Library in fiction

The university library and national depository at Oxford. It was founded in 1595 by Sir Thomas Bodley (1545–1613), who restored the disused 14th-c library and laid the foundations of its now extensive holdings. It was opened in 1602. The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only t…

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Bodnant Garden

House and gardens situated in Clwyd, N Wales. Located near the R Conwy, 13 km/8 mi S of Colwyn Bay. Open to the public, the estate was presented to the National Trust by Henry Duncan, 2nd Baron Aberconwy in 1949, and from 1953 was managed on the Trust's behalf by Charles Melville McLaren, 3rd Baron Aberconwy (1913--2003). He was succeeded by his heir, Henry Charles McLaren. This important…

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Body art - Examples of body art, Gallery

A type of modern art which exploits the artist's - or someone else's - physical presence as a work of art in its own right. Artists may stand in the gallery like a living statue, perhaps singing; photograph themselves performing some banal action, such as smiling; or may deliberately injure themselves. A typical fad of the 1960s, it emerged again in the 1990s, with people using paint, tattoo, ring…

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Boeotia - Pejorative term, Natives of Boeotia

In antiquity, the area in C Greece bordering on Attica. Its chief city-state was Thebes. Its inhabitants were largely of Aeolian stock, and proverbial for their stupidity. Boeotia or Beotia (IPA: [bi'o.ʃʌ], Greek Βοιωτία; The oldest city of Greece was sited there and was named Graia (Γραία) which means ancient or old. From the name of this city the word "Greece" de…

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Bognor Regis - History, Town, Transport, Birdman of Bognor, Other information

50°47N 0°41W, pop (2000e) 60 500. Coastal resort town in West Sussex, S England, UK; on the English Channel, 20 km/12 mi W of Worthing; the title ‘Regis’ dates from 1929, when King George V came here to recuperate; railway; tourism, electrical engineering. Bognor Regis is a seaside resort town and civil parish in the Arun District of West Sussex, England. It was original…

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Bohemia - History

Historic province of W Czech Republic, bounded E by Moravia, W and S by Germany and Austria, and N by Germany and Poland; a plateau enclosed by mountains; natural boundaries include the Erzgebirge (N), Bohemian Forest (SW), and Sudetes Mts (NE); chief rivers include the Elbe (Labe), Vltava (Moldau), Ohre (Eger), Jihlava, and Jizera; major towns include Prague, ?eské Bud?jovice, Plze?, Ústí nad …

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Bohemian Forest - Geography and climate, Water, Nature, History

Forested mountain range along the boundary between Germany and Bohemia, Czech Republic; highest German peak, Grosser Arber (1457 m/4780 ft); source of Bayern, Vltava, Regen, and Ilz Rivers. The Bohemian forest is a low mountain range in Central Europe. They create a natural border between the Czech Republic on one side and Germany and Austria on the other. For historical reasons, th…

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Boies Penrose

US senator, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. After graduating from Harvard (1881), he published a scholarly text, The City Government of Philadelphia (1887). He then turned to politics, and, although a member of a prosperous upper-class Philadelphia family, he proved to be as tough as any boss, running the Pennsylvania Republican machine from 1904 until his death. As a member of the US Sen…

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boil - Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, Prognosis

An abscess at the base of a hair follicle, which results in a raised, reddened, and often painful swelling in the skin. It usually results from infection with Staphylococcus aureus. Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. Individual boils can cluster together and form an inte…

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boiling point - Saturation temperature and pressure, Intermolecular interactions

The point at which heat added to a liquid is no longer used to increase temperature but instead to form gas from the liquid. Formally, the boiling point temperature is reached when a liquid's vapour pressure equals external pressure. Boiling points thus decrease with altitude. Water may be boiled at room temperature by decreasing the pressure around it. The boiling point of a substance is t…

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Bois de Boulogne - History

A park of 962 ha/2380 acres situated on the W outskirts of Paris, France. Originally a royal hunting forest, it became a popular recreation area for Parisians in the 17th-c, and in 1852 was relandscaped along the lines of London's Hyde Park. The Longchamp racecourse was opened there in 1857. The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Pari…

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bolero - Spain, Cuba and Mexico, American Style ballroom, Boleros in popular culture

A typical Spanish dance deriving from seguidillas. It is ordinarily sung and accompanied by one or several guitars. Bolero is a 3/4 dance that originated in Spain in the late 18th century, a combination of the contradanza and the sevillana . A number of classical composers have written works based on this dance: Frédéric Chopin wrote a bolero for solo piano, and Maurice Ravel's Bol

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bolete - List of species

A fungus with a typically mushroom-shaped fruiting body; fertile spore-producing layer present as a lining of tubes on underside of cap; commonly found on ground under trees; some species edible, others poisonous. (Subdivision: Basidiomycetes. Order: Agaricales.) A bolete is a type of fungal fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus that is clearly differentiated from the stip…

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bolide

An exceptionally brilliant meteor, or fireball, which explodes in our atmosphere. It makes a very loud bang, and in some cases scatters stony debris over a wide area. The term bolide (from the Greek βολις, bolis, missile) can refer to either an extraterrestrial body that collides with the Earth, or to an exceptionally bright, fireball-like meteor regardless of whether it ultimate…

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Bolivia - History, Politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Demographics, Culture, National symbols

Official name Republic of Bolivia, Span República de Bolivia Bolivia, officially the Republic of Bolivia (Spanish: República de Bolivia, IPA [re'puβlika ðe bo'liβi̯a], Quechua: Bolivia, Aymara: Bolivia), named after Simón Bolívar, is a landlocked country in central South America. During most of the Spanish colonial period, this territory was called "Upper Peru" or …

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boll weevil

A small weevil that prevents the normal development of cotton flowers by its feeding activities. It is an economically important pest of cotton. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Curculionidae.) …

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Bologna - History, Transport, Importance, Main sights, Culture, Transport, Demographics, Cuisine, University, Famous natives of Bologna and environs

44°30N 11°20E, pop (2000e) 411 000. Capital city of Bologna province, Emilia-Romagna, N Italy; 83 km/52 mi N of Florence, at the foot of the Apennines; ancient Etruscan city, enclosed by remains of 13th–14th-c walls; archbishopric; airport; rail junction; university (11th-c); pasta, chocolate, sausages, shoes, chemicals, engineering, precision instruments, publishing, furniture; birthplace …

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bomb - Terminology, Types, Delivery

A device used to cause an explosion, usually consisting of a container, an explosive substance (eg TNT, RDX), and a fuse. Generally bombs are distinguished from other explosive devices by means of delivery, in that they are not propelled towards their target. They normally use gravity (when dropped from aircraft) or are placed in position (as in the case of car bombs). Common types include blast, …

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bombardier beetle - Intelligent design, Darwin's experience

A small beetle of genus Brachinus. As a protective mechanism, adults fire clouds of caustic vapour, expelled by an explosion caused by mixing chemicals in glands at the rear end of the body. It can fire repeatedly at short intervals. (Order: Coleoptera. Family: Carabidae.) Bombardier Beetles are ground beetles (Carabidae) in the tribes Brachinini, Paussini, Ozaenini, or Metriini—more than…

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Bombay duck - In cuisine, In cricket, European Union restrictions on imports, In religion

Slender-bodied fish (Harpadon nehereus) with large jaws and barb-like teeth; common in the tropical Indian Ocean, especially the Bay of Bengal; length up to 40 cm/16 in; flesh soft and translucent; important food fish, caught in fixed nets in brackish waters, and sun-dried. (Family: Harpadontidae.) The Bombay duck or bummalo (Harpadon nehereus, Bengali: bamaloh, Gujarati: bumla, Marathi: …

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Bonaire

pop (2000e) 11 500; area 288 km²/111 sq mi. Island of the S Netherlands Antilles, E Caribbean, 60 km/37 mi N of Venezuela; composed of coralline limestone; rises to 241 m/791 ft in the hilly NW; low-lying coastal plain in the S; length 35 km/22 mi; capital, Kralendijk; airport; tourism, salt, textiles; Washington-Slagbaai National Park, area 59 km²/23 sq mi, established in 1969; un…

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bond

A loan to a company or a government. The loan carries interest payments and is repaid after several years. It can be bought and sold on the stock market, and is a relatively secure investment often held by insurance companies and pension funds. People named Bond: Places named Bond: …

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bone - Functions, Structure, Formation, Bone pathologies, Exposed bone, Terminology

The hard tissue component of the vertebrate skeleton. It is composed of two functionally important principal components physically blended together: an organic element (mainly collagen), 25% of the weight of the fully formed bone, and a mineral matrix (calcium, phosphate, and variable amounts of magnesium, sodium, carbonate, citrate, and fluoride), having a crystalline structure. It basically cons…

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bone marrow - Red and yellow marrow, Types of stem cells, Diseases involving the bone marrow

An accumulation of cells and supporting tissues found within the central cavity of all bones. Yellow marrow consists of fat cells, blood vessels, and a minimal framework of reticular cells and fibres. Red marrow consists of numerous blood cells of all kinds, as well as the substances from which these cells are formed. At birth all bones contain highly cellular red marrow; with increasing age the m…

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bongo

A spiral-horned antelope (Tragelaphus euryceros) native to equatorial Africa; brown with thin vertical white stripes; stiff erect hairs along spine; each cheek with two white spots; white line joining eyes; usually inhabits dense forest. Bongo can refer to: …

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bonito

Medium-sized tuna widely distributed in open ocean surface waters, living in compact schools; length up to 90 cm/3 ft; body steel blue to olive dorsally, with oblique black stripes, sides silver to yellow; important commercially and prized as sport fish. (Genus: Sarda. Family: Scombridae.) Bonito is a name given to various species of medium-sized, predatory fish of the genus Sarda, in the…

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Bonn - Districts, Buildings and structures, Transportation

50°43N 7°06E, pop (2000e) 300 000. Capital city of former West Germany, in Cologne district; on R Rhine, 25 km/15 mi SSE of Cologne; early Roman fort on the Rhine; seat of Electors of Cologne (13th–16th-c); part of Prussia, 1815; badly bombed in World War 2; capital status since 1949; airport at Cologne; railway; university (1818); service industries, plastics, packaging materials, aluminiu…

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Bonnie (Lynn) Raitt - Biography, Political activism, Personal life, Discography

Singer and guitarist, born in Burbank, California, USA. The daughter of John Raitt (1917–2005), a musical theatre star, she learned the guitar when she was 12, inspired by blues musicians Mississippi Fred McDowell and Buddy Guy. She played with McDowell and Howlin' Wolf before she released albums such as Sweet Forgiveness (1977), which contained the hit ‘Runaway’. Widely popular during the 1970…

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Bonnie and Clyde - Bonnie Parker, Clyde Barrow, The pair meet, Buck joins the gang, life on the highway

Notorious robbery partners: Clyde Barrow (1909–34), born in Telico, Texas, USA, and Bonnie Parker (1911–34), born in Rowena, Texas. Despite the popular romantic image of the duo, they and their gang were also responsible for a number of murders. The pair met in 1932. When Barrow first visited Parker's house, he was arrested on seven accounts of burglary and car theft, convicted, and sentenced to…

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bonsai - History, Aesthetics, Cultivation, Common styles, Techniques, Bonsai care, Bonsai Tourism

The technique or practice of growing dwarfed plants in which all parts - stems, leaves, flowers - are in proportion. The effect is achieved by growing the plants in small pots, and by careful pruning of the roots to restrict growth. It is a Japanese speciality. Bonsai (Japanese: 盆栽, literally "tray gardening") is the art of aesthetic miniaturisation of trees and plants in containers. Wh…

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bontebok

An ox-antelope (Damaliscus dorcas) native to S Africa; long face; lyre-shaped horns ringed with ridges; dark brown with white face and underparts; two subspecies: bontebok (with white rump) and blesbok (with brown rump). The Bontebok is an antelope found in South Africa and Lesotho. …

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booby

A bird related to gannets, native to tropical and subtropical seas; streamlined, with a colourful pointed bill. It catches fish by diving vertically into the water; air sacs beneath the skin of its face absorb the shock of impact. (Genus: Sula, 6 species. Family: Sulidae.) The boobies are part of the family Sulidae, a group of seabirds closely related to gannets. …

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book - History of books, Structure of books, Conservation issues, Collections of books, Keeping track of books

A handwritten or printed document, comprising at least 25 leaves of paper, vellum, or parchment bound together along one edge, generally affixed within a protective cover, and usually intended for non-periodical publication. The earliest books can be traced back to China in the 3rd-c BC, in the form of wood or bamboo leaves bound with cords. In the West the papyrus roll used by the Egyptians and G…

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Book of Common Prayer - History, Prayer books in other Anglican churches, Religious influence, Secular influence, Copyright status, Footnotes and references

The official directory of worship or service-book of the Church of England, widely honoured and followed in churches of the Anglican Communion. Largely composed by Archbishop Cranmer, it was first introduced in 1549, and revised in 1552, 1604, and finally 1662. Until 1975, revisions in England required the approval of Parliament. It is generally considered a landmark of English prose. The B…

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book of hours - Content, The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, The Rothschild Prayerbook

A prayer book, popular in the Middle Ages, and known in England as a primer. It typically contained the Little Office of Our Lady, psalms of penitence, and the Office of the Dead (usually in Latin). A Book of Hours is the most common type of surviving medieval illuminated manuscript. Each Book of Hours is unique, but all contain a collection of texts, prayers and psalms, along with ap…

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Book of the Dead - Versions, Spell 125

An ancient Egyptian collection of magical and religious texts. Copies were often buried with the dead as a protection and comfort in the after-life. Book of the Dead is the common name for ancient Egyptian funerary texts known as The Book of Coming [or Going] Forth By Day. The earliest known versions date from the 16th century BC during the 18th Dynasty (ca. The text…

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bookbinding - Modern commercial binding, Modern hand binding, Restoration hand binding, Terms and techniques, Spine conventions

Techniques for the joining of leaves along one edge and casing them in a cover to form a codex or book. All bookbinding was done by hand until the 19th-c, and the craft tradition lives on for the production of single copies and editions de luxe. Single leaves and folded sections of two or more leaves are stitched together with thread around cords attached to the cover boards; the spine and boards …

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Boolean algebra - Formal definition, Examples, Order theoretic properties, Homomorphisms and isomorphisms, Boolean rings, ideals and filters

An algebra on sets, devised by Boole, developed as an algebra of symbolic logic. The differences from arithmetic algebra can be illustrated by the absorption laws on sets A, B and C: A + A = A and (A + B)(A + C) = A + BC. The similarities between the algebra of sets and that of logic can be seen by comparing A ? A = A and p ? p = p, the latter being read ‘p and p implies p’, …

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boomerang - Design, Basic throwing instructions, Boomerangs in Fiction, Boomerangs in Video Games, Boomerang quotes, Further reading

A throwing stick, so shaped as to fly great distances and strike a severe blow; mainly Australian, but known elsewhere (eg among certain American Indian groups). Some are made to take a curved path and return, and are used mainly for play or training. A boomerang is a simple wooden implement used for various purposes. The most recognisable type is the returning boomerang which, when thrown …

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boomslang - Venom, Boomslang in fiction

A venomous African snake (Dispholidus typus); long thin green or dark brown body; length, up to 2 m/6½ ft; three fangs; lives in trees adjoining grassland; eats lizards, birds, frogs. (Family: Colubridae.) A boomslang, Dispholidus typus is a large, venomous colubrid snake native to sub-Saharan Africa. Most members of their family are harmless, or have relatively weak venom, b…

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Bophuthatswana - See also, Further reading

Former independent black homeland in South Africa; comprised seven separate units of land in Cape, Free State, and Transvaal provinces; self-government, 1971; second homeland to receive independence from South Africa (not recognized internationally), 1977; incorporated into North West province in the South African constitution of 1994. Bophuthatswana was a former Bantustan (homeland) in the…

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borage

A robust annual (Borago officinalis), growing to 60 cm/24 in, covered in stiff, white bristles, native to C Europe and the Mediterranean region; leaves oval, rough; flowers 2 cm/¾ in diameter, bright blue, drooping, with five spreading petals and black anthers. Cultivated as a herb, its bruised leaves smell of cucumber. (Family: Boraginaceae.) …

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borax - Structure

Na2B4O7.10H2O; a hydrated salt of boric acid. It forms insoluble salts with Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, and thus is useful as a water softener and cleanser. Borax in a less hydrated form (4H2O) is the most important source of boron. It is an important ingredient in borosilicate (Pyrex(r)) glasses. Borax is a somewhat generic name used to describe a number of closely related minerals or chemical com…

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Bordeaux - Geography, Demographics, History, Economy, Education, Culture, Transport, Sources and external links

44°50N 0°36W, pop (2000e) 222 000. Inland port and capital of Gironde department, SW France, on R Garonne; major port, and cultural and commercial centre for SW; 480 km/298 mi SW of Paris and 100 km/60 mi from the Atlantic; held by the English, 1154–1453; centre during the wars of the Fronde; temporary seat of government in 1870, 1914, and 1940; centre of wine-growing region, Médoc (N), …

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Border terrier - Appearance, Temperament, Behaviour with other dogs, Behaviour with other animals, Chewing, Health, History, Earthdog trials

A breed of dog, developed in the Scottish/English border hills to hunt foxes; small and active; solid, flat-ended muzzle; small ears; thick, stiff, wiry coat; usually golden or reddish brown. A Border Terrier is a small, rough-coated breed of dog in the terrier family. The Border Terrier has a double coat consisting of a soft undercoat and harsh, wiry outer coat. Bor…

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bore

A nearly vertical wall of water that may be produced as a result of a tide, tsunami, or seiche. Bores usually occur in funnel-shaped estuaries with sloping bottoms. Bottom friction slows the advancing wave front, and water piles up behind to produce a nearly vertical bore face. The rapidly moving wall of water is followed by a less steep rise in sea level accompanied by swift upstream currents. …

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Borghese - Notable members of the Borghese family

A great 13th-c family of ambassadors and jurists of Siena, afterwards (16th-c) at Rome. Their members include Camillo Borghese (1552–1621), who ascended the papal throne in 1605 as Paul V, and Prince Camillo Filippo Ludovico Borghese (1775–1832), who joined the French army, married Napoleon's sister Marie Pauline (1803), and became Governor-General of Piedmont. The Borghese Palace and the Villa …

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Borgia - Fiction

Italian form of Borja, an ancient family in the Spanish province of Valencia. Their members include Alfonso Borja (1378–1458), who accompanied Alfonso of Aragón to Rome, and was elected pope as Callistus III. Rodrigo Borgia (1431–1503), his nephew, became pope as Alexander VI (1492). Two of Rodrigo's children became especially notorious. Cesare Borgia (1476–1507) was a brilliant general and ad…

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boric acid

H3BO3; a weak acid, with antiseptic properties. Dilute solutions have a pH of about 6, while partially neutralized solutions have a pH of about 9. Salts of boric acid are called borates. Hydrated boron(III) oxide (B2O3) is also called boracic acid. Boric acid, also called boracic acid or orthoboric acid, is a mild acid often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, in nuclear po…

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Boris (Fyodorovich) Godunov - Early years, Years of regency, Years of tsardom, Arts based on Boris Godunov

Tsar of Russia (1598–1605). Of Tartar stock, he became an intimate friend of Ivan IV (the Terrible), who entrusted to Boris the care of his imbecile elder son, Fyodor. Ivan's younger son, Dmitri, had been banished to the upper Volga, where he died in 1591 - murdered, it was said, at Boris's command. During the reign of Tsar Fyodor (1584–98), Godunov was virtual ruler of the country, with the tit…

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Boris (Leonidovich) Pasternak - Early life, My Sister Life, Second Birth, Doctor Zhivago, Nobel Prize, Death

Lyric poet, novelist, and translator, born in Moscow, Russia. He studied law and musical composition, then switched to philosophy. He wrote autobiographical and political poetry, and some outstanding short stories, some of which were collected in The Childhood of Lyuvers (1924). Unable to publish his own poetry during the years under Stalin, he became the official translator into Russian of Shakes…

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Boris (Nikolayevich) Yeltsin - Early life, CPSU member, President of the RSFSR, Post-Soviet presidency, Life after resignation

Russian president (1991–9), born in Bukta, WC Russia. He studied at the Urals Polytechnic, and began his career in the construction industry. He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1961, and was appointed first secretary of the Sverdlovsk region in 1976. He was inducted into the Central Committee in 1981 by Gorbachev, and briefly worked under the new secretary for the economy, Ryzhk…

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Boris Aronson - Tony Awards and Nominations for Best Scenic Design

Stage designer, born in Kiev, Russia. Winner of the New York Drama Critics Award in 1964 for Fiddler on the Roof, he began his New York career in 1924 working for the Unser Theatre and the Yiddish Art Theatre. His sets included those for Three Men on a Horse (1935), Detective Story (1949), and JB (1958). An admirer of Marc Chagall, he excelled in stylized settings, but he was also capable of strai…

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Boris Becker - Grand Slam singles finals, Grand Slam singles performance timeline

Tennis player, born in Leimen, SW Germany. He first came to prominence in 1984 when he finished runner-up in the US Open. In 1985 he became the youngest ever winner of the men's singles at Wimbledon, as well as the first unseeded winner. He successfully defended his title in 1986, and won it for a third time in 1989. He won the US Open in 1989, the Australian Open in 1991 and 1996, and the Associa…

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Boris Christoff - Links

Bass-baritone, born in Plovdiv, SC Bulgaria. He studied law in Sofia, then studied singing in Rome and Salzburg. His debut recital was in Rome (1946). He sang at La Scala in Milan in 1947, at Covent Garden in 1949, and from 1956 in the USA. Boris Christoff (Bulgarian: Борис Христов) (May 18, 1914, Plovdiv, Bulgaria – June 28, 1993, Rome, Italy) was a Bulgarian opera singer, on…

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Boris Goldovsky - Students and proteges include ( among many others ), Sources

Pianist, conductor, and opera producer, born in Moscow, Russia. German-trained in music, he performed solo on piano with the Berlin Philharmonic at the age of 13. In 1930 he went to the USA to perform concerts and teach, but by the end of the decade he had diverted his talents and energies to producing operas. He ran the opera programme at Tanglewood (1942–62) and founded the New England Opera (1…

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Boris Karloff - Stage name: Pratt becomes Karloff, Career in Hollywood

Film star, born in London, UK. He studied at London University, then went to Canada and the USA, aiming for a diplomatic career, and became involved in acting. He spent 10 years in repertory companies, went to Hollywood, and after several silent films made his name as the monster in Frankenstein (1931). Apart from a notable performance in a World War 1 story, The Lost Patrol (1934), his career was…

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Boris Vian - Career, Death, Selected bibliography

Playwright, novelist, poet, and musician, born in Ville d'Avray, NC France. He was a pupil of the École Centrale in 1938, formed a one-man band at Saint-German-des-Près after the war, and became a jazz critic and columnist on Temps Modernes. As a trumpeter at the Tabou, he had formed his first jazz group in 1937, and twenty years later, with Henri Salvador, created Rock 'n' Roll à la Française…

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Borneo - Geography, Administration, History, Ecology, Ethnic and Biological Diversity, Key references

area 484 330 km²/186 951 sq mi. Island in SE Asia, E of Sumatra, N of Java, W of Sulawesi; comprises the Malaysian states of Sarawak and Sabah and the former British protectorate of Brunei (N); remainder comprises the four provinces of Kalimantan, part of Indonesia; formerly divided between the British and the Dutch; mountainous (N), rising to 4094 m/13 432 ft at Mt Kinabalu in Sabah; int…

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Bornholm - Municipality, Historical architecture, Famous people, References in popular culture, Other islands in the Baltic Sea

pop (2000e) 46 700; area 588 km²/227 sq mi. Danish island in the Baltic Sea, 40 km/25 mi S of Sweden, 168 km/104 mi SE of Copenhagen; length 37 km/23 mi; rises to 162 m/531 ft; taken by Sweden, 1645; returned to Denmark, 1660; administrative capital and chief port, Rønne; fishing, fish-processing, farming, pottery, tourism. Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea. …

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Borobudur - Structure, Rediscovery and recent history, Restoration, Recent events

A Buddhist sanctuary built between 750 and 850 in Java, Indonesia. The vast temple is built of stone blocks on terraces cut into a natural mound and originally consisted of 10 terraces, two of which have become covered over. Built by the Sailendra dynasty of the Srivijaya kingdom, it is the world's largest stupa and includes depictions of the god Shiva as well as the life of Buddha. It is renowned…

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boron - Characteristics of the element and boron nitride, Boron Compounds, Uses for Boron, Market trend, Precautions

B, element 5; melting point 2300°C. A hard, non-metallic solid, which as a pure element does not occur free in nature. It forms many compounds in which it is bound to oxygen, and shows an oxidation state of +3. Although a relatively rare element, it is found in large concentrations, especially as boric acid and borax. Boron (IPA: /ˈbɔːrɒn/) is a chemical element with atomic number 5 an…

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borough - Pronunciation, Present-day boroughs, Historical boroughs, Borough as a place name

In general terms, the second tier of local government in England and Wales, based on charters granted at different times by the monarchy. Borough councils were first elected in 1835, when their main function was law and order. The name has survived all subsequent reforms of local government, but now is largely indistinguishable from the equivalent unit of district. The Scottish equivalent is burgh…

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borzoi - Appearance, Temperament, Health, History, Art

A breed of dog, developed in Russia, where aristocrats used groups of borzois to hunt wolves; an athletic breed, tall and slender; long thin muzzle; long tail; coat long, straight or curly; also known as Russian wolfhound. The Borzoi is a breed of dog also called the Russian Wolfhound. Borzoi can come in any color or color combination. The Borzoi is a large variety o…

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Bosnia and Herzegovina - Etymology, History, Politics and government, Administrative divisions, Geography, Discoveries, Economy, Tourism, Demographics, Education, Culture, Sport

Official name Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country on the Balkan peninsula of southern Europe with an area of 51,129?km² (19,741 square miles), and an estimated population of around four million people. Regardless of ethnicity, a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina is often identified in English as a Bosnian. The country is decentralized and is adminis…

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boson - Boson properties

A subatomic particle having integer spin; named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894–1974). Unlike fermions, bosons have no exclusion principle limiting the number occupying some state. Force-carrying particles, such as photons, gluons, and gravitons, are all bosons. In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. Most bosons are…

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Bosra

An ancient Syrian city 117 km/73 mi S of Damascus; a world heritage site. Originally an Arab fortress, Bosra was conquered by the Nabataeans, and became almost as important as Petra. It was annexed by the Romans in AD 105, and subsequently flourished as capital of the province of Arabia. Bosra (Arabic: بصرى‎, also spelled Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra, Busra Eski Sham, Busra ash-Sh…

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Boston Celtics - Season-by-season records, Players of note

American professional basketball team which dominated the sport in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It won eight consecutive National Basketball Association championships in 1958–9 and 1965–6. The Boston Celtics are a professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. Note: W = Wins, L = Losses, % = Win-Loss % STARTING LINEUP Sebastian Telfair- PG Paul Pie…

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Boston Massacre - Event, Contemporary depictions, Trial of the soldiers

(5 Mar 1770) The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd, killing five. Among the issues involved were the general presence of troops, competition between soldiers and civilians for jobs, and the shooting of a Boston boy by a customs official. The Boston Massacre is the name commonly given to the shooting of five civil…

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Boston Public Library - Collections, Branch library system, Technology

Founded in 1848 in Boston, Massachusetts as the first large free municipal library in the USA. Expanded in 1972, it houses a vast research collection, 6·1 million books, and 1·2 million rare books and manuscripts. It also exhibits notable works of art, including paintings by Edwin Austin Abbey (the Abbey Room), Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (the Chavannes Gallery), and John Singer Sargent (the Sarge…

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Boston Tea Party - Event, International influence

(1773) During the American Revolution, the climax of resistance to British attempts at direct taxation, resulting in the destruction in 1773 of 342 chests of dutied tea by working men disguised as Mohawks. Other ports had refused to let the tea ships enter. The Boston Tea Party was a direct action protest by the American colonists against Great Britain in which they destroyed many crates of…

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Boston terrier - Appearance, Health, History, Miscellaneous

A breed of dog, developed in the USA by crossing existing terriers and bulldogs; small, deep-chested; large ears, spherical head, thick neck; coat short; white and brown or white and black. The Boston Terrier is a breed of dog originating in the United States of America. Boston Terriers are typically small, compactly built, well proportioned, dogs with erect ears, short tails, a…

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botanical garden - Educational work, History

A collection of living plants usually arranged by geographic or taxonomic principles, and maintained for the purposes of scientific research, education and, with increased urbanization, recreation. In China, gardens of medicinal and economically valuable plants were cultivated and used for the introduction and acclimatization of foreign flora 3000 years ago; the Aztecs and Incas also established e…

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botany - Scope and importance of botany

The study of all aspects of plants, principally their structure, physiology, relationships, and biogeography, but embracing many aspects of other disciplines. Important areas in modern botanical research include genetics and plant breeding; vegetative reproduction and tissue culture, especially the use of microtechniques in which plants are propagated from small amounts of excised tissue such as m…

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Botany Bay - Name and short history, Demographics, Kingsford Airport and Port Botany, Pop culture, BIBLIOGRAPHIE

A shallow inlet 8 km/5 mi S of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; now a residential part of Sydney; Captain Cook made his first landing here in 1770, naming the bay after the number of new plants discovered there; chosen as a penal settlement in 1787, but found to be unsuitable, and a location at Sydney Cove used instead; the name Botany Bay, however, was for many years synonymous with Australi…

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Botswana - History, Politics and government, Economy, Culture, Education

Official name Republic of Botswana Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Tswana: Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked nation in Southern Africa. In the late nineteenth century, hostilities broke out between the Shona inhabitants of Botswana and Ndebele tribes who were migrating into the territory from the Kalahari Desert. The northern territory remained under di…

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bottlebrush

An evergreen shrub native to Australia; leaves narrow; flowers small, crowded in dense cylindrical spikes, stamens red or yellow, far exceeding length of petals, and giving inflorescence a brush-like appearance. (Callistemon, 25 species. Family: Myrtaceae.) Bottlebrush (Callistemon) is a genus with 34 species of shrubs in the family Myrtaceae. …

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bottom

In particle physics, an internal additive quantum number conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions, but not in weak interactions. Its symbol is usually B, sometimes called bottomness or beauty. Bottom quarks are those having B = ?1, and bottom particles contain at least one bottom (or b) quark or antiquark. The b quark was discovered in 1977 as a b quark and b antiquark pair called th…

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Bottrop - Notable Locations, Photos of Bottrop

51º31N 6º55E, pop (2001e) 121 900. Industrial city in North-Rhine-Westphalia province, W Germany; 8 km/5 mi NNW of Essen; coal mining region since 1863; birthplace of Josef Albers; railway; coal, chemicals, machinery, steel, carbonization plants. Coordinates: 51°31′N 6°55′E Bottrop is a city in west central Germany, on the Rhine-Herne Canal, in North Rhine-Westphalia…

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botulism - Symptoms (food-borne and wound forms), Infant botulism, Botulinum toxin, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Prevention

A serious and often fatal illness resulting from the ingestion of a poisonous toxin produced by the Clostridium botulinum bacteria. It is one of the most severe forms of food poisoning, which affects the nervous system, and gives rise to rapidly developing paralysis and respiratory failure. The toxin is found in inadequately cooked non-acid fruit, meat, or fish without any apparent spoilage, and i…

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bougainvillea - References and external links

A shrub, tree, or woody climber, native to South America; leaves oval; flowers tubular, in threes, surrounded by three lilac, purple, magenta, red, orange, pink, or white petal-like bracts; grown as ornamentals in warm areas everywhere. (Genus: Bougainvillea, 18 species. Family: Nyctaginaceae.) Bougainvillea is a genus of flowering plants native to the tropical and subtropical regions of So…

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Boulder

40º01N 105º17W, pop (2000e) 94 700. Seat of Boulder Co, NC Colorado, USA; located in the Rocky Mts, 40 km/25 mi NW of Denver; founded in 1858; birthplace of Pete Borden, Arleigh Burke, Edward L Tatum; resort with mineral springs; university (1876); railway; aircraft, computers, electronic equipment, chemicals, sporting goods; Kinetic Conveyance (May). In geology, a boulder is a rock w…

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Boulogne

50°43N 1°37E, pop (2000e) 46 300. Seaport in Pas-de-Calais department, NW France; on coast of English Channel, S of Calais; principal commercial harbour and fishing port of France; boatbuilding, textiles, engineering; ferry and hovercraft links with Dover and Folkestone. Boulogne is the name of several communes in France: Other uses for Boulogne: Its Roman etymon…

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Boulogne-Billancourt - Transport, In popular culture

48º50N 2º14E, pop (2002e) 107 600. Industrial and residential suburb of Paris, Hautes-de-Seine department, C France; located on the R Seine; formed in 1925 by amalgamating Boulogne-sur-Seine and Billancourt; birthplace of Bertrand Blier and Edith Cresson; lamps and lighting equipment, PVC compounds, automobiles, agricultural and forestry machinery, machine tools. Boulogne-Billancourt (o…

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bourbon

A dark-coloured American whiskey, a distillate of at least 51% corn, which originated in Bourbon Co, KY. It is aged in barrels of white oak, charred on the inside, from two to eight years. Straight bourbon is the product of a single distillery in a given year, ie an unblended bourbon. Bourbon (from French) or Borbón (from Spanish) can refer to: Groups of People Plac…

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bourgeoisie - Origin of the term, Rise of the Bourgeoisie, The Marxist view

In mediaeval times, a member of a free city or bourg who was neither a peasant nor a landlord - essentially, a member of the ‘middle class’. Later it referred to an employer or merchant. In the 19th-c the bourgeoisie was associated with leading revolutionary change, the demise of the aristocracy, the beginnings of liberal democracy, and the development of industrial capitalism. Alongside this we…

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Bourges

47°09N 2°25E, pop (2000e) 82 400. Ancient ducal town and capital of Cher department, C France; at confluence of rivers Auron and Yèvre; capital of Berry, 12th-c; railway; bishopric; hardware, linoleum, textiles, armaments, agricultural equipment; cathedral (13th-c), Palais Jacques Coeur (1443), many fine Renaissance houses. …

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Bournemouth - Administrative considerations, Tourist importance, Rapid growth, The town, Coat of Arms, Economy, The area, Transport

50°43N 1°54W, pop (2001e) 163 400. Unitary authority (from 1997) and resort town in S England, UK; on Poole Bay, 40 km/25 mi SW of Southampton; railway; Bournemouth University (1992, formerly Bournemouth Polytechnic); conference centre; tourism, printing, engineering; symphony orchestra; football league team, Bournemouth (Cherries). Bournemouth is a large resort town on the south coas…

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boustrophedon

An ancient method of writing, particularly in early Greek, in which the lines go alternately from left to right and right to left. The name comes from the Greek words for ‘ox’ and ‘turn’ - hence, following the path taken by a plough. Boustrophedon or boustrephedon (Greek: βουστροφηδόν: "turning like oxen in ploughing"), is an ancient way of writing manuscripts and other insc…

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Boutros Boutros-Ghali - Academic career, UN career, Later life, Cultural references

Egyptian diplomat, who took office as the sixth secretary-general of the United Nations (1992–7). The former deputy prime minister of Egypt, he was the first to hold the post from the Continent of Africa. He became head of La Francophonie in 1997. Boutros Boutros-Ghali CC (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي) (born 14 November 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-Genera…

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bouzouki - History, The trichordo bouzouki, The tetrachordo bouzouki, The Irish bouzouki

A plucked string instrument of Greece, used in folk music and more recently in urban contexts. It has a very long neck, a fretted fingerboard, and three or four courses of metal strings played with a plectrum. There are three main types of bouzouki: In Ancient Greece, the same instrument was known under the name "pandouris" or "pandourion", also called "trichord" because it had …

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bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) - Infectious agent, The BSE epizootic in British cattle

A progressive, fatal disease of the central nervous system of cattle (encephalopathy: disease affecting the structure of the brain); usually referred to by its abbreviation, but also widely called mad cow disease. BSE appeared in the UK in 1985, after a post-mortem analysis of the brain tissue of a cow from a farm in West Sussex; the disease was identified in 1986, and clinical cases peaked in lat…

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bow (music) - Materials and manufacture, Bowing, History, Types of bow, Maintenance, Nomenclature

An implement for playing musical instruments such as the violin, consisting essentially of a wooden stick to each end of which lengths of horsehair are attached. Early bows had convex sticks, bent away from the hair, which was gripped by the player's fingers to keep it taut. Gradually sticks were made straighter to increase the tension, and from c.1700 this could be adjusted by means of a movable …

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bowerbird - Species of Ptilonorhynchidae in taxonomic order

A bird native to New Guinea and Australia; related to birds of paradise. Males usually attract females by building ornate structures (bowers) on the ground, decorated with colourful objects. (Family: Ptilonorhynchidae, 18 species.) Bowerbirds and catbirds make up the family Ptilonorhynchidae. In a striking example of what is known as the "transfer effect," bowerbird species that…

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bowfin

Primitive freshwater fish (Amia calva) found in weedy backwaters of E North America; swim bladder serves as a lung to use atmospheric oxygen; length up to 90 cm/3 ft, dorsal fin long, tail fin rounded; sole representative of family Amiidae; also called mudfish. The bowfins are an order (Amiiformes) of primitive ray-finned fish. …

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bowling - History, Forms

The act of delivering a ball at pins (as opposed to a target, as in bowls); a popular indoor sport and pastime, with an ancient history. It was popularized by German churchgoers in the 3rd–4th-c, who would roll a ball at a kegel, a club used for protection, and if hit they would be absolved from sin. The game of ninepins was taken to the USA by Dutch and German immigrants in the latter part of th…

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bowls - Game, Bias of bowls, World Indoor Singles Champions, World Outdoor Singles Champions, Sir Francis Drake

An indoor and outdoor game played as singles, pairs, triples, or fours. A similar game was believed to have been played by the Egyptians as early as 5200 BC. Glasgow solicitor William Mitchell (1803–84) drew up the rules for modern bowls in 1848. There are two main variations: lawn bowls (also known as flat green bowls) is played on a flat, level rink, whereas crown green bowls is played on an un…

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box - Packaging boxes, Permanent boxes, Decorative boxes, Famous boxes, Box shape

An evergreen shrub or small tree (Buxus sempervirens) growing to 10 m/30 ft, often less, native to Europe and N Africa; leaves small, leathery, paired; flowers green, lacking petals, clusters of several males around one female; fruit a woody capsule. It is a popular bush for formal clipped hedges and for topiary. (Family: Buxaceae.) Boxes for packaging and shipping are most commonly made …

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box turtle

A North American terrapin; spends little time in water; eats invertebrates and fruit. The lower surface of its shell has hinged ends which close against the upper shell when the head and legs have been withdrawn (forming a closed box). Cuora amboiensis of the same family is called the Malayan box turtle. (Genus: Terrapene, several species.) The box turtle is one of several species of turtle…

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boxing - Origins, Olympic boxing, Women's Boxing, Professional boxing, Boxing styles, Technique, Equipment, Medical concerns

Fighting with fists, a sport recorded from the earliest times. The Greeks and Romans used to entertain themselves by staging fist fights between their gladiators. The first known boxing match in Britain was in 1681, when the Duke of Albemarle organized a match between his butler and his butcher at his home in New Hall, Essex. The sport began to develop in the early part of the 18th-c, when James F…

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Boxing Day - Date of Boxing Day

In the UK and the Commonwealth, the day after Christmas Day, so called because traditionally on that day gifts from boxes placed in church were distributed to the poor, and apprentices took a box round their masters' customers in the hope of getting presents of money from them. Christmas ‘boxes’ or gifts of money are still sometimes given to tradespeople, postal workers, etc. Boxing Day r…

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Boy George - Career, Personal life, Memoirs, Sexuality, Recent activity, Discography

Pop singer and songwriter, born in Eltham, Kent, SE England, UK. In 1981 he formed his own band, Culture Club, and had a string of hit records including a number 1 single, ‘Karma Chameleon’ (1983). A flamboyant cross-dresser and admitted drug user, controversy dogged his career. Culture Club disbanded and he underwent successful treatment for drug dependence, re-emerging as a solo artist with th…

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Boyana Church

A world heritage monument comprising three churches situated in the former village of Boyana, a present-day suburb of Sofia, Bulgaria. The buildings date from the 10th-c, 13th-c and 19th-c, but despite their differing styles, combine to form a notable architectural unit. The Boyana Church (Bulgarian: Боянска църква, Boyanska tsarkva) is a medieval Bulgarian Orthodox church situ…

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boycott - Historical Milestones (Chronological), Earlier practice, Application and uses, Legality

A collective refusal to have dealings - usually in relation to trade - with a person, company, or country. A trade union may boycott talks with a company as a negotiating ploy. Individuals may refuse to buy a country's goods as a gesture of political protest - for example, during the late 1980s, goods from South Africa in protest against apartheid. Boycotts have also been used in international spo…

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Brabant

During the Middle Ages, a duchy which developed from the county of Louvain, whose count was given the title of duke in 1106 by Emperor Henry V. His successors expanded the duchy in the 12th-c by incorporating the marquisate of Antwerp and various seigneuries as far as the Nether Rhine, and controlling the important trade route from Bruges to Cologne. In the E they came up against the prince-bishop…

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bracken - Uses, Bracken in popular culture

A perennial fern (Pteridium aquilinum) with far-creeping rhizomes; fronds solitary, up to 2–4 m/6½–13 ft; tri-pinnate, with sori continuous around edges of leaf-segments. It is common on acid soils, especially in woods and heaths where it may cover extensive areas by means of the rhizomes. It is poisonous, and not grazed by animals such as sheep and rabbits. Fire does not seriously damage it,…

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bract - Gallery

A modified leaf immediately below a flower or inflorescence. It is usually green, but may be brightly coloured and petal-like, as in Poinsettia. Bracts that appear in a whorl are collectively called an involucre. A spathe is a large bract that forms a sheath to enclose the flower cluster of certain plants such as palms and arums. The frequently showy pair of bracts o…

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Brad Pitt - Early life, Personal life, In popular culture, Awards

Film actor, born in Shawnee, Oklahoma, USA. He studied graphic design at the University of Missouri but left early and headed for Hollywood to try his luck at acting and became known after his appearance in Thelma & Louise (1991). Later films include A River Runs Through It (1992), Legends of the Fall (1994), Interview with the Vampire (1994), Fight Club (1999), Ocean's Eleven (2001, sequels 2004,…

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Bradford - History, Industry and economy, Educational institutions, Health, Development, Twin towns, Geography, Culture and recreation, Religion

53°48N 1°45W, urban area pop (2001e) 467 700. Town in West Yorkshire, N England, UK; part of West Yorkshire urban area; 15 km/9 mi W of Leeds and 310 km/193 mi NW of London; 19th-c development was based on the wool textile industry; railway; university (1966); textiles, textile machinery, coal, engineering, micro-electronics; scene of major disaster (1985) when wooden stand of Bradford Cit…

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Braemar

57°01N 3°24W. Village in Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK, 10 km/6 mi W of Balmoral Castle; tourism; Highland games (Aug). Braemar (Scottish Gaelic, Baile a' Chaisteil Bhràigh Mhàrr) is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around 58 miles west of Aberdeen in the Highlands. Braemar holds an annual Highland Games Gathering on the first Saturday in September, traditionally att…

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Braga - History, Main sights, Sports, Sources and external links

41°32N 8°26W, pop (2000e) 90 000. Industrial capital of Braga district, 361 km/224 mi N of Lisbon, N Portugal; former capital of the old region of Entre Minho and Douro; seat of the Primate of Portugal; university; electrical appliances, leather, cutlery, textiles; cathedral (11th-c); midsummer celebrations, São Miguel fair and agricultural show (Sep). Braga (pron. IPA ['bɾagɐ]), a…

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Brahma - Attributes, Appearance, Temples

The personified creator god of Hinduism. The deities Vishnu, Shiva, and Brahma form the Trimurti of classical Indian thought. As Vishnu and Shiva represent opposite forces, Brahma represents the balance between them. Brahma is the all-inclusive deity behind all the gods of popular Hinduism. Brahma (written Brahmā in IAST) (Devanagari ब्रह्मा, pronounced as /brəhmɑː/) is th…

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Brahman - Conceptualization, Etymology, Semantics and pronunciation, Brahman and Atman, Enlightenment and Brahman

In Hinduism, the eternal, impersonal Absolute Principle. It is the neuter form of Brahma, and is equated with cosmic unity. Brahman (Devanagari: ब्रह्म ) is the concept of the Godhead found in Hinduism. Brahman is the unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all things in this universe. In the Rig Veda, Brahman gives rise to th…

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Brahmanism - History, Etymology

An early religion of India (though not the earliest), to which, historically, Indians have looked as the source of their religious traditions. It came to dominance during the Vedic Period (c.1200–500 BC) and was a religion of ritual and sacrifice. It gave supremacy to the Brahmin class, which exercised priestly authority over all aspects of life through their responsibility for the transmission o…

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Brahmo Samaj - Background, Doctrine, References and notes

(Hindi, ‘divine Society’) A theistic movement founded by Ram Mohan Roy in 1828 which argued that reason should form the true basis of Hinduism. Influenced by Islam, Christianity, and modern science, it sought a return to the purity of Hindu worship through an emphasis on monotheism, the rejection of idol-worship, and the reform of Hindu social practices. Brahmo Samaj (Bengali ব্রা…

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braille - Braille transcription

A communication system designed to enable blind people to have access to written language; devised in 1829 by Louis Braille. It consists of a sequence of cells, each of which contains a 3 × 2 matrix of embossed dots, whose patterns can be sensed through the fingers. In the basic system, the patterns represent letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and several short words. Computer-assisted system…

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brain - Overview, History, Mind and brain, Comparative anatomy, Neurobiology, Study of the brain, Brain as food

The part of the central nervous system of bilaterally symmetrical animals which co-ordinates and controls many bodily activities to an extent that depends upon the species. In humans, in addition to the control of movement, sensory input, and a wide range of physiological processes, it acts as the organ of thought, with several areas being specialized for specific intellectual functions (eg langua…

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brain death

The cessation of brain activity, in particular in the parts of the brain stem concerned with respiration and other vital functions. It must be certified by two doctors who can demonstrate the absence of electrical impulses from the brain surface (a flat EEG) and the failure of brainstem reflexes, including the reaction of pupils to light and oscillation (nystagmus) in response to the introduction …

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brain stem - Function

That part of the nervous system between the spinal cord and the forebrain, consisting of (from above) the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. Through it the cerebral hemispheres communicate with the rest of the central nervous system. The cardiac, respiratory, vasomotor, and other ‘vital’ physiological centres are located in the medulla. On the rear surface of the midbrain are four rounded pr…

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brake - History

A device used to apply a force to an object to retard its motion. The most common method is to bring the moving surface into contact with a fixed surface, thereby generating friction which opposes the direction of movement. The two types of brake most commonly used on motor cars are drum brakes and disc brakes. A brake is a device for slowing or stopping the motion of a machine or vehicle, …

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Bram Stoker - Life, Dracula, Bibliography, References and notes, Online texts

Writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. Educated at Dublin, he studied law and science, and partnered Henry Irving in running the Lyceum Theatre from 1878. Among several books, he is chiefly remembered for the classic horror tale Dracula (1897), which has occasioned a whole series of film adaptations, notably Nosferatu (Murnau, 1921), Dracula (Hammer Films, 1958), and Bram Stoker's Dracula (Coppola, 1993…

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bran

The protective coat surrounding a cereal seed which, because of its high fibre content, is becoming increasingly common as a component of human foods. It comprises about 12% of the seed. Bran is particularly rich in dietary fiber, and contains significant quantitities of starch, protein, fat, vitamins, and dietary minerals. Oat bran, alone or as a part of oatmeal, has been shown to re…

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Branchiopoda

A diverse class of aquatic crustaceans found mostly in inland waters, from fresh to hypersaline, and occasionally in the sea; characterized by leaf-like trunk limbs that act as food-gathering apparatus and as gills; contains c.820 living species, including tadpole shrimps, fairy shrimps, clam shrimps, and water fleas. Branchiopoda is a group of primitive and primarily fresh water crustacean…

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Brand Whitlock - Works

Mayor, writer, and diplomat, born in Urbana, Ohio, USA. A journalist and lawyer, he served four terms as mayor of Toledo (1906–14), running on a non-partisan reform platform and keeping the government free of graft. He was much honoured for his service as American minister, later ambassador to Belgium, during and after World War 1. He wrote 18 books, both fiction and non-fiction. Brand Whi…

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Brandenburg Gate - Location, Photo gallery

An arch designed by Carl Langhans (1733–1808) and erected in Berlin in 1788–91. The monument, which was badly damaged during World War 2, was restored in 1958. The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and the symbol of Berlin, Germany. The design of the gate was based on the Propylea, the gateway to the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. Whi…

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brandy - History, Types of brandy, Distillation

A spirit distilled from fermented fruit, usually grapes, but also from stone fruits such as cherries. Cognac is produced in the Charente basin, France, from white grapes aged for a minimum of 2 years in barrels of Limousin oak. Armagnac is produced to the S of this area, and matured in ‘black’ oak. Calvados is made from cider in Normandy. Brandies are produced in most countries that grow grapes.…

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Bra?ov - History, Features

45°39N 25°35E, pop (2000e) 319 000. Industrial capital of Bra?ov county, C Romania; founded, 13th-c; important mediaeval trade centre; ceded by Hungary after World War 1; railway junction; university (1971); textiles, lorries, tractors, metallurgy, ball bearings, chemicals, machinery; summer resort and winter sports centre. Kronstadt (Russian: Кроншта́дт), or Kronshtadt, Crons…

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brass - Properties, Brass types

An alloy composed of copper and zinc; yellowish, malleable, and ductile. Its properties and applications may be altered by varying the proportions of copper and zinc. It is the most widely-used non-ferrous alloy. Brass is the term used for alloys of copper and zinc, the amount of zinc varying from 5-45 % to create a range of brasses each with unique properties. Brass has a yello…

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brass instrument - Families of brass instruments, Valves, Sound production in brass instruments

A musical instrument made of brass or other metal, in which air is made to vibrate by means of the player's lips and breath, usually through a narrow mouthpiece. In simple instruments, such as the bugle, the notes available are restricted to the lower end of a single harmonic series; in others, valves or slides enable the fundamental note to be altered, and consequently a greater number of pitches…

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brassica

A member of a genus of plants containing numerous economically important vegetables, including turnip and mustard, but often in a gardening sense referring more specifically to cabbages, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts, all derived from the wild cabbage, Brassica oleracea. (Genus: Brassica, 30 species. Family: Cruciferae.) …

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Bratislava - Economy, Twin towns, Images

48°10N 17°08E, pop (2000e) 450 000. River port and capital of Slovak Republic; on R Danube; stronghold of Great Moravian Empire, 9th-c; capital of Hungary, 1541–1784; Hungarian monarchs crowned here until 1830; centre of emergent Slovak national revival; incorporated into Czechoslovakia in 1918; airport (Vajnory); railway; university (1919); technical university (1938); food processing, petro…

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Braunschweig - Sights, Twin Towns, Miscellaneous

52º17N 10º28E, pop (2002e) 242 400. Capital of Braunschweig district, E Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony) province, NC Germany; manufacturing and commercial city, located on the R Oker; capital of free state of Braunschweig until its incorporation into Niedersachsen (1946); the Mittelland Canal runs N of the town; birthplace of Count Levin Bennigsen, Richard Dedekind, Otto Grotewohl; technical univ…

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Braxton Bragg - Early life and military career, Civil War, Postbellum, Controversial legacy, In memoriam

US soldier, born in Warrenton, North Carolina,USA. He trained at West Point (1837) and served in the Seminole, Frontier, and Mexican wars, then left the army (1856) to run a plantation in Louisiana. When Civil War broke out he commanded his state's militia, and led the Army of Tennessee into Kentucky in the summer of 1862, but withdrew after the inconclusive battle of Perryville in October. He won…

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Brazil - History of Brazil, Government and politics, Administrative divisions, Geography, Economy, Environment, Demographics, Societal issues, Culture

Official name The Federative Republic of Brazil, Port República Federativa do Brasil Brazil, officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: 'Brasil' or República Federativa do Brasil, listen?(help·info)), is the largest and most populous country in South America, and fifth largest in the world in both area and population. Brazilian society is still heavily in…

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brazing - Techniques, Advantages over welding, Possible problems, Brazing processes, Further reading

The joining of two pieces of metal (the same or different) by heating, then filling in the junction with a metal of lower melting point than those being joined. A flux is generally necessary. Brazing differs from soldering, in that a soldered joint is not expected to stand any mechanical strain (as in electrical unions), whereas a brazed joint can be very strong. Brazing is a joining proces…

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Brazos River

River in S USA, formed in W Texas by the Double Mountain Fork and Salt Fork Rivers; enters the Gulf of Mexico at Freeport; length 1947 km/1210 mi; major tributaries the Clear Fork, Little, Navasota; used for irrigation, hydroelectricity, and flood-control. The Brazos River, originally called, the Rio Brazos de Dios which can be translated as "The River of God's Arms". The Brazos is the lo…

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Brazzaville - History, Buildings and institutions, Transport

4°14S 15°14E, pop (2000e) 1 098 000. River-port capital of the Congo, W Africa, on right bank of R Congo (opposite Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo); founded, 1880; capital of French Equatorial Africa, 1910; headquarters of Free French forces in World War 2; capital of Congo, 1960; airport; railway terminus from coast; university (1972); banking, chemicals, metallurgy, food processing, …

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bread - Usage, History, Cultural and political importance, Types, Composition and chemistry, Breads across different cultures, Related patents

A widely used staple food made by baking a mixture of flour and water; the flour used is most commonly wheat, which may be mixed with flour from oatmeal, rye, or barley. The mix results in a dough which may be kneaded, a process that stretches and aligns the protein molecules of the wheat. The product is then either immediately baked to give unleavened bread, or allowed to rise, through the produc…

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breadfruit

An evergreen tree (Artocarpus altilis) growing to 12–18 m/40–60 ft, probably native to Malaysia; glossy leaves oval, deeply lobed towards tips; male flowers in short catkins, females in prickly heads, achenes, and spongy receptacle, enlarging to form a rounded, multiple fruit, 10–20 cm/4–8 in diameter, and green to brownish when ripe, filled with a white, fibrous pulp. It was introduced in…

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bream - Types of Bream

Deep-bodied freshwater fish (Abramis brama) found in quiet lowland rivers and lakes of N Europe; length up to c.60 cm/2 ft. The name is also used for various similarly deep-bodied fishes in other families, both freshwater and marine. (Family: Cyprinidae.) Bream is a general term for a number of species of freshwater and marine fish, mainly, but not exhaustively, drawn from the genera Abra…

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breast - Anatomy of the female breasts, Function, Size and shape, Development, Cultural status

The milk-producing organ of the female reproductive system; also known as the mammary gland. It is composed of glandular tissue enclosed in thick masses of fat, supported by fibrous tissue and covered by skin. The two breasts in humans are found on the front of the chest: they are small in children, but at puberty the female breasts increase rapidly in size, whereas in males they remain rudimentar…

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breast cancer - History of breast cancer, Types of breast cancer, Epidemiologic risk factors and etiology

One of the commonest malignant tumours in women. It first appears as a lump within breast tissue, and spreads locally to the skin, which may ulcerate, and to the lymph nodes. Blood-borne spread also occurs to bones, lungs, liver, and other organs. Treatment includes surgical removal of the tumour or breast (mastectomy) and a combination of hormonal and anti-cancer drugs. Some countries routinely s…

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breast milk - Composition, Comparison to other milks

The product of the female milk-producing (mammary) gland of humans and other mammals. Its composition is variable, both during a feed and throughout lactation. Human breast milk is rich in the antibodies of the secretory class (immunoglobulin A) and in other antimicrobial factors. Its iron content is in a highly absorbable form. Its quality remains more or less constant, despite quite marked varia…

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breccia - Nomenclature, Types, Ornamental uses

Coarse sedimentary rock made up of a mixture of angular rock cemented by a finer-grained matrix. It usually results from local processes such as landslides and geological faulting, in which rock fracturing occurs. Breccia (IPA: /ˈbrɛtʃiə, ˈbrɛʃ-/, Italian: breach) is typically a sedimentary rock composed of angular fragments from a previous rock structure, cemented in a matrix that m…

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The Breckland

A sandy region of heathland on the border of Norfolk and Suffolk, E England, UK. It was an important area of Neolithic flint mining. Today large areas are covered in conifer plantations. The Breckland is a landscape region and unusual natural habitat of England. An area of considerable interest for its unusual flora and fauna it lies to the south east of another unusual habitat, The F…

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Brecon Beacons - The range, The National Park, Towns and Villages in the Brecon Beacons

National park in S Wales, UK; area 1434 km²/553 sq mi; established in 1957; three main peaks of ‘the Beacons’, Pen-y-Fan, Corn Du, and Cribyn, rise to c.900 m/2950 ft; includes Brecon cathedral, Llanthony Priory, Llangorse Lake. The Brecon Beacons (Welsh: Bannau Brycheiniog) are a mountain range located in the south-east of Wales. They form the nucleus of the Brecon Beacons National…

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Breda - Population centres, The city of Breda

51°35N 4°45E, pop (2000e) 132 000. Industrial city in North Brabant province, S Netherlands, at confluence of Mark and Aa Rivers; bishopric; important cultural centre, headquarters of many educational institutes; charter, 13th-c; known for the Compromise of Breda, a protest against Spanish tyranny (1566), and Charles II's Declaration of Breda before his restoration (1660); railway; engineering…

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brehon laws - Women and marriage, Kingship, Clientship, Decline of the Brehon Laws, Trivia

The corpus of ancient Irish customary law written down by the 8th-c; the name derives from Irish breitheamh ‘judge’. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in the late 12th-c, Irish law gave much ground to English common law. It was finally abolished by statute in the early 17th-c. The Brehon Laws were statutes that governed everyday life and politics in Ireland until the Norman i…

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Bremerhaven - Twin cities, Transportation, Tourist attractions, Trade, Sport

53°34N 8°35E, pop (2000e) 134 000. Seaport in Bremen province, NW Germany; on E bank of Weser estuary, 56 km/35 mi N of Bremen; city status, 1851; united with Wesermunde, 1938; railway; Europe's largest fishing port for many years, declining in 1990s; trawling, fish processing, shipbuilding and repairing, machinery. Coordinates: 53°33′N 8°35′E Bremerhaven is a city i…

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bremsstrahlung - Outer, Inner, Secondary radiation, The case where acceleration is parallel to velocity, From a plasma

Electromagnetic radiation emitted by decelerating charged particles passing through matter. For example, electrons fired into lead produce bremsstrahlung in the form of X-rays. It is the principal means of energy loss for high energy particles. Bremsstrahlung (help·info), (from the German bremsen, to brake and Strahlung, radiation, thus, "braking radiation"), is electromagnetic radiation p…

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Brenda Atkinson Milner

British psychologist. She studied at Cambridge and at McGill University, Montreal, then taught at Montreal and McGill universities before becoming head of the Neuropsychology Research Unit at the Montreal Neurological Institute (1953). Much of her research into brain function has also had application to the clinic, particularly in relation to the surgical treatment of temporal-lobe epilepsy. …

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Brenda Blethyn - Career, Personal life, Selected filmography

Theatre and film actress, born in Ramsgate, Kent, SE England, UK. After graduating from the Guildford School of Acting she gained early stage experience with the touring Bubble Theatre Company and the Belgrade Theatre, Coventry. In 1975 she joined the Royal National Theatre. Productions at the National include The Mysteries (1979), Bedroom Farce (1987), and The Beaux' Stratagem (1989). Other theat…

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Brendan (Francis) Behan - Biography, Works

Writer, born in Dublin, Ireland. He left school at 14 to become a house painter, and soon joined the IRA. In 1939 he was sentenced to three years in Borstal for attempting to blow up a Liverpool shipyard, and soon after his release given 14 years by a Dublin military court for the attempted murder of two detectives, but was released by a general amnesty (1946). He was in prison again in Manchester…

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Brenner Pass

47°02N 11°32E. Mountain pass in the C Tirol Alps on the border between Italy and Austria; altitude 1371 m/4498 ft; on the main route between Bolzano and Innsbrück; the lowest pass over the main chain of the Alps; open at all seasons of the year. Below the pass, high Alpine pastures have been used by dairy cattle for summer grazing, making space available at lower altitudes for cultivat…

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Brescia - History, Sports, Famous citizens, Gallery, Sources and external links

45°33N 10°13E, pop (2000e) 209 000. Industrial town and capital of Brescia province, Lombardy, N Italy; rail junction; textiles, clothing, shoes, iron and steel, metal products, transport equipment, marble quarrying, precision engineering, firearms; market centre for local agricultural produce; Tempio Capitolino (AD 73), and other Roman remains; cathedrals (11th-c, 17th-c), Renaissance town ha…

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Bret Harte - Life and career, Criticism, Dramatic and Musical Adaptations of on Harte's work

Writer and consular official, born in Albany, New York, USA. Moving to California at age 18, he worked at various jobs before becoming a journalist. He became an official of the US Mint in San Francisco (1863–70) but worked at his own writing and co-edited the Overland Monthly (1868–70), for which he commissioned some articles by Mark Twain. Harte's stories and poems on Western themes helped lau…

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Brethren (in Christ) - Schwarzenau Brethren groups, Other Brethren groups

A Church founded in the late 18th-c in Pennsylvania, USA, deriving from Mennonite tradition; also known as River Brethren. Pietistic, evangelical, and missionary, it soon spread to Canada, and in the 20th-c, although numerically small, supported missionary churches in Asia, Africa, and Central America. The Anabaptist-Pietist Brethren, and even other Brethren bodies, share many beliefs. …

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Breton

The Celtic language of Brittany, introduced by migration from Cornish-speaking S England in the 5th-c AD. It is thought the two languages were mutually intelligible until the 15th-c, but Breton is marked by increasing influence from French, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary. Breton was not recognized as a school subject until the 1950s, nor was it legal to christen a child with a Breton n…

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Brett (Lorenzo) Favre - Family tragedies, Records and milestones, Career stats

Player of American football, born in Pass Christian, Mississippi, USA. He set six school passing records while at Southern Mississippi, and was selected by the National Football League Atlanta Falcons in 1991, later joining the Green Bay Packers as quarterback. He became only the second player to win the NFL's Most Valuable Player Award in consecutive years (1995–6). He shared the award again in …

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Brett Whiteley - Career

Artist, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied in Sydney, and also in France, after winning a scholarship. Represented in the 1961 Whitechapel Gallery exhibition, he won the international prize at the second Paris bienniale the same year. He later worked in New York City (1967–9), and continued to travel and exhibit abroad regularly. The most famous Australian painter of his ge…

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breviary - History

A book of liturgical material (psalms, hymns, lessons, prayers) used in the Daily Office, and required to be recited by all priests and clerics in major orders of the Roman Catholic Church. It was revised by Pope Paul VI in 1971, to incorporate the recommendations of Second Vatican Council. A breviary (from Latin brevis, 'short' or 'concise') is a liturgical book containing the public or ca…

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brewing - Brewing beer, The brewing process

The art and technique of producing an alcoholic beverage (most often a variety of beer) from cereals. Grain is steeped in water, and allowed to germinate. The germination is halted by heating (malting), and after milling to crush the grain and expose the contents, the malt is mashed (leached with hot water) to give a solution of fermentable carbohydrates (the wort). Sugar may be added. The wort is…

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Breyten Breytenbach - Poetry in English, Prose in English, Collaboration

Painter, poet, and essayist, born in Bonnievale, S South Africa. He left South Africa in 1960, and settled in Paris, where he exhibited as a painter. The first of over a dozen volumes of poetry was Ysterkoei Moet Sweet (1964, The Iron Cow Must Sweat). In 1975 he returned to South Africa in disguise, was arrested, and sentenced to nine years imprisonment for ‘terrorism’. He wrote of his prison ye…

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Brezhnev Doctrine

The term applied to the policies of Leonid Brezhnev, general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party (1964–82), which combined strict political control internally with peaceful co-existence and detente abroad. It also justified intervention (including military) in the internal affairs of other socialist states, as in Czechoslovakia (1968). The Brezhnev period was later referred to in the USSR as …

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Brian (Alexander) Johnston - Incidents and gaffes, Other work

Broadcaster and commentator, born in Little Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and worked in the family coffee business (1934–9), before joining the BBC in 1945. He specialized in cricket commentary on radio and TV, and became a respected commentator on state occasions, such as the royal weddings. He also presented the touring programme Down Your Way (1972–87). He…

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Brian (Charles) Lara - Man of the Match Awards, Trivia

Cricketer, born in Cantaro, NW Trinidad, West Indies. He came to prominence in the 1994 season, when he broke several cricketing records, scoring seven centuries in eight successive innings, and breaking the world Test record with 375 for the West Indies against England. Six weeks later he became the first batsman to score over 500 runs in one innings in first-class cricket, playing for Warwickshi…

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Brian (David) Josephson

Physicist, born in Cardiff, S Wales, UK. He studied at Cambridge, was elected a fellow of Trinity College (1962), and became professor of physics from 1974. While a research student (1962) he deduced theoretically what is now called the Josephson effect at the junction of two superconductors, and for which he shared the 1973 Nobel Prize for Physics. His subsequent research interests include parano…

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Brian (Denis) Cox

Actor, director, and writer, born in Dundee, E Scotland, UK. He studied at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, and made his debut with the Dundee Repertory in 1961. An experienced actor, he has played many Shakespearean leading roles, including Titus Adronicus (1987) and King Lear (1990–1). Among his films are Hidden Agenda (1990), Rob Roy (1994), Rushmore (1998), For the Love of the Ga…

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Brian (Eric) Phelps

Diver, born in Chelmsford, Essex, SE England, UK. He took the highboard silver medal at the 1958 Commonwealth Games, and gold medals in the European championships of 1958 and 1962. He won an Olympic bronze medal at the springboard in 1960, and went on to win gold medals in the 1962 and 1966 Commonwealth Games. Brian Phelps (born Brian Wayne Phelps on May 5, 1959 in Cambridge, Illinois) is a…

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Brian (Wilson) Aldiss - Books

Science-fiction writer and novelist, born in East Dereham, Norfolk, E England, UK. He studied at Framlingham College, and his first novel, The Brightfount Diaries, appeared in 1955. He is best known as a writer of science fiction, such as Hothouse (1962, US title The Long Afternoon of Earth) and The Saliva Tree (1966). He has written collections of short stories, and has produced histories of scie…

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Brian Bevan - Eastern Suburbs, Warrington

Rugby league player, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. A wing-threequarter, he scored a record 796 tries in 18 seasons (1945–64). He played for Blackpool Borough and Warrington, and was one of the inaugural members of the Rugby League Hall of Fame in 1988. Brian Eyrl Bevan (born 1924 in Bondi, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia and died 1991 in Southport, Lancashire, England) …

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Brian Clough - Playing career, Management career, Retirement, Death and legacy, Quotations

Footballer and manager, born in Middlesbrough, NE England, UK. One of the most prolific goalscorers in English football, he scored 251 goals in 274 Football League matches, the best ratio of goals per game of any postwar player. Often controversial, his outspoken personality alienated him from authority and he only made two appearances for the England national team (1959). When injury terminated h…

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Brian De Palma - Career beginnings and highlights, Filmography, Bibliography

Film director, born in Newark, New Jersey, USA. He won a number of prizes directing short films before making his feature-length debut with The Wedding Party (1966). He enjoyed commercial success with Carrie (1976) and The Untouchables (1987). Later films include Bonfire of the Vanities (1990), Carlito's Way (1993), Mission: Impossible (1996), Mission to Mars (2000), Femme Fatale (2002), and The B…

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Brian Friel - Plays

Playwright, born in Killyclogher, Co Tyrone, W Northern Ireland, UK. He was a teacher in Derry, writing short stories and radio plays, before turning to the live theatre with This Doubtful Paradise (staged in Belfast in 1959). He gained recognition with Philadelphia, Here I Come! (1964), the first of numerous plays - including The Freedom of the City (1974), Faith Healer (1979), Translations (1980…

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Brian Merriman - Merriman's life, Cúirt An Mheán Oíche, Merriman's heritage

Irish Gaelic poet, born in Ennistymon, Co Clare, W Ireland. He became a schoolteacher and small farmer in Feakle, later (1790) marrying and settling as a mathematics teacher in Limerick. He was author of the epic Cúirt an Mheáin Oidhche (c.1786, The Midnight Court). The poem was banned in all English translations after Irish independence, but the Irish language itself was deemed incapable of hav…

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Brice Marden

Painter, born in Bronxville, New York, USA. He studied in Boston and Yale, and by 1965 was producing uniformly coloured canvases of horizontal and vertical formats. From 1968 he made two- and three-panel canvases, each of contrasting monochromatic colour. His paintings of the 1980s involved crossing diagonal and vertical lines. Born in Bronxville, New York, he received his BFA at the Boston…

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bridge (engineering) - Bridge structural and evolutionary taxonomy

A structure carrying a road, path, or railway over an obstacle. The principal types are arch bridges, girder bridges, and suspension bridges. The simplest consist of slabs of stone or branches laid across a stream. Bridges may be built of timber, stone, iron, steel, brick, or concrete, different materials being suited to different forms of construction. The greatest spans are achieved by suspensio…

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bridge (recreation) - Bridge structural and evolutionary taxonomy

A popular card game developed from whist, using the full set of 52 playing cards, and played by two pairs of players. It may have originated in Turkey, Russia, or India, but the first published reference to the game was found in a 1529 sermon by an Englishman, Bishop Latimer. Auction bridge was brought to England by a British officer serving in India (c.1894) and became popular at the Portland Clu…

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Bridgend - History, Politics, Economy, Transport, Education, Health, Culture, Famous People From Bridgend

pop (2001e) 128 600; area 246 km²/95 sq mi. County (unitary authority from 1996) in S Wales, UK; administrative centre, Bridgend; castle (12th-c), resort at Porthcawl. Bridgend (Welsh: Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) is a town in the traditional county of Glamorgan and the main town in the county borough of Bridgend in south Wales. The river crossed by the original bridge which gave the tow…

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Bridget Riley

Artist, born in London, UK. She studied at Goldsmith's College of Art (1949–52) and the Royal College of Art (1952–5). Her first one-woman exhibition was in London at Gallery One in 1962, followed by others worldwide. She is a leading practitioner of Op Art, manipulating overall flat patterns, originally in black and white but later in colour, using repeated shapes or undulating lines, often cre…

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Bridgetown - Geography and climate, History, The city, Society and culture, Economy, Transportation, Re-Development, Sister cities

13°06N 59°36W, pop (2000e) 6100. Seaport and capital city of Barbados, West Indies, on Carlisle Bay in the SW of the island; a new deep-water harbour built to the NW; resort of Paradise Beach to the N; University of the West Indies (1963); tourism, sugar manufacturing; cathedral; one of the earliest monuments commemorating Lord Nelson. The City of Bridgetown, population 96,578 (2006) met…

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Bridgewater Canal - The Route, History

An inland waterway in England commissioned by Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater (1736–1893), and constructed (1762–72) by James Brindley. The canal links Worsley to Manchester, crossing the Irwell valley by viaduct, and continues to Liverpool. It is 64 km/40 mi long. The Bridgewater Canal is a canal in North West England, near Manchester. Cranes are located at intervals along the…

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Bridgnorth - History, Other

52º33N 2º25W, pop (2001e) 52 500. Market town in E Shropshire, C England, UK; located on the R Severn, it was originally a mediaeval crossing place; formerly a commercial river port, now a busy town and commuter area for Wolverhampton; birthplace of Baron Berners, Francis Moore, Thomas Percy; N terminus of the Severn Valley Railway that runs to Kidderminster; has Britain's only inland cliff ra…

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Bridgwater - History, Industry, Arts, Notable people, Natural environment, Twinning

51º08N 3º00W, pop (2002e) 38 000. Town in Sedgemoor district, Somerset, SW England, UK; located on the R Parrett, 15 km/9 mi NNE of Taunton; birthplace of Robert Blake; railway; textiles, footwear, electrical goods, plastics; church of St Mary (14th-c), Admiral Blake Museum; 6 km/4 mi ESE is the site of the Battle of Sedgemoor. Bridgwater in Somerset, England, is a market town, the …

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brigandage - Origin of the word, Brigandage as resistance, Causes of brigandage, Brigandage in Greece, Brigandage in Corsica

The activity of individuals or organized bands of outlaws that commit armed offences against people or property. The phenomenon often takes place in times of economic or political crisis, as it did in S Italy, first in 1799 and again after the reunification of Italy (1861–5). In the latter case, it became an organized guerrilla warfare waged by the peasant class reacting against heavy taxation an…

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brigantine

A two-masted sailing vessel, square-rigged on the foremast and fore- and aft-rigged on the aftermast. Used mainly in the late 19th-c, a few are still in commission. In sailing, a brigantine is a vessel with two masts, at least one of which is square rigged. In modern parlance, a brigantine is a principally fore-and-aft rig with a square rigged foremast, as opposed to a brig whic…

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Brigham Young - Life, Actions as Church President, Plural Wives, Legacy

Religious leader and colonizer of Utah, born in Whitingham, Vermont, USA. He was an undirected farmer and house painter in upstate New York until he was baptized into the Mormon church in 1832. He led converts to Kirtland, OH, and was recognized as a successful missionary when Joseph Smith chose him as one of the Twelve Apostles in 1835. He directed the Mormons' move to Nauvoo, IL, and led a succe…

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Brighton - History, Landmarks, Culture, Commerce, Education, Politics, Sport, Transport, Miscellanea, References and notes

50°50N 0°10W, pop (2000e) 144 400. Resort city in Brighton and Hove unitary authority, SE England, UK; on the English Channel, 77 km/48 mi S of London; in 1782 the Prince of Wales (later George IV) took up residence here; city status, 2000; railway; University of Sussex (1961), 5 km/3 mi NE; University of Brighton (1992, formerly Brighton Polytechnic); food processing, furniture; conferenc…

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Brigid (Antonia Susan) Brophy - Writings by the author

Writer and critic, born in London, UK. She studied at Oxford, and married Sir Michael Levey in 1954. Her novels included Hackenfeller's Ape (1953), Flesh (1962), In Transit (1970), and Palace Without Chairs (1978). Among her non-fiction titles are Black Ship to Hell (1962) and Black and White: a Portrait of Aubrey Beardsley (1968), and she co-wrote the controversial Fifty Works of English and Amer…

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Brigitte Bardot - Biography, Filmography, Discography

Film actress, born in Paris, France. A ballet student and model, her appearance on the cover of Elle led to her film debut in Jean Boyer's Le Trou Normand (1952, Crazy for Love). Et Dieu créa la femme (1956, And God Created Woman) established her reputation as a sex kitten. Her roles exploited an image of petulant sexuality that was reinforced by a much publicized off-camera love life. Her many s…

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Brihadisvara Temple - Description, History, Temple

A Hindu temple at Thanjavur (formerly Tanjore), Tamil Nadu, India; a world heritage monument. The temple was founded by the Chola king Rajaraja I (985–1014) in the late 10th-c. It is renowned for its frescoes and for its 60 m/200 ft tower, encrusted with shrines and relief sculptures. The Brihadeeswarar temple (Tamil: பிருஹதீஸ்வரர் கோவில்) (a…

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brill - Trivia

Large flatfish (Scophthalmus rhombus) found mainly on sandy bottoms in shallow waters (10–75 m/30–250 ft) of NE Atlantic and Mediterranean; body length up to c.60 cm/2 ft; both eyes on left side, mouth large and curved; sandy brown with dark and light flecks; good food fish. (Family: Scophthalmidae.) Brill is a village in Buckinghamshire, England, close to the border with Oxfordshire.…

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brimstone (entomology)

A wide-winged butterfly; wings lemon-yellow in male, greenish-white in female, each with an orange spot; caterpillars blue-green, with fine hairs; found on buckthorn; adult remains dormant under leaves during winter. (Order: Lepidoptera. Family: Pieridae.) …

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Brindisi

40°37N 17°57E, pop (2000e) 90 000. Seaport and capital of Brindisi province, Puglia, S Italy; 100 km/62 mi SE of Bari, on the Adriatic; inner and outer harbour; centre of trade with E Mediterranean from ancient times; used by Crusaders as a naval base; archbishopric; airport; railway; Virgil died here; cathedral (11th-c, rebuilt 18th-c), Castello Svevo (1227). Brindisi is an ancient c…

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brine shrimp

A fairy shrimp found in inland salty or hypersaline waters; swims upside down, beating its leaf-like legs; eggs resistant to desiccation, sold as fish food and hatched in salt water when required. (Class: Branchiopoda. Order: Anostraca.) Brine shrimp (Artemia) are a type of aquatic crustacean. Artemia monica, the variety commonly known as Mono Lake brine shrimp, are found only i…

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briquette - Bio mass briquettes

A fuel made into uniformly shaped lumps, formed by compressing small coal, previously carbonized to render it smokeless, and consolidated by a combustible binder. The term is also used for the uniform lumps of brown coal formed by extrusion or compression. A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable matter, such as escaillage, which can be used to start a fire. Some briquet…

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Brisbane - History, Geography, Governance, Economy, Demographics, Education, Culture, Infrastructure

27°30S 153°00E, pop (2000e) 1 506 000. State capital of Queensland, Australia, on the Brisbane R; founded as a penal colony, 1824; state capital, 1859; third largest city in Australia; the only Australian city with one central metropolitan government; airport; railway; two universities (1909, 1975); commerce, oil refining, chemicals, engineering, shipbuilding, food processing, textiles; City …

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Bristol - History, Economy and industry, Culture, Politics and government, Physical geography, Education, Transport, Twin cities

51°27N 2°5W,pop (2001e) 380 600. Unitary authority in SW England; former (to 1996) administrative centre of Avon county; county status 1373; major port in 17th–18th-c, much involved in the slave trade; 187 km/116 mi W of London; an important shipping centre, ports at Avonmouth, Royal Portbury, Portishead; 2 airports; railway; university (1909); University of the West of England (1992, forme…

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Bristol Channel - Ecology, Coastal cities and towns, Transport, 1607 flood

An inlet of the Atlantic Ocean and an extension of the R Severn estuary, between Wales and England, UK; extends 128 km/79 mi E–W, with a varying width of 5–80 km/3–50 mi at its mouth; the greatest tidal range in England; chief towns on the Welsh (N) coast include Cardiff and Swansea, and on the English (S) coast Ilfracombe and Weston-super-Mare. The Bristol Channel (Welsh: Môr Hafre…

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Brit Awards - Awards

British popular music awards established in 1977 by the British Music Industry to mark the Queen's silver jubilee. That year the ceremony honoured the best in popular music over the previous 25 years, and since 1982 the awards have been presented annually. Nominees in various categories are voted for by an academy of over 1000 members from business and the media. Some winners are voted for by the …

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Britannia metal

A tin alloy used for tableware, containing 90% tin, 7% antimony, and 2% copper; lustrous, hard, and malleable. It was initially used as a substitute for pewter, but has now been largely displaced by nickel-silver, an alloy of nickel, copper, and zinc. After the development of electroplating with silver in 1846, Britannia metal was widely used as the base metal for silver plated household go…

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Britannicus - Birth and early childhood, The fall of his mother, The rise of his brother

The son of the emperor Claudius and Messalina, surnamed in honour of his father's triumph in Britain (43). Claudius's fourth wife, Agrippina the Younger, caused her husband to adopt her son Nero, and treat Britannicus as an imbecile; and Nero, after his accession, had his step-brother poisoned. Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (February 12, 41 - February 11, 55) was the son of the Roman…

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British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) - Introduction, Awards presented in London, Awards presented in Los Angeles, Scotland and Wales

A media academy which began in 1947 as the British Film Academy, becoming the Society of Film and Television Arts in 1959, and changing its name to its present title in 1975. The BAFTA award, a bronze theatrical mask, was originally nicknamed a ‘Stella’. Over the years the categories have varied and widened, and currently include awards for best film, director, actor/actress, screenplay, cinemat…

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British Antarctic Survey

A division of the Natural Environment Research Council which has responsibility for research in atmospheric, earth, and life sciences in the Antarctic and surrounding oceans. It supports a number of research stations on the continent, including permanent stations at Signy (60°43S 45°36W), Faraday (65°15S 64°16W), Rothera (67°34S 68°08W), and Haley (75°36S 26°41W). Research includes the con…

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British Antarctic Territory - Geography, Nationality law, Research

British colonial territory 20–80°W and S of 60°S; includes South Orkney Is, South Shetland Is, Antarctic Graham Land Peninsula, and the land mass extending to the South Pole; area 5·7 million km²/2·2 million sq mi; land area (660 000 km²/170 000 sq mi) covered by ice and fringed by floating ice shelves; population solely of scientists of the British Antarctic Survey; territory admin…

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British Association for the Advancement of Science

An organization whose aims are to promote interest and progress in science. At its annual conference the social, political, and economic implications of scientific advances are considered. It was founded in 1831 by a group of scientists disillusioned with the elitist and conservative attitude of the Royal Society. The British Association or the British Association for the Advancement of Sci…

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British Columbia

pop (2000e) 3 675 000; area 947 800 km²/365 945 sq mi. Mountainous province in SW Canada, bordered S by USA, E by Alberta, N by Yukon, and W by the Pacific; several mountain chains, including Rocky Mts, Monaghee Range, Coast Mts; largest islands, Queen Charlotte, Vancouver; ranges cut by fertile valleys of Fraser, Thompson, and Columbia Rivers; many lakes, largest Williston, Okanagan, Koo…

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British Council - Overview, Past Chairs, Recognition, Initiatives, Elton Awards

A London-based organization founded in 1934, with (in 2006) offices in 110 countries throughout the world. The UK's international organization for educational and cultural relations, it works along with the Foreign Office to enhance the UK's reputation in the world as a valued partner. Among its objectives are the promotion of the country's creativity, cultural diversity, and achievements; the cha…

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British Empire - English Empire, Colonisation, Free trade and "informal empire", British East India Company

There were in fact several British Empires: the empire of commerce and settlement in the Caribbean and North America, founded in the 17th-c and partly lost when the 13 colonies declared their independence in 1776; the empire in the East, founded in the 17th-c but developed through the extensive conquest of India (1757–1857) and the acquisition of islands, trading posts, and strategic positions fr…

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British Expeditionary Force (BEF) - World War I, World War II

An army, first established in 1906, sent to France (Aug 1914 and Sep 1939) to support the left wing of the French armies against German attack. In World War 2 its total strength was 394 000, of whom 224 000 were safely evacuated, mainly from Dunkirk, in May–June 1940. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces i…

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British Indian Ocean Territory - Politics and law, Geography and communications

(UK British Dependent Territory) British territory, 1900 km/1180 mi NE of Mauritius, c.2300 islands, comprising the Chagos Archipelago; area, 60 km²/23 sq mi; covering c.54 400 km²/21 000 sq mi of Indian Ocean; tropical maritime climate, hot and humid; acquired by France, 18th-c; annexed by Britain, 1814; bought by the Crown, 1967; population working on copra plantations resettled in Ma…

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British Isles - Geography, History, Sport and Culture, Terminology, Further reading

Group of islands off the NW coast of Europe. It consists of two main islands (Great Britain and Ireland), and many smaller islands, notably the Isle of Man, Isle of Wight, Channel Is, Western Is, Orkney, and Shetland. The British Isles are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe consisting of Great Britain, Ireland, and several thousand smaller surrounding islands a…

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British Library - Historical background, Access to the collections, Legal deposit, Newspapers, Miscellaneous information, Philatelic collections

The national depository created by the British Library Act of 1972 through the amalgamation of the British Museum Library, the National Central Library, and the National Lending Library for Science and Technology. Its reference division is based in London; its lending division in West Yorkshire. A new site for the Library in Euston Rd, London, opened in 1997 after many delays. The British L…

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British Medical Association (BMA)

An association founded in 1832 in Worcester to promote medical and allied sciences, and to maintain the honour of the profession. It is now concerned with issues such as standards of practice, medical education, and conditions of service for doctors. It is listed as a trade union, but is not affiliated to the Trades Union Congress. The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional b…

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British Museum - History, Controversy, The collections, Trivia

The national museum of archaeology and ethnography in Bloomsbury, London, UK. It dates from 1753, when the collection of Sir Hans Sloane was acquired for the nation. To the Sloane collection were added the Harleian and Cotton manuscript collections, forming the nucleus of the British Library, which is still partly housed in the British Museum. Since 1881 the natural history collection has been hou…

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British South Africa Company

A company, formed by Cecil Rhodes, which used a series of concessions from C African chiefs to secure a Royal Charter from the British government in 1889. In 1923–4, its territories were divided into Northern Rhodesia (Zambia after 1964) and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe after 1980). The British South Africa Company (BSAC) was established by Cecil Rhodes through the amalgamation of the Centr…

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British thermal unit - Conversions

In thermodynamics, an old unit of heat; symbol Btu; 1 Btu = 1055 J (joule, SI unit); defined as the heat needed to raise the temperature of a pound of water from 63°F to 64°F; a therm is 105 Btu. One BTU is approximately: Other conversions: …

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Britney (Jean) Spears - Biography, Acting career, In pop culture, Filmography, Products

Pop singer and actress, born in Kentwood, Louisiana, USA. She began competing in talent shows at an early age and attended the Professional Performing Arts School in New York City during school vacations. At age 11 she joined the cast of the popular TV show The All New Mickey Mouse Club, and later signed a development deal with Jive Records. The title track of her first album, Baby One More Time (…

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Brittany - History, Sights, Language, Music, Religion, Gastronomy, Climate, Trivia about Brittany

pop (2000e) 2 923 000; area 27 208 km²/10 502 sq mi. Region and former province of NW France, comprising departments of Côtes-du-Nord, Finistère, Ille-et-Vilaine, and Morbihan; prominent NW peninsula, bounded N by the English Channel, S by the Bay of Biscay; rugged and striking coastline; large tracts of heathland rising to 391 m/1283 ft at Monts d'Arrée and 326 m/1069 ft at Montag…

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brittle star - Range, Disk and internal organs, Locomotion, Trophic levels

A starfish-like marine invertebrate (echinoderm) which typically has five slender arms sharply demarcated from the central disc; arms sometimes branched; c.2000 species, found from the intertidal zone to deep sea; most feed as scavengers. (Class: Ophiuroidea.) Brittle stars are echinoderms, closely related to sea stars. The ophiuroids generally have five long slender, whip-like arms which m…

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Britton Chance

Biophysicist and biochemist, born in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, USA. He spent his professional career at the University of Pennsylvania, while concurrently serving as an adviser to many committees and institutions. During 1936–46 he invented many automatic control systems, precision-timing circuits, and optical instruments used for radar and ship-steering in World War 2. His best-known work is h…

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Brno - Historical population, Brno Today, Famous people associated with Brno, Twin cities

49°11N 16°39E, pop (2000e) 390 000. Industrial capital of Jihomoravský region, Czech Republic; at junction of Svratka and Svitava Rivers; third largest city in Czechoslovakia; founded in 10th-c; part of Bohemia, 1229; free city, 1243; formerly capital of Austrian crownland of Moravia; airport; railway; university (1919); technical university (1899); university of agriculture (1919); music con…

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broadbill - Species

A bird native to Africa and S Asia; small with bright plumage, wide bill and short legs; inhabits woodland; pear-shaped nests often suspended from branches over water; eats insects, fruit, and seeds. (Family: Eurylaimidae, 14 species.) The broadbills are a family of small passerine bird species found in tropical southeast Asia, with a few species in Africa. In addition to the Sa…

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broadcasting - Business models of broadcasting, Distribution methods

The provision of television and radio programmes and commercials for the general public; also, the technical transmission of television and radio signals. Starting in the 1920s, broadcasting, whether of the commercial or ‘public-service’ variety, quickly established itself at regional, national, and international levels as a popular source of entertainment, information, and education. The medium…

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Broadmoor

A hospital for mental patients who have committed crimes and who require treatment under conditions of security (formerly known as the criminally insane). Established in 1863 near Crowthorne, Berkshire, S England, UK, it is the prototype special hospital, and has lent its name to the generic description Broadmoor institutions. Broadmoor may refer to several different places: …

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Broadstairs - Geography, Attractions, Famous residents, History, Lifeboats, Twin Cities/Towns, Gallery

51º22N 1º27E, pop (2002e) 22 700. Resort town in Thanet district, Kent, SE England, UK; on the English Channel, SE of Margate; situated on a cliff top overlooking Viking Bay; birthplace of Sir Richard Rodney Bennett, Thomas Russell Crampton, Sir Edward Heath; railway; electrical goods; Bleak House, where Charles Dickens wrote David Copperfield, is now a museum; Dickens Week (Jun); Folk Week (A…

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Broadway

The name of a street in New York City (25 km/15·5 mi long, within the city limits) which since the 1890s has become famous as a symbol of commercial theatre in the USA, though the number of Broadway theatres has declined as production costs have soared. In the 1950s the label Off-Broadway emerged to distinguish those theatrical enterprises in New York which operated outside the crippling econom…

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broccoli

A type of cultivated cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for the immature flowers, which are edible. Winter broccoli has large, white heads similar to cauliflower; sprouting broccoli (calabrese) produces numerous small, purplish, green, or white spears. (Family: Crucifereae.) …

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bromine

Br, element 35, freezing point ?7°C, boiling point 58·8°C. A corrosive brown liquid containing diatomic molecules (Br2) with an unpleasant and irritating odour. In nature, it does not occur as the free element, and is mainly extracted from brines containing its salts. In its compounds, it shows oxidation states ±1, +3, +5, and +7. Its main uses are in 1,2-dibromoethane, a petrol adduct, and si…

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bromoil process - Method

A method of making photographic prints in which the silver image formed by original development is bleached out, and an oil-pigment ink manually applied with a brush to the corresponding gelatine areas. The linked image may be in any colour, and can be transferred by pressure to another support sheet. The Bromoil Process was an early photographic process that was very popular with the Picto…

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bronchiectasis

A chronic condition in which the airways (bronchi) are dilated, and become obstructed with mucus and recurrently infected. This leads to a cough producing purulent sputum, and repeated bouts of pneumonia. It may be caused by a number of diseases including cystic fibrosis, measles, whooping cough, and tuberculosis. …

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bronchitis - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, Treatment, Prognosis, Prevention, History

Inflammation of the airways (bronchi). Acute bronchitis is a serious disease in infants, usually caused by viruses such as influenza which produce intense inflammation of the respiratory tract that may lead to asphyxia. Chronic bronchitis affects adults who smoke cigarettes. Excessive bronchial mucous secretion follows, inducing a chronic cough productive of sputum. Bronchitis is an obstruc…

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bronchoscopy - History, Indications, Bronchoscopy - The Procedure, After the procedure, Risks

The direct inspection of the trachea and bronchi with a flexible fibre-optic bronchoscope introduced under local or general anaesthetic into the respiratory passages. It permits tissue biopsies to be taken. Bronchoscopy allows a doctor to examine inside one's airway for any abnormality such as foreign bodies, bleeding, a tumor, or inflammation. A German, Gustav Killian, performe…

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Bronislava Nijinska

Ballet dancer and choreographer, born in Minsk, Belarus, the sister of Vaslav Nijinsky. She studied at St Petersburg, and became a soloist with the Maryinski company. She danced with the Diaghilev Ballets Russes company in Paris and London (1909–14) before returning to Russia during World War 1, where she danced and started a school in Kiev. She joined Diaghilev in 1921 as principal choreographer…

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Bronson (Crocker) Howard - Literature

Playwright, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He was one of the first Americans both to use indigenous subjects and to make a living as a playwright. One of his best-known plays is The Young Mrs Winthrop (1882). In 1899 he collaborated with Brander Matthews in Peter Stuyvesant. He married a sister of Sir Charles Wyndham, the English actor, and he had homes both in New York and London, where s…

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Bront

Three novelists and poets, Anne (1820–49), Charlotte (1816–55), and Emily (1818–48), born in Thornton, West Yorkshire, N England, UK. They were the daughters of Patrick Brontë (1777–1861), a clergyman of Irish descent, and his Cornish wife, Maria Branwell (1783–1821), and sisters of Maria Brontë and Elizabeth Brontë, who both died in childhood, and Branwell Brontë (1817–48), a brother wh…

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bronze - History, Properties, Classification of copper and its alloys

One of the earliest known alloys; two parts copper and one part tin. Hard and resistant to corrosion, it is traditionally used in bell casting, and is the most widely used material for metal sculpture. The sculptor first prepares a clay model which is cast by means of a plaster mould. Ornamented bronzes of high quality were made in China by the 16th-c BC. Bronze refers to a broad range of c…

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Brook Taylor

Mathematician, born in Edmonton, N Greater London, UK. He studied at St John's College, Cambridge, and in 1715 published his Methodus incrementorum (Methods of Incrementation) containing his theorem on power series expansions, later recognized as the basic principle of differential calculus. Brook Taylor (August 18, 1685 – December 29, 1731) was an English mathematician. His f…

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Brooklyn - Geography, Government, Economy, Demographics, Culture, Transportation, Education

40°40N 73°58W, pop (2000e) 2 465 300. Borough of New York City, co-extensive with Kings Co, New York State, USA; area 182 km²/70 sq mi; incorporated into New York City, 1898; a major port, at the SW corner of Long Island; linked to Staten I by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by the Brooklyn Bridge; Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences (1823); New York Naval Shipyard (180…

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Brooklyn Bridge - A bridge for pedestrians in an age of automobiles, Cultural significance

A suspension bridge built (1869–83) across East R from Brooklyn to Manhattan I, New York City, USA; first in the world to use steel cables; length of main span 486 m/1595 ft. The Brooklyn Bridge (originally the New York and Brooklyn Bridge), one of the oldest suspension bridges in the United States, stretches 5,989 feet (1825?m) over the East River connecting the New York City boro…

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Brooks Adams

Geopolitical historian, born in Quincy, Massachusetts, USA, the son of Charles Francis Adams. He studied at Harvard, practised law in Boston, travelled widely, then became a lecturer in Boston University school of law (1904–11). His major work was The Law of Civilization and Decay (1896), to which he added a number of other works. He was an impassioned racialist and prophet of American doom, indu…

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Brooks Atkinson

Journalist and drama critic, born in Melrose, Massachusetts, USA. He was the erudite, highly influential theatre critic for the New York Times for over 30 years (1925–42, 1946–60). After a wartime assignment as Times correspondent in China and the Soviet Union, he was awarded a 1947 Pulitzer Prize for reporting. Brooks Atkinson (November 28, 1894 - January 14, 1984) was the theater critic…

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broom - History of broom design, Brooms and witchcraft

The name applied to several different shrubs in the pea family, Leguminosae, but particularly to the common broom (Cytisus scoparius), native to Europe, a shrub growing to 2·5 m/8 ft; branches numerous, green, straight, and stiff; leaves mostly trifoliate, soon falling; pea-flowers golden yellow, up to 2 cm/¾ in long, in loose, leafy clusters at the ends of the branches; pods up to 4 cm/1½…

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broomrape

An annual or perennial, parasitic and lacking chlorophyll; only densely-flowered spikes appear above ground; leaves reduced to scales; flowers 2-lipped, in subdued colours, mainly browns; mainly native to Old World warm temperate regions. All food is obtained via haustoria attached to the roots of the host. Despite the name, broom is not the only host: others include ivy and members of the daisy f…

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brown algae

A large group of predominantly marine seaweeds, characterized by their photosynthetic pigments which include chlorophylls a and c, ?-carotene, and fucoxanthin; reproduction usually sexual, involving a sperm with two whip-like flagella; over 1500 species known; mainly from intertidal and sublittoral zones; body form ranges from filament-like to large blades. (Class: Phaeophyceae.) The Phaeop…

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brown dwarf - History, Some notable brown dwarfs

A hypothetical very large planet, which is just below the critical mass (0·08 Suns) needed to ignite a stellar nuclear reaction in its interior. There is evidence for brown dwarfs as companions to a handful of stars. Brown dwarfs, a term coined by Jill Tarter in 1975, were originally called black dwarfs, a classification for dark substellar objects floating freely in space which were too l…

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browning

A brown colour produced in some foods under certain chemical circumstances. Non-enzymatic browning occurs when foods containing protein and carbohydrate are heated, the result of the amino acid lysine reacting with free sugars. Enzymatic browning occurs with some fruits, such as apples, when exposed to oxygen. Several famous people were/are called Browning: There are a few towns…

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Browning automatic rifle - Design, Variants, Civilian ownership

A gas-operated light machine-gun designed by US gunsmith John Moses Browning (1855–1926) in 1917, and produced in various countries until 1950. The weapon had a 20-round magazine and an effective range of 600 m/2000 ft. The Browning Automatic Rifle (commonly known as the BAR; The BAR was originally intended as a light automatic rifle, but spent much of its career in various guises used a…

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browser

A type of computer program which uses the Internet to locate and transfer documents held on Web sites, and presents the documents to the user of the program in a way which makes them easy to read and understand. The two most common browsers in use are Netscape Communicator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. For Wikipedia: Browse, see Wikipedia:Categorical index. Browser can refer …

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Bruce (Alonzo) Goff

Architect, born in Alton, Kansas, USA. Mentored by Frank Lloyd Wright, he was known primarily for his diverse late Prairie School midwestern houses, incorporating unusual materials and an inventive use of space. Born in Alton, Kansas, Goff was a child prodigy who apprenticed at the age of twelve to Rush, Endacott and Rush of Tulsa, Oklahoma. After stints in Chicago and Berkeley,…

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Bruce (Edward) Babbitt

Lawyer, governor, cabinet officer, and environmentalist, born in Flagstaff, Arizona, USA. As a Marshall Scholar, he went to England to study geophysics at the University of Newcastle (1962). After a brief stint with Gulf Oil, he left petroleum geology to study at Harvard Law School (1965). He worked for Volunteers in Service to America, marched for civil rights in the South, and then went back to …

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Bruce (Fairchild) Barton

Advertizing executive, writer, and US representative, born in Robbins, Tennessee, USA. He was a magazine editor and publicist before founding a New York advertising agency with George Batten, Roy Durstine, and Alex Osborn (1919). For more than 40 years he headed what became BBDO, one of the country's largest advertising agencies, and created the character Betty Crocker. He wrote many inspirational…

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Bruce (Frederick Joseph) Springsteen - Biography, E Street Band, Discography

Musician, born in Freehold, New Jersey, USA. A self-taught guitarist, he began performing in 1965 with a local high-school group, the Castiles. Over the next five years, he was a member in several Asbury Park, NJ bands before forming his own 10-piece group in 1971 and signing with Columbia Records the following year. Promoted as the new Bob Dylan, his highly-anticipated debut album was released in…

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Bruce Beresford - Selected films as director

Film director, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied in Sydney and worked at the British Film Institute (1966–71) before directing his first feature, The Adventures of Barry McKenzie (1972). He was a key figure in the revival of the Australian film industry, and won the Australian Film Institute's Best Director award for Don's Party (1976) and Breaker Morant (1979). He has sin…

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Bruce Catton - Life, Major works, Other honors

Historian, born in Petoskey, Michigan, USA. Before becoming America's most popular historian of the Civil War, he worked as a journalist in Boston, Cleveland, and Washington, and held posts with the US Department of Commerce (1945–6, 1948). His best-selling A Stillness at Appomattox (1953) earned him a Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award in 1954. Editor of American Heritage Magazine from 1954 …

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Bruce Conner - Early life

Independent film-maker, born in McPherson, Kansas, USA. Also an artist and art teacher, he specialized in 16mm films, such as Cosmic Ray (1962) and America Is Waiting (1981). Bruce Conner is an American sculptor, painter, filmmaker and photographer whose work has extended the work of the surrealists such as Max Ernst and Joseph Cornell while dealing with issues surrounding psychedelia…

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Bruce Forsyth - Life history, Selected filmography

Entertainer, born in Edmonton, N Greater London, UK. He trained as a dancer, but is best known as the compère or host on many UK television shows, such as Sunday Night at the London Palladium (1958–60), The Generation Game (1971–8, 1992–4), and Play Your Cards Right (1980–7, 1994–9, 2002). He has co-hosted BBC's Strictly Come Dancing since 2003. In 1995 the British Comedy Awards presented hi…

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Bruce Kent

Clergyman and peace campaigner, born in London, UK. He studied in Canada and at Oxford University, was ordained in 1958, then served as a curate in London (1958–63) and as a parish priest (1977–80). He was also Catholic chaplain to London University (1966–74) and to Pax Christi (1974–7). He became increasingly involved in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND), becoming its general secreta…

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