Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 1

Cambridge Encyclopedia

(Abraham Alphonse) Albert Gallatin - Early life, Political career

Financier and statesman, born in Geneva, SW Switzerland. He studied at Geneva in 1779, then went to the USA (1780), settling in Pennsylvania. He was elected to the US House of Representatives (1795), where he set up the House Committee on Finance (later the Ways and Means Committee), and became secretary of the Treasury (1801–13). He played an important part in the peace negotiations with Britain…

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(Adeline) Virginia Woolf - Early life, Work, Modern scholarship and interpretations, Cultural references

Novelist, born in London, UK, the daughter of Leslie Stephen. Educated privately, in 1912 she married Leonard Woolf, with whom she set up the Hogarth Press (1917). A leading member of the Bloomsbury Group, she made a major contribution to the development of the novel, in such works as Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927), and The Waves (1931), noted for their impressionistic style, a deve…

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(Adolph Wilhelm) Hermann Kolbe

Scientist, born near Göttingen, C Germany. He studied chemistry under Wöhler and Bunsen, succeeded Bunsen as professor at Marburg (1851), and moved to Leipzig (1865–84). An outstanding teacher and experimenter, he did much in the development of organic chemical theory, and was one of the first to synthesize an organic compound from inorganic materials. Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe (Septe…

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(Ahmed) Salman Rushdie - Early life, Career, Awards, The Satanic Verses controversy, October 2006 Straw-veil controversy

Writer, born in Mumbai, W India, of Muslim parents. He emigrated to Britain in 1965, and studied at Cambridge. He worked as an actor and an advertizing copywriter before becoming a writer, producing his first novel, Grimus, in 1975. He became widely known after the publication of his second novel, Midnight's Children (1981, Booker, James Tait Black prizes), a fantasia of Indian history in the 20th…

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(Aim

Sculptor, born in Paris, France. After being the curator of the Louvre during the Commune, he fled to England in 1871, and taught at the Royal College of Art, working on terra-cotta sculptures depicting family life. His realistic modelling influenced many English sculptors of the time. He returned to Paris in 1880 and realized his ambition to become a monumental sculptor by producing the largest m…

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(Albert) Bruce Rogers - External Links, Source

Typographer and book designer, born in Linnwood, Indiana, USA. Trained as an artist, in 1895 he moved to Boston to the Riverside Press, and from 1900 worked in their new limited editions department. Among his typeface designs are the Montaigne (1901) and the Centaur (1915). He became adviser to the Cambridge University Press, UK (1916), the Harvard University Press (1919–34), and the Oxford Unive…

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(Albert) Horton (Jr) Foote - Playwriting career, Screenwriting career

Screenwriter, born in Wharton, Texas, USA. Originally a television scriptwriter, he later won Academy Awards for the scripts of To Kill a Mockingbird (1962) and Tender Mercies (1983). Horton Foote (born March 14, 1916 in Wharton, Texas), is a two-time Academy Award and one-time Pulitzer Prize and Emmy Award-winning and Tony Award-nominated American author and playwright. F…

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(Albert) Scott Crossfield - Biography, Fatal Crash and Reactions, Honors

Aeronautical engineer, born in Berkeley, California, USA. His studies at Washington University were interrupted by World War 2, when he joined the US Navy as a pilot, mainly as an instructor. He later completed his degree in aeronautical engineering at Washington (1949), gaining a masters in 1950. That year he began work at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), and on 20 Novembe…

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(Alexander) Auberon Waugh - Life and career, Journalistic career, Private Eye, Waugh's views, Literary career, Death

Journalist and novelist, the eldest son of Evelyn Waugh, born in Dulverton, Somerset, SW England, UK. He studied at Oxford, worked on the Daily Telegraph (1960), and the same year published his first novel, The Foxglove Saga. There followed four novels, each well received, but he abandoned fiction for lack of financial reward. There are few national papers to which he did not contribute, but his b…

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(Alexander) James Naughtie - Biography

Journalist and broadcaster, born in Milltown of Rothiemay, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. He studied at Aberdeen University and Syracuse University, NY, then worked on various British newspapers, including The Scotsman (1977–84) and The Guardian (1984–8). He then became presenter of the BBC's The World At One (1988–94), and joined the team of Today in 1994. He has also presented several docume…

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(Alexandre) Gustave Eiffel - Early life, Career, Impact, Trivia

Civil engineer, born in Dijon, E France. He designed several notable bridges and viaducts, before working on his most famous project, the Eiffel Tower. He also designed the steel framework of the Statue of Liberty, NY, and built the first aerodynamics laboratory, near Paris. In 1893 he was imprisoned for two years and fined for breach of trust in connection with the Panama Canal. Eiffel was…

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(Alexis) Emmanuel Chabrier - Works

Composer, pianist, and conductor, born in Aubert, C France. After law studies in Paris he became secretary at the ministry of the interior, and devoted himself fully to music in 1879 after hearing Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. His mastery of musical writing was striking, as he was self-taught, proposing new rhythms, melodies, and harmonies. He became assistant to Lamoureux, who created the ‘Nouvea…

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(Alfred) Alistair Cooke - Media beginnings, Move to United States, London Letter, American Letter, The Staff Reporter, The end

Journalist and broadcaster, born in Manchester, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, and won a scholarship to study at Yale and Harvard. He returned to England, working as a film critic for the BBC in 1934, and as London correspondent for a US broadcasting company (NBC). He returned to the USA in 1937, and became a US citizen in 1941. A sympathetic and urbane commentator on…

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(Alfred) Damon Runyon - Biography, Runyon in Popular Culture

Writer and journalist, born in Manhattan, Kansas, USA. After service in the Spanish–American War (1898) he turned to journalism and sports reporting for the New York American, and then to feature-writing with syndicated columns. His short stories, written in a racy style with liberal use of American slang and jargon, and depicting life in underworld New York City and on Broadway, won him enormous…

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(Alfred) Earle Birney - Bibliography, Discography, Reference

Poet, playwright, novelist, and teacher, born in Calgary, Alberta, W Canada. He was best known as a poet, having produced over 20 books of verse. His first collection, David and Other Poems (1942) and Now is Time (1945) both won the Governor-General's Award. His novel Turvey (1949) won the Stephen Leacock Medal, and in 1953 he received the Lorne Pierce Medal for Literature. He also founded the fir…

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(Alfred) Ernest Jones

Psychoanalyst, born in Llwchwy, S Wales, UK. He studied at University College, Cardiff, and qualified as a physician in London. Medical journalism and neurological research brought him into contact with the work of Sigmund Freud. He introduced psychoanalysis into Britain and North America, founded the British Psycho-Analytical Society (1913), as well as the International Journal of Psycho-Analysis…

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(Alojzij) Louis Adamic

Writer, born in Blato, S Croatia (formerly, Yugoslavia). He emigrated to the USA (1913), became a citizen (1918), and served in the US Army in World War 1. He lived in Milford, NJ, and began writing short stories in the early 1920s. He wrote many articles, stories, and books based on his experiences in America and his former life in Yugoslavia, the best known being The Native's Return: An American…

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(Alphonsus Joseph-Mary Augustus) Montague Summers - Life, Works, Other works, Bibliography

British priest and man of letters. He wrote on the theatre and drama of the Restoration, and on other literary subjects, but his most important works are two major reference books on witchcraft, The History of Witchcraft and Demonology (1926) and The Geography of Witchcraft (1927). Montague Summers was the youngest of the seven children of Augustus William Summers, an affluent banker and ju…

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(Alton) Glenn Miller - Life and career, Military service, disappearance, and personality, Legacy, Listen to, See also

Trombonist and bandleader, born in Clarinda, Iowa, USA. He studied at Colorado, joined the Ben Pollack Band before completing his studies, then moved to New York City in 1928, where he worked as a freelance musician and arranger. From 1937 he led a succession of popular dance orchestras, and joined the US Army Air Force in 1942, forming the US Air Force band to entertain the troops. He achieved a …

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(Amalie) Emmy Noether - Mathematical work, Important publications

Mathematician, born in Erlangen, SC Germany. She studied at Erlangen and Göttingen. Though invited to Göttingen in 1915 by David Hilbert, as a woman she could not hold a full academic post at that time, but worked there in a semi-honorary capacity until she emigrated to the USA in 1933 to Bryn Mawr and Princeton. One of the leading figures in the development of abstract algebra, the theory of No…

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(Amasa) Leland Stanford

Railroad builder and government official, born in Watervliet, New York, USA. He practised law in Wisconsin and then moved to California (1852) where he ran a general store. Successful in business, he became governor of California (1861–3) and, more importantly, a founder and president of the Central Pacific Railroad (1863–93). He openly used his political power and ties to assist development of …

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(Amos) Bronson Alcott

Teacher, mystic, and writer, born near Wolcott, Connecticut, USA. The father of Louisa May Alcott, he was largely self-educated and became an itinerant teacher (1823–33) before settling in Boston to found his own school (1834). By this time he was a mystic and transcendentalist, and his radical ideas of educating children, plus his acceptance of a black girl as a pupil, led to the failure of his …

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(Andrew) Bonar Law - Early life, Conservative Leader, Post War and Prime Minister

British statesman and prime minister (1922–3), born in New Brunswick, E Canada. He studied in Canada and Glasgow, was an iron merchant in Glasgow, became a Unionist MP in 1900, and in 1911 succeeded Balfour as Unionist leader. He acted as colonial secretary (1915-16), a member of the war cabinet, Chancellor of the Exchequer (1916-18), Lord Privy Seal (1919), and from 1916 Leader of the House of C…

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(Andrew) Hamilton Hume

Explorer, born in Parramatta, Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. From the age of 17 he made several expeditions, discovering the Goulburn and Yass plains (1822) and L Bathurst in S New South Wales, saw part of the Murray R (1824), made the first sighting of Australia's highest mountain, Mt Kosciuszko, and received grants of land as reward. In 1828 Hume joined Charles Sturt's expedition which d…

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(Andrew) Lamar Alexander - Early life, Political career, Return to Senate, Controversy and criticism

Lawyer and US governor, born in Maryville, Blount Co, Tennessee, USA. A Tennessee lawyer, he served as Howard Baker's legislative assistant (1967–8) and worked for Nixon's congressional relations office (1969). As a Republican governor (1979–87), he spent his first term dealing with scandals left by outgoing governor Ray Blanton, recovering some prestige with the Knoxville World's Fair in 1982. …

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(Anna) Eleanor Roosevelt - Early life, First Lady of the United States, World War II, Postwar Politics, Family matters

US first lady (1933–45) and humanitarian, born in New York City, New York, USA, the niece of Theodore Roosevelt. Shy and insecure as a child, she was educated privately, and in 1905 she married Franklin D Roosevelt, a distant cousin. The first sign of her abilities came during World War 1 when she worked for the Red Cross, and after her husband's polio attack and paralysis (1921) she took an ever…

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(Anthony) Henry Suzzallo

Educator, born in San Jose, California, USA. As its president (1915–26), he developed the University of Washington, Seattle into a major university designed to meet the state's needs. During his presidency (1930–3), the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching issued major reports on higher education in California and federal involvement in education. Henry Suzzallo (August 22,…

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(Antoine) Henri Becquerel

Physicist, born in Paris, France. An expert on fluorescence, he discovered the Becquerel rays, emitted from the uranium salts in pitchblende (1896), which led to the isolation of radium and to the beginnings of modern nuclear physics. For his discovery of radioactivity he shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics with the Curies. Antoine Henri Becquerel (December 15, 1852 – August 25, 1908)…

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(Apollo) Milton Obote - Early life and first presidency, Second term, Death in exile

Ugandan statesman, prime minister (1962–71), and president (1967–71, 1981–5), born in Lango, Uganda. He studied at Makerere College, Kampala, was elected to the Legislative Council (1957), founded the Uganda People's Congress (1960), and became leader of the opposition (1961–2). At independence in 1962 he became the new nation's first prime minister. In 1966 he mounted a coup, deposed King Mut…

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(Aristide) Peter Maurin

Catholic social activist, born in S France. After a decade as a Christian Brother (1893–1903), he became an itinerant worker and emigrated to Canada and then to the USA (1911). In 1932 he met Dorothy Day in New York City and helped shape her views, and together they founded the Catholic Worker movement which promoted grass roots social action to aid the poor. He also wrote for the movement's news…

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(Arnold) Eric Sevareid - Early career, Just one of the boys, Post-war career and the 1950s

Broadcast journalist, born in Velva, North Dakota, USA. He worked at the Minneapolis Journal and was city editor for the Paris Herald Tribune before joining CBS Radio (1939). He served as national correspondent and commentator for the CBS Evening News until 1977. Often characterized as the brightest of ‘Murrow's boys’ at CBS, he had a weakness for vaguely ‘deep’ speculations about the human co…

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(Arthur Annesley) Ronald Firbank

Novelist, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he became a Roman Catholic, but left without taking a degree, and travelled in Europe. His novels (written on piles of blue postcards) are slight but innovative, and anticipate Evelyn Waugh, Anthony Powell, and Ivy Compton-Burnett. His last complete work before his premature death from a disease of the lungs, Concerning the Eccentricitie…

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(Arthur Edson) Blair Moody - Personal life, Bibliography

Journalist and US senator, born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. After winning acclaim as a Washington, DC correspondent for the Detroit News, he was appointed to the US Senate (Democrat, Michigan, 1951–3). He continued to support an international role for the USA as he had in his columns and as had the senator whose seat he filled, Arthur Vandenberg, but he failed to be re-elected. Arthur …

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(Arthur) Eric (Rowton) Gill - Biography, Sexuality, Legacy, Quotations, Pupils of Eric Gill, Selected writings, References

Carver, engraver, and typographer, born in Brighton, East Sussex, SE England, UK. He trained as an architect, but then took up letter-cutting, masonry, and engraving. After his first exhibition (1911) he maintained a steady output of carvings in stone and wood, engravings, and type designs. Among his main works is ‘Prospero and Ariel’ (1931) above the entrance to Broadcasting House, London. …

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(Arthur) Neville Chamberlain - Early life, Lord Mayor of Birmingham, Early ministerial career, Becoming the heir apparent

British statesman and prime minister (1937–40), born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK, the son of Joseph Chamberlain. He studied at Rugby and Birmingham, was Mayor of Birmingham (1915–16), and a Conservative MP from 1918. He was a skilful Chancellor of the Exchequer (1923–4, 1931–7), steering the country back towards prosperity with a policy of low interest rates and easy credit. Th…

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(Avarham) Art Spiegelman - Life, Awards, Notes and references

Cartoonist, born in Stockholm, Sweden. Brought to the USA as a three-year-old, he studied cartooning in high school. While a student at Harpur College (NY) (1965–8) he began creating novelty cards for Tip Top Chewing Gum, and in later years continued to work for them as a creative consultant. In the 1960s and 1970s he contributed a series of comics to underground periodicals, under pseudonyms suc…

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(Avram) Noam Chomsky - Biography, Contributions to linguistics, Contributions to psychology, Opinion on criticism of science culture

Linguist, and social and political theorist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. The son of a distinguished Hebrew scholar, he studied at the University of Pennsylvania, where he was especially influenced by Zellig Harris. After taking his MA there (1951), he spent four years as a junior fellow at Harvard (1951–5), then was awarded a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania (1955). That year …

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(Benjamin) Sumner Welles - Sumner Welles in Cuba, Stimson Doctrine, Hard Copy Sources

Diplomat, born in New York City, New York , USA. Independently wealthy, he joined the Foreign Service in 1915. Specializing in Latin America, he supervised American withdrawal from the Dominican Republic (1922–5). In the state department (1933–43), he championed the Good Neighbor Policy, re-negotiating the Panama Canal treaty (1934–6). Resigning after an alleged homosexual incident, he later wr…

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(Berna Eli) Barney Oldfield - Racing career, Contributions to racing safety, Business ventures

Motor-racing driver, born in Wauseon, Ohio, USA. One of motor-racing's pioneers, he began as a bicycle racer. He was the first to race a car a mile a minute (1903), driving Henry Ford's famous ‘999’ racer. A colourful showman who specialized in short ‘match’ races on dirt tracks, he also established a land speed record in 1910 for a one-mile distance at over 131 mph. He began as a bicy…

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(Bernard) Jocelyn Brooke - Bibliography

Writer, poet, and amateur botanist, born in Kent, SE England, UK. He tried various occupations before joining the family wine firm. During World War 2 he enlisted in the Royal Army Medical Corps, and re-enlisted after the war; but following the critical success of The Military Orchid (1948) he bought himself out and thereafter devoted himself to writing. He followed this with the second and third …

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(Bernd) Heinrich (Wilhelm) von Kleist - Life, Literary Works, Philosophical Essays, Bibliography

Playwright and poet, born in Frankfurt an der Oder, E Germany. He left the army in 1799 to study, and soon devoted himself to literature. He eloquently expresses the conflict of reason and emotion, heroism and cowardice, dreaming and action. His best plays are still popular, notably Prinz Friedrich von Homburg (1821) and his finest tale, Michael Kohlhaas (1810–11). He committed suicide in 1811. …

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(Billings) Learned Hand - Biography, Influence

Jurist, born in Albany, New York, USA. The son and grandson of judges, and cousin of Augustus Hand, he graduated from Harvard in 1893 and from Harvard Law School three years later. A bookish boy, he grew into a sceptical, open-minded adult. He practised in Albany and in New York City until 1909, when he received an appointment as US district judge for the Southern District of New York. In a 52-yea…

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(Bishara) Sirhan Sirhan - Personal information, Applications for parole

Assassin of Senator Robert Kennedy, born in Palestine. He was a refugee whose family settled in Pasadena, CA, in 1956, having fled from Israeli bombings in Beirut. When Robert Kennedy, who was running for the presidential nomination in 1968, took an overtly pro-Israeli stance in order to gain Jewish votes, Sirhan was enraged and shot him. At his trial, he said that Kennedy's repeated promises of a…

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(Carey) Estes Kefauver - Kefauver in Congress, The Kefauver Committee, Kefauver for President

US senator, born in Monroe Co, Tennessee, USA. Elected to the US House of Representatives (Democrat, Tennessee, 1939–49), he sponsored the so-called GI Bill, which gave various benefits to veterans of World War 2. Elected to the US Senate (1949–63), he was an internationalist and civil-rights advocate, and won national fame as head of the Kefauver Committee, which investigated organized crime. H…

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(Carl Artur) Vilhelm Moberg - Works in English translation

Writer, born in Algutsboda, S Sweden. From a family of crofters, his unfinished Min svenska historia 1–2 (1970–1, My Swedish History) looks at history from the viewpoint of the illiterate classes. His best-known work is the series of novels that deal with the 19th-c mass migration of Swedes to the USA, including Utvandrarna (1949, The Emigrants), and Sista brevet till Sverige (1959, Last Letter …

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(Charles Edward Anson) Edwin Markham - Life, Career, Bibliography

Poet and editor, born in Oregon City, Oregon, USA. He studied briefly at Christian College, Santa Rosa, CA, then taught in California (1875–1901). After the sudden success of ‘The Man with the Hoe’ (1899), a poem inspired by Jean-Francois Millet's painting, and ‘Lincoln, the Man of the People’ (1901), he moved to Staten Island, New York, and spent the rest of his life writing and lecturing, b…

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(Charles Louis) Alphonse Laveran

Physician and parasitologist, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Strasbourg faculty of medicine, and became professor of military medicine and epidemic diseases at the military college of Val de Grâce (1874–8, 1884–94). In Algeria, he discovered the blood parasite which causes malaria (Plasmodium Laveraniae, 1880), and he also did important work on other diseases, including sleeping-sickn…

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(Charles Louis) Ambroise Thomas - Further reading

Composer, born in Metz, NE France. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire, where he became a professor of composition (1852) and director (1871). He wrote many light operas for the Opéra Comique and the Grand Opéra, of which Mignon (1866) is the best known. He also composed cantatas, part-songs, and choral pieces. (Charles Louis) Ambroise Thomas (Metz August 5, 1811 - Paris, February 12, 1…

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(Charles) Brian Cox

British academic. He studied at Cambridge, taught English at Hull University (1954–66), then became professor at Manchester and pro-Vice-Chancellor (1987). A member of the Kingman Committee on the English Language, he became chairman of the National Curriculum English Working Group (1988–9). As well as a series of Black Papers on Education (1969–77), his publications include The Free Spirit (19…

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(Charles) Bruce Chatwin - Education, Art and archaeology, Literary career, Style and influence, Personal life, Death at an early age

Writer and traveller, born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He worked at Sotheby's as an expert on modern art for eight years until he temporarily went blind. To recuperate, he went to Africa, where he was converted to a life of nomadic asceticism, and began writing books which combine fiction, anthropology, philosophy, and travel. They include In Patagonia (1977, Hawthornden Prize), …

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(Charles) Kemmons Wilson

Hotelier, born in Osceola, Arkansas, USA. The owner of a slot-machine business and a small cinema chain, he became dissatisfied with family holiday accommodation, and devised the Holiday Inn motel, opening the first one in Memphis in 1952, with others following soon afterwards. He opened the Holiday Inn Innkeeping School in 1959, went international in 1960, and by 1978 had built the world's larges…

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(Charles) Richard Rodgers - Career, Major works, Wider influence

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. He attended Columbia University and studied music, and by age 17 was collaborating with Lorenz Hart on amateur musicals. With Hart as lyricist, during the 1920s–30s he broke from the common Tin Pan Alley musical to develop the musical play. They produced 14 shows containing many popular songs while further integrating libretto, music, and dance. On …

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(Charles) Robert Redford - Biography, Selected filmography

Actor and director, born in Santa Barbara, California, USA. He dropped out of college to study art and acting, and good performances on Broadway and on television led to engagements in Hollywood, but without great success until the film version of his stage role in Barefoot in the Park (1967). Major star parts soon followed, as in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969), The Sting (1973), All th…

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(Charles) Rudolf Friml - Early life, The Firefly, Friml's Greatest Successes, Works, Works cited

Pianist and composer, born in Prague, Czech Republic (formerly Austria-Hungary). He studied under Dvorák at the Prague Conservatory and settled in the USA in 1906 (becoming a citizen in 1925). His completion of The Firefly (1912) for Victor Herbert initiated his long series of highly successful Broadway operettas (1912–34), containing such standards as ‘Indian Love Song’ from Rose Marie (1924)…

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(Charles) Vincent Massey - Background, Political career, Diplomatic career, Return to Canada, Governor General, Later life

Canadian statesman, diplomat, and governor-general, born in Toronto, Ontario, SE Canada, the brother of Raymond Massey. He joined the Liberal Cabinet after World War 1, and became Canada's first minister in Washington (1926–30), high commissioner to Britain (1935–46), and Governor-General of Canada (1952–9). Charles Vincent Massey, CH, CC, PC (February 20, 1887 – December 30, 1967) was…

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(Charles) William Beebe

Oceanographer and ornithologist, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He was curator of ornithology for the New York Zoological Park (Bronx Zoo) (1899) and director of the New York Zoological Society's Department of Tropical Research (1899–1962). Of his many books on tropical birds, he is renowned for his monographs on pheasants in Borneo. He made his record-breaking 3028 ft descent off Bermuda with…

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(Christian Friedrich) Samuel Hahnemann - Life, Hahnemann's Good Reputation as a Scientist

Physician and founder of homeopathy, born in Meissen, E Germany. He studied at Leipzig, and for 10 years practised medicine. He observed that a medicine administered to a healthy person produced similar symptoms to those of the illness it was intended to cure, and developed his law of ‘similars’, around which he built his system of homeopathy. His methods caused him to be prosecuted wherever he …

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(Christian Johann) Heinrich Heine - Life, Controversy in Israel, Selected works, Editions in English

Poet and essayist, born in Düsseldorf, W Germany, of Jewish parentage. He studied banking and law, and in 1821 began to publish poetry, establishing his reputation with his four-volume Reisebilder (1826–7, 1830–1, Pictures of Travel) and Das Buch der Lieder (1827, The Book of Songs). In 1825 he became a Christian to secure rights of German citizenship, but this alienated his own people, and his…

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(Christian Matthias) Theodor Mommsen - Life, Scientific Works, Mommsen as scientific editor and organiser, Mommsen as politician, Trivia

Historian, born in Garding, N Germany. He studied jurisprudence at Kiel, examined Roman inscriptions in France and Italy for the Berlin Academy (1844–7), and held a chair of law at Leipzig (1848–50). In 1852 he became professor of Roman law at Zürich, in 1854 at Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia), and in 1858 professor of ancient history at Berlin. He edited the monumental Corpus inscr…

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(Christian) Felix Klein - Life, Work, Bibliography

Mathematician, born in Düsseldorf, W Germany. He studied at the University of Bonn, and held chairs at Erlangen (1872–5), Munich (1875–80), Leipzig (1880–6), and Göttingen (1886–1913). He worked on geometry, including non-Euclidean geometry, function theory (in which he developed Bernhard Riemann's ideas), and elliptic modular and automorphic functions. His Erlanger Programm showed how diffe…

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(Christian) Friedrich Hebbel - Biography, Works

Playwright, born in Wesselburen, N Germany. He studied in Hamburg from 1835, and after stays in Heidelberg, Munich, and Copenhagen, settled in Vienna (1846). His only contemporary play is Maria Magdalena (1844), his favourite settings being of a legendary, historical, or biblical character, as in Herodes und Marianne (1850) and his masterpiece, the Nibelungen trilogy (1862). He constantly portraye…

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(Clarence) Crane Brinton

Historian and teacher, born in Winsted, Connecticut, USA. He studied at Harvard and Oxford universities, and became known as a brilliant, cosmopolitan scholar and writer as well as a popular teacher at Harvard (1923–68). He worked for the Office of Strategic Services in London (1942–5) during World War 2. An authority on revolutions and a proponent of ‘intellectual history’, his 15 books inclu…

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(Clarence) Malcolm Lowry - Biography, Writings, Bibliography, Biography

Novelist, born in Liscard, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He left school to go to sea and, after an 18-month journey to the East, returned to England, where he studied at Cambridge. His reputation is based on Under the Volcano (1947), a novel set in Mexico, where he lived in 1936–7. He also wrote Ultramarine (1933), based on his first sea voyage, and several other novels published posthumously, such…

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(Claxton) Roy Acuff - Music career, Political career, Trivia

Country music singer, musician, and songwriter, born in Maynardville, Tennessee, USA. Forced by poor health to abandon a promising baseball career, he polished his skills as a singer and fiddler and began to play publicly in 1932. He performed on radio in the 1930s with the Tennessee Cracklers, then joined the ‘Grand Ole Opry’ (1938) with the Smoky Mountain Boys, becoming that radio show's first…

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(Clinton) Richard Dawkins - Personal life, Career, Work, Awards and recognition, Publications

British zoologist, born in Nairobi, Kenya. His family returned to England in 1949, where he studied zoology at Oxford. He taught at the University of California, Berkeley (1967–70) then returned to Oxford. His work on animal behaviour and genetics emphasizes that apparently selfish behaviour is designed to ensure survival of the gene, apparently above that of the carrier (The Selfish Gene, 1976),…

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(Cuthbert) Gordon Greenidge

West Indian cricketer, born in St Peter, NW Barbados. An explosive opening batsman, he spent more than a decade with Hampshire, and averaged 82·23 for the English season of 1984. He scored a century on his Test debut, and set five West Indian Test partnership records, forging the game's most durable opening alliance with his fellow Bajan, Desmond Haynes. Greenidge is perhaps best known in …

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(Cyril) Wolf Mankowitz

Writer, playwright, and antique dealer, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge. His publications in the art domain include a study of Josiah Wedgwood, and The Concise Encyclopedia of English Pottery and Porcelain (1957). His fiction includes the novel A Kid for Two Farthings (1953), the play The Bespoke Overcoat (1954), the films The Millionairess (1960), The Long, the Short, and the Tall (19…

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(Daisie) Adelle Davis - Background and education, Published works, Controversy, Commendations, Adelle Davis Foundation

Nutritionist and writer, born in Lizton, Indiana, USA. She studied biochemistry at the University of California Medical School, and continued her training in dietetics at hospitals in New York City, then settled in California to work as a consulting nutritionist, planning diets for thousands of individuals suffering from various diseases and ailments. In 1954 she published Let's Eat Right to Keep …

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(David) Dean Rusk

US secretary of state (1961–9), born in Cherokee Co, Georgia, USA. He studied at Davidson College and at Oxford, and in 1934 was appointed associate professor of government at Mills College, Oakland, CA. After World War 2, he held various governmental posts: special assistant to the secretary of war (1946–7), assistant secretary of state for UN affairs, deputy under-secretary of state, and assis…

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(David) Hartley Coleridge

Man of letters, born in Clevedon, Somerset, SW England, UK, the eldest son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He was brought up by Robert Southey at Greta Hall, and studied at Merton College, Oxford, but forfeited an Oriel College fellowship by intemperance. He spent two years in London, tried taking pupils at Ambleside, occasionally writing for Blackwood's Magazine, lived for some time in Grasmere, then…

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(David) Jude Law - Biography

Actor, born in London, UK. He joined the National Youth Music Theatre and went on to gain a role in the Granada TV soap opera Families. He later performed with the Royal Shakespeare Company and Royal National Theatre. His feature films include Wilde (1997), The Talented Mr Ripley (1999), AI: Artificial Intelligence (2001), Cold Mountain (2003, Oscar nomination), Alfie (2004), and Breaking and Ente…

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(David) Paul Scofield

Actor, born in Hurstpierpoint, West Sussex, England, UK. He studied at the Croydon Repertory School and the London Mask Theatre before making his professional debut in 1940. At Stratford-upon-Avon in the 1940s, he began to distinguish himself in Shakespearean roles, and later starred in Peter Brook's production of King Lear (1962, subsequently filmed) and in Othello (National Theatre, 1980). His S…

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(Domenico) Gaetano (Maria) Donizetti - Media

Composer, born in Bergamo, N Italy. He studied music at Bergamo and Bologna, and produced his first opera in 1818 at Venice. The work which carried his fame beyond Italy was Anna Bolena (1830), and he had several other successes, notably Lucia di Lammermoor (1835). Stricken by paralysis, he became mentally ill. …

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(Donal) Conor (Dermod David Donat) Cruise O'Brien - Early life, Civil service, International postings, Irish politics, Polemics and Academia, Writings, Legacy

Historian, critic, and Irish statesman, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Dublin, and became an outstanding historian and critic. His best-known work is To Katanga and Back (1962), an autobiographical narrative of the Congo crisis of 1961. An MP from 1969, he became minister for posts and telegraphs (1973–7). He was subsequently editor-in-chief of The Observer, as well as the author of studi…

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(Eamonn) Kevin Roche - Notable works

Architect, born in Dublin, Ireland. Trained at the National University of Ireland, he joined Eero Saarinen (1950) soon after emigrating to the USA. After Saarinen's death, Roche completed his projects with his associate John Dinkeloo, with whom he then formed a partnership (1966) specializing in civic and corporate buildings. Characterized by stark sculptural forms, his work includes the Oakland M…

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(Edmund) Ignatius Rice - Early life and career, Vocation, Retirement and death, Beatification

Philanthropist and religious founder, born near Callan, Co Kilkenny, SE Ireland. A wealthy provision merchant in Waterford, he retired from business on the death of his wife (1789) and devoted himself to good works. He founded a school in Waterford for poor boys (1802), and many others elsewhere. In 1808 he took religious vows, and founded the order now known as the Christian Brothers (sanctioned …

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(Edward Fitz) Gerald Brenan

Travel writer and novelist, born in Sliema, Malta. He went to Spain in 1919 and settled in Yegen, an isolated village which became the focus of his classic South from Granada (1957). This was preceded by his best-known book, The Spanish Labyrinth (1943), still regarded as one of the most perceptive studies of modern Spain. He had a love affair with British artist Dora Carrington (1893–1932). …

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(Edward William) Alton Ochsner

Surgeon, born in Kimball, South Dakota, USA. He chaired the surgical department at Tulane University (1927–56) and co-founded the Alton Ochsner Clinic there. A chest surgeon of international renown, he argued that cigarettes can cause cancer, and his zealous campaign against the tobacco industry included three books about cancer and smoking. An ardent genealogist, he discovered that the mother of…

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(Edward) Chad Varah

Anglican clergyman, born in Barton-on-Humber, N Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He studied at Oxford and Lincoln Theological College, and was ordained in 1936. He worked in various parishes before becoming rector at St Stephen Walbrook in the City of London (1953). Disturbed by the number of people committing suicide, he set up the Samaritans, a free telephone counselling service available 24 hours …

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(Edward) Gough Whitlam - Early life, Early political career, Opposition leader, Prime Minister, The Whitlam government assessed, Out of office

Australian statesman and prime minister (1972–5), born in Melbourne, Victoria, NE Australia. He studied at Canberra and Sydney universities, and became a lawyer. He was elected a Labor MP in 1952, and became leader of the Australian Labor Party in 1967. The first Labor prime minister in 23 years, he ended conscription, relaxed the policy on non-white immigrants, and increased federal government i…

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(Edward) Hunter Davies - Works (selection)

Writer, journalist, and broadcaster, born in Renfrew, Renfrewshire, W Scotland, UK. He studied at Durham University, joined the Sunday Times as a reporter (1960– ), and became chief feature writer (1967) and editor of the Sunday magazine (1975–7). He is well known for his ‘Father's Day’ column in Punch (1979–89, televised 1983), and as presenter of the radio programme Bookshelf (1983–6). He …

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(Edward) John (Mostyn) Bowlby - Background, Career, Legacy, Selected Bibliography

British psychiatrist, the son of an eminent surgeon. He studied at Cambridge, and became staff psychologist at the London Child Guidance Clinic (1937–40). After World War 2 he moved to the Tavistock Clinic (1946–72), to become chairman of the department for children and parents (1946–68). His early research concerned crime and juvenile delinquency, but he is best known for his work on the effec…

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(Edward) Montgomery Clift - Biography, Academy Award nominations, Filmography, Stage Appearances

Film actor, born in Omaha, Nebraska, USA. After ten years as a stage performer, he went to Hollywood for his role in The Search (1948). Four times nominated for an Oscar, this brooding, intense actor usually played an outsider. Rumours of heavy drinking, drug use, and homosexuality surrounded him, and a car accident left him scarred, but the disfigurement seemed to give him added strength and path…

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(Edward) William Proxmire

US senator, born in Lake Forest, Illinois, USA. During his long career in the US Senate (Democrat, Wisconsin, 1957–89), he was considered a maverick politician. He served as chairman of the Committee on Banking as well as chairman of the Committee of Housing and Urban Affairs. He was known as an opponent of wasteful government spending (instituting the ‘Golden Fleece Awards’) and as a ‘hawk’ …

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(Edwin John) Victor Pasmore

Artist, born in Chelsham, Surrey, SE England, UK. Largely self-taught, he was one of the founders of the London ‘Euston Road School’ (1937). He became an art teacher, and after World War 2 began to paint in a highly abstract style, in which colour is often primarily used to suggest relief. His works include Rectangular Motif (1949) and Inland Sea (1950, Tate, London). He became a Companion of Ho…

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(Edwin) DuBose Heyward

Writer, born in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. He first worked in a hardware store, then as a checker in a cotton warehouse. Although not African-American, he drew on the life of South Carolina African-Americans for much of his writing. He and his wife dramatized his first novel, Porgy (1925), and it was the basis for George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess (1935). He also wrote poetry and other …

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(Edwin) Olin Downes - Examples, Sources

Music critic, born in Evanston, Illinois, USA. Writing for the Boston Post (1906–24) and New York Times (from 1924), he became one of the nation's most prominent critics. Olin Downes (Edwin) (January 27, 1886–August 22, 1955) was a significant American music critic. He studied piano, music theory, and music criticism in New York and Boston, and it was in those two cities that…

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(Eldred) Gregory Peck - Early life, Film career, Personal life, Death, Awards, Filmography, Literature

Film star, born in La Jolla, California, USA. He studied at the University of California, Berkeley, and appeared in several student productions. He moved to New York City (1939), where he joined the Neighbourhood Playhouse, and his Broadway debut in 1942 led to a flood of film offers. One of the first major independent post-war film stars, his good looks and soft-spoken manner were used to portray…

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(Eleanor) May Sarton - Poetry books, Novels, Nonfiction, Children's books

Poet and writer, born in Wondelgem, Belgium. The daughter of George Sarton, she grew up in Cambridge, MA and attended Shady Hill School (1917–26). She published poetry early, trained at the Civic Repertory Theatre in New York City (1929–33), and travelled widely. A noted teacher at many institutions, she is known for her poetry, short stories, novels, and memoirs, such as Endgame: A Journal of t…

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(Ellen) Dymphna Cusack

Writer, born in Wyalong, New South Wales, SE Australia. She studied at Sydney University, and trained as a teacher. The first of her 12 novels, Jungfrau, was published in 1936. Other novels include Pioneers on Parade (1939), written with Miles Franklin, and Come In Spinner (1951), written with Florence James. She also wrote several plays, illustrating her preoccupation with social and political di…

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(Emile Alfredo) Roy Innis - Early life, Early civil rights years, Black Nationalism and beginning the Bridge to Africa

Civil-rights activist, born in St Croix, Virgin Is, USA. Emigrating to Harlem, New York City (1946), he dropped out of high school to join the army, then worked for a New York City research laboratory (1963–7). He joined the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1963 and advocated black separatism and community school boards, and became CORE's national president (1968). Promoting community develo…

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(Emile Jean) Horace Vernet

Painter of battles, born in Paris, France, the son of Carle Vernet. He became one of the great French military and sporting painters. He decorated the vast Constantine room at Versailles with battle scenes from Valmy, Wagram, Bouvines, and ‘Napoleon at Friedland’. His ‘Painter's Studio’ depicts him as he loved to be, surrounded by groups of people, boxing, playing instruments, and leading hors…

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(Emile) Antoine Bourdelle - The teacher

Sculptor, painter, and teacher, born in Montauban, S France. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and under Rodin. He found inspiration in Greek art, relating its style to his own time. He illustrated a number of books, and his teaching had considerable influence. Notable works include Héraclès archer (1909) and bas-reliefs on the Théâtre des Champs Elysées. Antoine Bourdelle…

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(Enoch) Arnold Bennett - Life, Work, Criticism, Works, Quote

Novelist, born near Hanley, Staffordshire, C England, UK. He studied locally and at London University, and was a solicitor's clerk in London, but quickly transferred to journalism, and in 1893 became assistant editor (editor in 1896) of the journal Woman. He published his first novel, The Man from the North, in 1898. In 1902 he moved to Paris for 10 years and from then on was engaged exclusively i…

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(Ernest Urban) Trevor Huddleston

Anglican missionary. He studied at Oxford, and was ordained in 1937. He entered the Community of the Resurrection, and in 1943 went to Johannesburg, where he ultimately became provincial of the Order (1949–55). After working in England (1956–60), he became Bishop of Masasi, Tanzania (1960–8), Bishop Suffragan of Stepney until 1978, then Bishop of Mauritius and Archbishop of the Indian Ocean. Af…

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(Ernest) Edward Dunlop

Army surgeon, born in Wangaratta, Victoria, SE Australia. An accomplished sportsman, he graduated from Melbourne University, enlisted in the Australian Army Medical Corps in 1939, and in 1942, as a prisoner-of-war, was forced by the Japanese to work on the Burma–Siam Railway. Revered by his fellow prisoners, he ministered to the sick under appalling conditions, and was hailed as the ‘Christ of t…

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(Ernest) Ernie Davis - College career, Pro Football career

Player of American football, born in New Salem, Pennsylvania, USA. A three-time All-America halfback and 1961 Heisman Trophy winner, he set yardage and scoring records at Syracuse University. His professional career was cut short by leukaemia. Ernie Davis (December 13, 1939 - May 18, 1963) was an American Football player who became the first African-American to win the Heisman Trophy. …

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(Ernestine) Jane (Geraldine) Russell

Film actress, born in Bemidji, Minnesota, USA. Discovered by Howard Hughes, she made her first film, Outlaw, in 1940, but because of censorship problems it was not released until 1946. Known for her striking looks, she became one of the leading Hollywood sex symbols of the 1950s, her other films including Paleface (1948), Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953), Waco (1966), and Darker Than Amber (1970). …

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(Ernesto Antonio) Tito Puente

Bandleader, percussionist, and composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. Of Puerto Rican parentage, he served in World War 2 and then studied at Juilliard. In 1947 he formed what became the Tito Puente Orchestra and became a leader of the mambo and cha-cha-cha fads in the 1950s. During the 1960s–1980s, he made over 40 albums, some fusing Latin with other musical styles and traditions. He le…

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(Ernst) Ingmar Bergman - Biography and style characteristics, Filmography, Screenwriting works, Documentary works, Bibliography, Bibliographies

Film and stage director, born in Uppsala, E Sweden. A trainee director in the Stockholm theatre, he began his film career in 1943, making his film debut with Kris (1945, Crisis). His explorations of personal torment won many international prizes for such films as Det sjunde inseglet (1957, The Seventh Seal), Smultronstället (1957, trans Wild Strawberries), Jungfrukällan (1960, The Virgin Spring,…

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(Ernst) Pascual Jordan - Selected Works

Physicist, born in Hanover, NC Germany. He was professor of theoretical physics at the universities of Rostock (1928–44), Berlin (1944–51), and Hamburg (after 1951). In the late 1920s he founded quantum mechanics (with Max Born and Werner Heisenberg) and quantum electrodynamics (with Wolfgang Pauli and Eugene Wigner). He also discovered an important class of non-associative algebras known as Jor…

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(Ernst) Werner von Siemens - Biography, Patents, Further reading

Electrical engineer, born in Lenthe, NC Germany (formerly Prussia), the brother of William (Wilhelm) Siemens. In 1834 he entered the Prussian artillery, and in 1844 took charge of the artillery workshops at Berlin. He developed the telegraphic system in Prussia, founded a telegraph manufacturing firm (Siemens & Halske) in 1847, devised several forms of galvanometer, and determined the electrical r…

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(Esm

Playwright, born in Douglas, Co Cork, S Ireland. His first play, The Clancy Game, was produced in 1908 at the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, where he was appointed manager in 1910 and then director (1923–56). Other plays include The Cross Roads (1909), The Dreamers (1915), and The White-Headed Boy (1920). He also compiled volumes of Irish verse, including the Irish Golden Treasury (1925), and edited Lady…

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(Eug - Life, Quotations, Legacy, Further reading

Postimpressionist painter, born in Paris, France. He went to sea at 17, settled in Paris in 1871, married, and became a successful stockbroker who painted as a hobby. By 1876 he had begun to exhibit his own work. He left his family, visited Martinique (1887), and became the leader of a group of painters at Pont Aven, Brittany (1888). From 1891 he lived mainly in Tahiti and the Marquesas Is, using …

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(Eugene Luther) Gore Vidal - Biography, Political views, Trivia, Bibliography

Writer, born in West Point, New York, USA. He studied at Exeter Academy, and served in the army during World War 2. His novel, The City and the Pillar (1948), was one of the first serious works by an American to deal explicitly with homosexuals. He wrote a number of successful novels, plays, short stories, books of literary criticism, and essays, and, under his pseudonym, mystery novels. He ran un…

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(Eug - Dolmetsch's early life, The early music revival, The Dolmetsch family

Musician, born in Le Mans, NW France. He is known for the revival of interest in early music and musical instruments, especially the recorder. He established workshops at his home in Haslemere, Surrey, and promoted festivals on early music there from 1925, the Arnold Dolmetsch Foundation dating from 1928. He became a British citizen in 1931. After his death, his family continued and expanded the H…

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(Eugene) Bertolt (Friedrich) Brecht - Life and career, Nazi Germany and World War II, Cold War and East Germany, Later life

Poet, playwright, and theatre director, born in Augsburg, S Germany. His early plays, marked by a revolt against bourgeois values, won him success, controversy, and the Kleist Prize in 1922. Popularity came with Die Dreigroschenoper (1928, The Threepenny Opera), an adaptation of Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728), and from then until 1933 his work was particularly concerned with encouraging audiences…

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(Evelyn) John (St Loe) Strachey

British statesman, born in Guildford, Surrey, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became a Labour MP (1929–31), then resigned from the Party and gave his support to extremist political organizations. He served in the RAF during World War 2, and afterwards rejoined Labour as under-secretary for air (1945). His controversial period as minister of food (1946–50) included the food crisis (1947…

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(Ferdinand Fr

Chemist, born in Paris, France. He studied at the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle and the Ecole de Pharmacie in Paris, and became professor of toxicology at the School of Pharmacy in Paris (1886), and of inorganic chemistry at the Sorbonne (1900). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1906 for his work isolating the element fluorine and for the development of the electric furnace. He discov…

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(Ferdinand Gustav) Julius von Sachs

Botanist, born in Wroc?aw, SW Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia). He studied at the University of Prague, became botany lecturer at an agricultural college near Bonn, and professor of botany at Würzburg from 1868. There he carried out important experiments, especially on the influence of light and heat upon plants, and the organic activities of vegetable growth. He exerted widespread influence th…

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(Florence Onye) Buchi Emecheta - Works

Novelist, born in Lagos, SW Nigeria. She moved to England with her student husband, and studied at London University. Her novels are powerful social documents, graphic in their depiction of man's inhumanity to woman. Relevant titles are In the Ditch (1972), Second-Class Citizen (1974), The Bride Price (1976), The Slave Girl (1977), and The Joys of Motherhood (1979). Later works include The Rape of…

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(Francesco) Bonaventura Cavalieri - Life, Sources

Mathematician, born in Milan, N Italy. Professor at Bologna University, his ‘method of indivisibles’ began a new era in geometry and paved the way for the introduction of integral calculus. Bonaventura Francesco Cavalieri (in Latin, Cavalerius) (1598–November 30, 1647) was an Italian mathematician is known for Cavalieri's principle, which states that the volumes of two objects are…

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(Francis) George Steiner - Family, Education, Career, Honours, Works

Critic and scholar, born in Paris, France. He studied there and at Chicago, Harvard, and Oxford universities. He worked at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton (1956–8), then taught at Cambridge, where he became a fellow of Churchill College in 1969. He was appointed professor of English and comparative literature at Geneva (1974–94, now emeritus), and at Oxford (1994–5), where he beca…

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(Francis) Westbrook Pegler - Biography, Writings

Journalist, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. As a columnist for the Hearst-owned King Features Syndicate (1944–62), he won a 1941 Pulitzer Prize for exposing labour corruption, but became more noted for vitriolic attacks on public institutions and figures. One target, journalist Quentin Reynolds, sued him and won $175 001. Quitting his column in a dispute over editing, Pegler later wrote for…

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(Fran

Organic chemist, born in Cherbourg, NW France. He studied chemistry at Lyon, and became professor there in 1919. He introduced the use of organo-magnesium compounds (Grignard reagents), which form the basis of the most valuable class of organic synthetic reactions, for which he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1912. François Auguste Victor Grignard (May 6, 1871 in Cherbourg - Decemb…

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(Fran - Biography, Ideas, Influence, Contemporary influence, Fourier's works

Socialist and philosopher, born in Besançon, NE France. He worked as a clerk before publishing his first work, Théorie des quatre mouvements et des destinées générales (1808, The Social Destiny of Man, or, Theory of the Four Movements). After inheriting his mother's estate in 1812, he was able to develop his ideas. Concerned by abuses within society he proposed a new and radical utopian ideal…

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(Frank) Gelett Burgess - Works

Writer and humorist, born in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology, then moved to San Francisco, where he worked as a draftsman for the Southern Pacific Railroad (1888–91). From 1897 he worked as an editor in New York City, then married an actress, and lived a bohemian life in France (1914–18). He is known for publishing The Lark (1895–7), a humorous maga…

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(Frank) Sherwood Rowland

Physical chemist, born in Delaware, Ohio, USA. He studied at the University of Chicago (1952), taught at Princeton and the University of Kansas, then joined the University of California, Irvine (1964). In 1974, with Mario Molina, he predicted the destruction of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere as a by-product of using chlorofluorocarbons as a refrigerant and aerosol propellant - a prediction confir…

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(Frederic) Ogden Nash - Biography, Poetry style, The Carnival of the Animals, 2002 USPS Ogden Nash Stamp, Quotes

Humorous writer, born in Rye, New York, USA. He studied at Harvard, then tried teaching, editing, selling bonds, and copy writing, before his poetry became successful enough for him to make a living from it. Taking outrageous liberties with the English language (‘I would live all my life in nonchalance and insouciance / Were it not for making a living, which is rather a nouciance’), he soon beca…

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(Frederick) Louis MacNeice - Life, Influence, Works

Poet, born in Belfast, NE Northern Ireland, UK. He studied at Oxford, and became a lecturer in Classics at Birmingham (1930–6), and in Greek at the University of London (1936–40). He was closely associated with the new British left-wing poets of the 1930s, especially Auden, with whom he wrote Letters from Iceland (1937). Other volumes include Blind Fireworks (1929), Collected Poems (1949), and S…

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(Frederick) Marvin Hamlisch - Broadway, Film

Composer, born in New York City, New York, USA. A prodigy, he was admitted to the Juilliard School of Music at age seven. In 1974 he won Oscars for the title song and score from The Way We Were (1973) and for his adaptation of Scott Joplin's ragtime music in the The Sting (1973). He composed the music for A Chorus Line (1975), the longest running musical in Broadway history. Later film scores incl…

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(Frederick) Maxfield Parrish - Technique and influence

Illustrator and painter, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1891–3), later joining the well-known art colony in Cornish, NH (1898). He became famous for his technically skilled and highly decorative illustrations, book-covers, murals, and best-selling colour prints such as ‘Daybreak’ (1920). Retiring from illustration in the 1930s, …

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(Frederick) Ronald Mansbridge

Publisher, born in Sanderstead, Surrey, UK. He studied English at Cambridge University (1928–31), and taught briefly at Barnard College in New York. In the early 1930s he joined the New York office of Macmillan, which was at that time an agent for the Cambridge University Press in the USA. In 1949 he established the first American branch of the press, which he headed until his retirement in 1970.…

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(Friedrich Ludwig) Gottlob Frege - Life, Logician, Philosopher, Thought, Sinn and Bedeutung

Mathematician and logician, born in Wismar, N Germany. He studied at Jena and Göttingen, and became professor of mathematics at Jena (1896). His Begriffsschrift (1879, Concept-script) outlined the first complete system of symbolic logic. The technical difficulties involved gave rise to his distinctive philosophical doctrines, forcefully set out in his Grundlagen der Arithmetik (1884, The Foundati…

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(Friedrich Wilhelm) Ludwig Leichhardt - Searches for Leichhardt

Naturalist and explorer, born in Trebatsch, E Germany. He studied at the universities of Berlin and Göttingen, arrived in Sydney in 1842, and mounted an important expedition from Brisbane heading NW in 1844. He had been presumed lost when his arrival back in Sydney in March 1846 caused great excitement. He was forced to turn back from his next expedition, and in 1848 set off on a third trans-cont…

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(Friedrich) Gerhard Rohlfs

Explorer, born in Vegesack, NW Germany. He studied medicine, and joined the Foreign Legion in Algeria (1855). After learning Arabic he explored Morocco, disguised as an Arab, and reached Fezzan in the Sahara. He crossed Africa from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Guinea (1865–6), the first known European to do so, and in 1874 he crossed the Sahara again, from Tripoli to Egypt. In 1885 he was app…

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(Friedrich) Wilhelm Ostwald - Biography, Overview

Chemist, born in Riga, Latvia. He studied at Dorpat, and taught at Riga before becoming professor at Leipzig (1887–1906). He discovered the dilution law which bears his name, and invented a process for making nitric acid by the oxidation of ammonia. He also developed a new theory of colour. He was awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on catalytic reactions. Friedrich Wil…

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(Fritz) Erich von Manstein - Early life, Middle years, World War II, Quotes about von Manstein

German field marshal, born in Berlin, Germany. At the outset of World War 2 he became chief-of-staff to Rundstedt in the Polish campaign, and in France was the architect of Hitler's Blitzkrieg. In 1941 he was given command of an army corps on the Eastern Front, and after the disaster of Stalingrad, staged a successful counter-attack at Kharkov, though he failed to relieve Paulus's Sixth Army. Impr…

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(Gabriel-)Germain Boffrand

Architect, born in Nantes, W France. He went to Paris (1681) to study sculpture under François Girardon and then joined the workshop of architect Jules Hardouin Mansart. Early commissions include the decoration of the apartments of the Hôtel de Soubise (1709, begun 1732), and the enlargement of the Palais Bourbon (1710), notable for the addition of a large staircase. His Book of Architecture (17…

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(Georg Friedrich) Bernhard Riemann - Influence, Biography, Euclidean geometry versus Riemannian geometry, Higher dimensions, Bibliography

Mathematician, born in Breselenz, NC Germany. He studied at Göttingen and Berlin universities, and became professor of mathematics at Göttingen (1859). His early work was on the theory of functions, but he is best remembered for his development of non-Euclidian geometry, important in modern physics and relativity theory. His profound conjecture (the Riemann hypothesis) about the behaviour of the…

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(George) Earle Hyman

Stage actor, born in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, USA. He graduated from high school in Brooklyn, NY (1943), and having joined the American Negro Theatre he appeared in their first hit, Anna Lucasta (1944), both on Broadway and in London. He later studied with the Actors Studio in New York, but was most drawn to classic roles, first playing Hamlet (1951) and eventually playing Othello in productio…

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(George) Elton Mayo

Psychologist, born in Adelaide, Australia. He lectured on logic, ethics, and psychology in Australia before emigrating to the USA (1922), where he taught at Harvard Business School (1926–47). He is best remembered for his experimental studies at Western Electric's Hawthorne (Illinois) plant, reported in The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (1933), which determined productivity to be d…

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(George) Emlyn Williams

Playwright and actor, born in Pen-y-ffordd, Flintshire, NE Wales, UK. He studied at Oxford, joined a repertory company in 1927, and achieved success as a playwright with A Murder Has Been Arranged (1930) and the psychological thriller, Night Must Fall (1935). He appeared in many London and Broadway productions, featured in several films, and gave widely acclaimed readings from the works of Dickens…

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(George) Gilbert (Aim

Classical scholar and writer, born in Sydney, New South Wales, SE Australia. He studied at Oxford, and was appointed professor of Greek at Glasgow (1889) and at Oxford (1908). His work as a Classical historian and translator of Greek playwrights brought him world acclaim. His celebrated verse translations of Greek plays, including The Trojan Women, Medea, and Electra, were performed at London's Co…

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(George) Holbrook Jackson

Bibliophile and literary historian, born in Liverpool, Merseyside, NW England, UK. He helped establish the formidable political and literary New Age (1907). He was active in the Fabian Society, and his lifelong devotion to William Morris was reflected in various works from his early study to his Morris anthology, On Art and Socialism (1947). The Eighteen Nineties (1913) established the literary co…

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(George) Orson Welles - Biography, References and Further reading

Stage and film actor, and director, born in Kenosha, Wisconsin, USA. The son of a wealthy inventor and a concert pianist, he was a precocious child who staged mini-productions of Shakespeare in his house. When his mother died (1925), he went on a world tour with his father, then attended a private school in Illinois where he continued to direct plays (1926–31). With his father's death (1927), he …

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(Georges) Auguste Escoffier - Publications

Chef, born in Villeneuve-Loubet, SE France. He became chef de cuisine to the general staff of the Rhine army in the Franco-Prussian war (1871) and of the Grand Hotel, Monte Carlo, before coming to the Savoy, London, and finally to the Carlton. The inventor of Pêche Melba and tournedos Rossini for the singer and composer respectively, and other dishes, he wrote several books on culinary art. …

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(Gian) Francesco Malipiero

Composer, born in Venice, NE Italy. He studied in Vienna, Venice, and Bologna, visited Paris, and became professor of composition at the Parma Conservatory (1921), and director of institutes at Padua and Venice (1939–52). He wrote symphonic, operatic, vocal, and chamber music, and edited Monteverdi and Vivaldi. Gian Francesco Malipiero (March 18, 1882 - August 1, 1973) Italian composer, mu…

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(Giles) Lytton Strachey - Life, Books, Verse

Biographer and critic, born in London, UK. He studied at Cambridge, lived in London, and became a member of the Bloomsbury Group of writers and artists. He began his writing career as a critic, but turned to biography, creating a literary bombshell with his Eminent Victorians (1918), an iconoclastic challenge to the self-assured, monumental studies previously typical of this genre. Later works inc…

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(Giovanni) Battista Guarini

Poet, born in Ferrara, NE Italy. He was entrusted by Duke Alfonso II with diplomatic missions to the Pope, the Emperor, Venice, and Poland. His chief work was the pastoral play, Il pastor fido (1585, The Faithful Shepherd), which helped to establish the genre of pastoral drama. Giovanni Battista Guarini (December 10, 1538 – October 7, 1612) was an Italian poet and diplomat. He…

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(Giuseppe) Domenico Scarlatti - Life and career, Music, Recordings, Trivia

Composer, born in Naples, SW Italy, the son of Alessandro Scarlatti. From 1711 he was maestro di cappella in Rome to the Queen of Poland, for whom he composed several operas, and he also served in Lisbon and Madrid. As choirmaster of St Peter's, Rome (1714–19), he wrote much church music. He was a skilled harpsichordist, and is mainly remembered for the 555 sonatas written for this instrument. …

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(Gordon) Angus Deayton - Early life, Comedy career, Scandal

Writer and broadcaster, born in Caterham, Surrey, S England, UK. Educated at Oxford, he contributed widely to revues and radio shows as a writer and performer, joining Rowan Atkinson in his stage show (1986–90), and becoming well known for his role as Victor Meldrew's long-suffering neighbour in BBC television's One Foot in the Grave (from 1989), receiving the Newcomer of the Year TV Comedy Award…

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(Gottlieb) Eliel Saarinen - Buildings

Architect, born in Rantasalmi, EC Finland. The leading architect in his native country, he designed the Helsinki railway station (1904–14), and in 1923 emigrated to the USA. He designed the buildings for the Cranbrook Academy of Art, near Detroit, becoming its president (1932–48). An opponent of skyscrapers, he formed a partnership with his son, Eero Saarinen, and designed many churches, includi…

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(Granville) Oral Roberts - Early life, Later life, Criticism and controversy, External links and references

Protestant evangelist, born in Ada, Oklahoma, USA. The son of a Pentacostal preacher, he had little formal education, and endured poor health as a youth. After a dozen years as a pastor and evangelist in a succession of Southern towns, he became a faith healer in 1947. He went on to establish a multi-million dollar evangelical empire and to found Oral Roberts University in Tulsa. He had television…

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(Gustav Heinrich) Adolf Engler - Biography, Works

Botanist, born in Zaga?, W Poland (formerly Sagan, Germany). He studied at Breslau University, and worked at universities in Munich, Kiel, and Wroc?aw, Poland (formerly Breslau, Prussia), before becoming professor and director of the botanical gardens at Berlin (1889–1921). He proposed a major system of plant classification that is still widely used. Adolf Engler (1844 – 1930) was a Germ…

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(Hannibal) Hamlin Garland - Bibliography

Writer, born in West Salem, Wisconsin, USA. Leaving his farming family, he went to Boston to teach, and joined the literary set there. In his short stories, poetry, and novels, he vividly described the farm life of the Midwest. He is best-remembered for his ‘Middle Border’ autobiographical novels, starting with A Son of the Middle Border (1917). Its sequel, A Daughter of the Middle Border (1921)…

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(Harold) Hart Crane - Hart Crane's Poetry and Prose

Poet, born in Garrettsville, Ohio, USA. After an unhappy childhood, he settled in New York City as a writer in 1923. His work is contained in White Buildings (1926), a collection on New York life, and The Bridge (1930), an epic using Brooklyn Bridge as its focal point. He drowned himself by jumping overboard while returning from a visit to Mexico. Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April …

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(Harold) John Kander

Composer, born in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. After earning a master's degree at Columbia University, he worked in the 1950s as a rehearsal pianist, dance arranger, and conductor for Broadway musicals. His first Broadway score was for A Family Affair (1961). With lyricist Fred Ebb (1928–2004) he wrote the score for the hit musicals Cabaret (1968), Chicago (1975), and Woman of the Year (1981); the…

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(Harry) Sinclair Lewis - Biography, Quotation, Timeline

Writer, born in Sauk Center, Minnesota, USA. He studied at Yale (1903–6), left to join Upton Sinclair's socialist colony in New Jersey, then returned and completed his studies at Yale (1908). For the next few years he worked as a journalist, editor, and free-lance writer in San Francisco, Washington, DC, and New York City, but by 1916 he was devoting himself to his own writing, which would fall i…

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(Heinrich Hermann) Robert Koch - Biography

Bacteriologist, born in Clausthal-Zellerfeld, C Germany. He studied at Göttingen, became a physician and surgeon, and settled in Wollstein. He discovered the tuberculosis bacillus (1882), and led a German expedition to Egypt and India, where he discovered the cholera bacillus (1883). He became professor and director of the Hygienic Institute at Berlin (1885), and director of the new Institute for…

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(Heinrich) Emil Brunner - Biography, Theology, Relationship with Karl Barth

Reformed theologian, born in Winterthur, N Switzerland. Following service as a pastor (1916–24), he became professor of systematic and practical theology at Zürich (1924–55). The author of nearly 400 books and articles, his reputation outside the European mainland was established by the translations of The Mediator (1927) and The Divine Imperative (1932). Emil Brunner was born near Zuric…

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(Helen) Beatrix Potter - List of some of the works by (Helen) Beatrix Potter

Writer and illustrator of books for children, born in London, UK. A repressed and lonely child, she grew up longing for the country and animals. She taught herself to draw and paint, and her famous characters started as sketches of pet animals dressed as human beings, along with letters to amuse the sick son of her former governess, which she privately published as The Tale of Peter Rabbit (1900) …

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(Henri Ren - Biography, Significance, Bibliography

Novelist, born probably at the Château de Miromesnil, Dieppe, NW France. He studied at Rouen, and spent his life in Normandy. After serving as a soldier and a government clerk, he took to writing, encouraged by Flaubert, a friend of his mother's, and joined the Naturalist group led by Zola. His stories range from the short tale to the full-length novel. His first success, Boule de suif (1880, Bal…

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(Henri) Benjamin Constant (de Rebeque) - Bibliography

French politician and novelist, born in Lausanne, W Switzerland. He studied at Oxford, Erlangen, and Edinburgh, and settled in Paris as a publicist (1795). He supported the Revolution, but was banished in 1802 for his opposition to Napoleon. He returned in 1814, and became Leader of the Liberal Opposition. His best-known work is the novel Adolphe (1816), based on his relationship with Mme de Staë…

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(Henry) Graham Greene - Life and work, Bibliography, Further reading

Writer, born in Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, SE England, UK. He studied at Oxford, converted from Anglicanism to Catholicism (1926), and moved to London, where he became a journalist and then a freelance writer. His early novels, beginning with The Man Within (1929), and ‘entertainments’, such as Stamboul Train (1932), use the melodramatic technique of the thriller. In his major novels, central r…

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(Henry) Grantland Rice - Quotation, Footnote, Reference, Pop Culture

Sportswriter, born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA. A graduate of Vanderbilt University, he began as a reporter with the Nashville News (1901). After working as a sportswriter for other Southern newspapers, he joined the New York Mail (1910), then joined the New York Tribune (later the Herald Tribune) (1911–30), with time out for service in France during World War 1 (1918–19). After leaving the …

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(Henry) Havelock Ellis - Works

Physician and writer on sex, born in Croydon, S Greater London, UK. He travelled widely in Australia and South America before studying medicine in London. His interest in human biology and his personal experiences led him to compile the seven-volume Studies in the Psychology of Sex (1897–1928), the first detached treatment of the subject, which was highly controversial at the time. Henry H…

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(Henry) Ross Perot - Early life and career, Early political activities, 1992 presidential candidacy, Reform Party and 1996 presidential run

Business executive and public figure, born in Texarkana, Texas, USA. He graduated from the US Naval Academy (1953) but resigned from the navy as soon as his required tour of duty ended (1953–7). He went to work as a salesman for International Business Machines (IBM) and soon realized that his future lay not in hardware but in the expertise behind using the growing capabilities of computers. He le…

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(Henry) Styles Bridges

US governor and senator, born in West Pembroke, Maine, USA. A magazine editor and investment broker, he served on the New Hampshire Public Service Commission (1930–4). As the conservative Republican governor of New Hampshire (1935–7) he spent state money carefully, but he funded relief aid for mothers and dependent children and appointed the first woman state judge. In the US Senate (1937–61) h…

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(Herbert) Marshall McLuhan - Biography, Theoretical framework, McLuhan's influence, Published Interviews, End Notes

Writer, born in Edmonton, Alberta, W Canada. He studied English literature at the universities of Manitoba and Cambridge. In 1946 he became professor at St Michael's College, Toronto, and in 1963 was appointed director of the University of Toronto's Centre for Culture and Technology. He held controversial views on the effect of the communication media, claiming that it is the media, not the inform…

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(Herman) James Elroy Flecker - Works

Poet, born in London, UK. He studied Oriental languages at Cambridge, and entered the consular service. His best-known works are the drama Hassan (staged, 1923) and The Golden Journey to Samarkand (1913). James Elroy Flecker (November 5, 1884- January 3, 1915) was an English poet, novelist and playwright. He was born in London, and educated at Dean Close School, Cheltenham, wher…

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(Herman) Max Gluckman

Social anthropologist, born in Johannesburg, NE South Africa. He studied at Witwatersrand and Oxford, carried out extensive field work among tribes of C and S Africa (1936–44), was director of the Rhodes–Livingstone Institute, Northern Rhodesia (1941–7), and lectured at Oxford (1947–9). He was appointed to the chair of social anthropology at Manchester (1949), becoming research professor in 19…

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(Herman) Northrop Frye - Biography, Contribution to literary criticism, Works by Northrop Frye, Biographies of Northrop Frye

Literary critic and editor, born in Sherbrooke, Quebec, SE Canada. A professor of English at Victoria College, University of Toronto, from 1939, he achieved international recognition for his literary theories, expounded in his study of William Blake, Fearful Symmetry (1947), also seen in his grammar of mythic form, Anatomy of Criticism (1957), and his study of the Bible's symbolism, The Great Code…

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(Hilaire Germain) Edgar Degas - Early life, Artistic career, Artistic style, Reputation

Artist, born in Paris, France. After studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he went to Italy, where he was influenced by the Renaissance painters. On his return to Paris he associated with the Impressionists and took part in most of their exhibitions from 1874 to 1886. He was also influenced by Japanese woodcuts and by photography. Among his best-known works are ‘Dancer Lacing her Shoe’ (c.1878, …

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(Hippolyte) Jean Giraudoux

Writer and diplomat, born in Bellac, C France. He joined the diplomatic service and was for a time head of the French ministry of information during World War 2. He is chiefly remembered for his plays, mainly fantasies based on Greek myths and biblical lore, satirically treated as commentary on modern life. They include La Guerre de Troie n'aura pas lieu (1935, trans Tiger at the Gates), Ondine (1…

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(Horace Greely) Hjalmar Schacht - Education and rise to President of the Reichsbank, Involvement in the Nazi Party

Financier, born in Tinglev, SW Denmark (formerly Germany). In 1923 he became president of the Reichsbank, and founded a new currency which ended the inflation of the mark. He was minister of economics (1934–7), but in 1939 was dismissed from his bank office for disagreeing with Hitler over rearmament expenditure. Interned by the Nazis, he was acquitted at Nuremberg. In 1953 he set up his own bank…

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(Hugh) Desmond Hoyte

Guyanese statesman and president (1985–92), born in Georgetown, Guyana. He studied at London University and the Middle Temple, taught in a boys' school in Grenada (1955–7), then practised as a lawyer in Guyana. He joined the Socialist People's National Congress Party, and in 1968, two years after Guyana achieved full independence, was elected to the National Assembly. He held a number of ministe…

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(Hugo Henrik) Alvar Aalto - Life, Art and reputation, Works, Quotes, Trivia

Architect and designer, the father of Modernism in Scandinavia, born in Kuortane, WC Finland. He studied at Helsinki Polytechnic, and evolved a unique architectural style based on irregular and asymmetric forms and the imaginative use of natural materials. He designed numerous public and industrial buildings in Finland, including the Finlandia concert hall in Helsinki. In the 1930s he also pioneer…

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(Iain) Murray Rose

Swimmer, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. At the 1956 Melbourne Olympics, representing Australia, he became the youngest-ever triple gold medallist in swimming, with wins in the 400 m and 1500 m freestyle and the 200 m relay team. In Rome in 1960 he became the first man to successfully defend the 400 m title. He was Commonwealth champion in 1962 at 440 y and 1650 y, and he w…

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(Ian) Robert Maxwell - Early life, Business activities, Death, Events after his death, Maxwell in popular culture, Further reading

Publisher and politician, born in Slatinske Dòly, Czech Republic. Self-educated, he served in World War 2 before founding the Pergamon Press. A former Labour MP (1964–70), he had many business interests, including film production and television. He became chairman of the Mirror group of newspapers in 1984, but was forced to float the company on the London stock market in 1991. Following his deat…

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(Ibolyka) Astrid (Maria) Varnay

Soprano, born in Stockholm, Sweden. The daughter of Hungarian parents, her mother Maria Javor was a noted coloratura soprano, and her father Alexander Varnay was a tenor. Brought to the USA in childhood, she studied first with her mother, and began serious training at age 20. She auditioned for the New York Metropolitan Opera, and in 1941 made her first appearance (in Die Walküre) as a late repla…

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(Ignace) Henri (Jean Th - Examples of Artworks

Painter, pastellist, and printmaker, born in Grenoble, E France. He studied under Courbet at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and became a frequent exhibitor at the Salon (1861–99). He was a friend of Whistler and Monet, exhibiting with the latter at the Salon des Refusés (1863). Inspired by the music of Berlioz and Wagner, he was a popular portraitist, and gained financial success by his pain…

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(Irenaeus) Frederic Baraga

Catholic missionary, born in Dobernice, Austria. A parish priest, he emigrated to the USA (1830) and worked among Chippewa and Ottawa Indians in upper Michigan, where he became vicar apostolic (1853) and ultimately bishop (1865). He published devotional works and a grammar and dictionary of Indian languages. Servant of God Frederic Baraga, (June 29, 1797 – January 19, 1868) was a Slovenia…

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(J) Arthur Widmer - Career, Quotations

Cinematographer, born in Washington, District of Columbia, USA. He studied chemistry at the University of Michigan, and started work at the Eastman Kodak Research Laboratories in Rochester, NY. Later moving to Kodak in Hollywood, CA, he researched a variety of new methods of colour photography, including Kodachrome. At Warner Bros during the 1950s, he developed technologies for other motion-pictur…

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(Jackie) Moms Mabley - Discography, External Link

Comedienne, born in Brevard, North Carolina, USA. A teenage runaway, she played a raunchy grandma on the ‘Chitlin' circuit’ in Northern ghettos for 40 years until whites discovered her in the 1960s. Jackie "Moms" Mabley (born 19 March 1894, Brevard, North Carolina died 23 May 1975, White Plains, New York) was an African American comedian. One of her regular themes was her roma…

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(Jacobine) Camilla Collett - Life, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Kristiansand, S Norway, the sister of Henrik Arnold Wergeland. A champion of women's rights and social justice, she brought realism to Norwegian fiction in such books as Amtmandens Døttre (1855, The Magistrate's Daughter) and I den Lange Neeter (1862, In the Long Nights). Jacobine Camilla Collett, née Wergeland (January 23, 1813 - March 6, 1895) was a Norwegian writer, o…

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(Jacques) Maurice Couve de Murville - Ministerial posts, Couve de Murville's Government

French statesman and prime minister (1968–9), born in Reims, NE France. He studied law, literature, and political science before joining the Ministry of Finance (1940). He later worked in the foreign ministry, and played a diplomatic role in the European post-war settlement. During the 1950s he served as ambassador to various countries. President de Gaulle appointed him foreign minister (1958–68…

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(Jakob Ludwig) Felix Mendelssohn(-Bartholdy) - Life, Revival of Bach's and Schubert's music, Contemporaries, Reputation, Works

Composer, born in Hamburg, N Germany, the grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, and the son of a Hamburg banker who added the name Bartholdy. He studied piano and composition in Berlin, making his first public appearance at the age of nine. A prolific composer even as a boy, among his early successes was the Midsummer Night's Dream overture (1826). In London in 1829 he conducted his C minor symphony. A t…

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(James Henry) Leigh Hunt - References and external links

Poet and essayist, born in Southgate, N Greater London, UK. Educated at Christ's Hospital, from 1808 he edited with his brother The Examiner, which became a focus of Liberal opinion and attracted leading men of letters, including Byron, Shelley, and Lamb. After travelling with Shelley to Italy, and associating with Byron, he returned to England in 1825. His Autobiography (1850) is a valuable pictu…

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(James King Kern) Kay Kyser - Listen to

Bandleader, born in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, USA. He formed his first band in college in the late 1920s and it toured widely and later expanded. In the early 1930s he performed at the Blackhawk Restaurant in Chicago, and in 1937 he began broadcasting his popular radio show, Kay Kyser's College of Musical Knowledge. It then appeared on television until his retirement (1949–51). He also appeare…

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(James Mercer) Langston Hughes - Life, Career, Political views, Trivia

Poet, writer, playwright, and librettist, born in Joplin, Missouri, USA. After publishing his first poem, ‘The Negro Speaks of Rivers’ (1921), he attended Columbia University (1921), but left after one year to work on a freighter, travelling to Africa, living in Paris and Rome, and supporting himself with odd jobs. After his poetry was promoted by Vachel Linday, he attended Lincoln University (1…

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(James Morrison) Steele MacKaye - Works, Publications

Actor, playwright, designer, and inventor, born in Buffalo, New York, USA. Although 19 of his plays were produced in New York, he is best known as a dreamer and deviser of technical innovations, many of which never became reality. In pursuit of a more naturalistic mode of presentation, he reopened the Fifth Avenue Theatre in New York (1879) as the Madison Square Theatre, introducing a double movin…

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(James) Brander Matthews - Activities

Writer, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. He studied at Columbia University, where he later became professor of literature (1892–1900), and was also appointed the first US professor of dramatic literature (1900–24). During his career he worked as an editor, essayist, drama critic, and novelist, these works being the foundation of the Brander Matthews Dramatic Museum at Columbia University. …

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(James) Charles Evers

Civil-rights leader and mayor, born in Decatur, Mississippi, USA. After serving in the US Army during the Korean conflict, he took over his family's considerable business interests in Philadelphia (mid-1950s) and then moved to Chicago (1957), where he was a successful nightclub owner, real-estate agent, and disc jockey. He returned to Mississippi after the assassination of his brother Medgar Evers…

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(James) Dalton Trumbo - Works

Screenwriter and writer, born in Montrose, Colorado, USA. A former newspaperman, he began screenwriting in 1935. As one of the Hollywood Ten during the Communist witch hunt of the late 1940s, he spent 10 months in jail, then moved to Mexico. During the period when he was blacklisted, he wrote 18 screenplays under pseudonyms, one of which, The Brave One (1956), won an Oscar for Robert Rich. In 1960…

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(James) Gordon Brown - Early parliamentary career, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Global development and sustainability, Higher education

Scottish politician, born in Glasgow, W Scotland, UK. He studied history at Edinburgh University, and while still a student there was elected rector (1972–5). He lectured at Glasgow College of Technology, and entered the House of Commons in 1983 as Labour member for Dunfermline East. Despite losing the sight of one eye in a sporting accident, he rose swiftly within the Labour Party, becoming Oppo…

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(James) Hoyt Wilhelm

Baseball pitcher, born in Huntersville, North Carolina, USA. During World War 2 he distinguished himself in combat during the Battle of the Bulge (1944). During his 21-year career in baseball (1952–72), mostly as a reliever for the New York Giants and Chicago White Sox, he appeared in more games (1070) than any other pitcher in history. A right-handed knuckleballer, he was elected to the Baseball…

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(James) Keir Hardie - Early life, Union leader, The Scottish Labour Party, MP for West Ham and the ILP

British politician, born near Holytown, North Lanarkshire, C Scotland, UK. He worked in the mines between the ages of seven and 24, and was victimized as the miners' champion. He became a journalist and the first Labour candidate, entering parliament in 1892. He founded and edited the Labour Leader, and was chairman of the Independent Labour Party (founded 1893). Instrumental in the establishment …

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(James) Maxwell Anderson - Plays and Musicals, Films, Best-known Lyrics, Books

Playwright, born in Atlantic, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Stanford (MA), then became an editor with the New Republic (1918–24). In collaboration with Lawrence Stallings, he achieved his first success as a playwright with the realistic war drama, What Price Glory? (1924). In later works he alternated between romantic blank verse, such as Elizabeth the Queen (1930) and Winterset (1935), and mo…

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(James) Ramsay MacDonald - Early career, Party leader, First government, National Government, Personal life, MacDonald's Governments, Further reading

British statesman and prime minister (1924, 1929–31, 1931–5), born in Lossiemouth, Moray, NE Scotland, UK. He had little formal education, worked as a clerk, then joined the Independent Labour Party in 1894, eventually becoming its leader (1911–14, 1922–31). He became an MP in 1906, and was prime minister and foreign secretary of the first British Labour government. He met the financial crisis…

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(James) Strom Thurmond - Early career, Senate career, Biracial daughter, Political timeline, Trivia

US senator, born in Edgefield, South Carolina, USA. He studied at Clemson University, and was a teacher and superintendent of education before turning to the law, becoming a judge of the state's circuit court (1938–42). After serving with the US army in World War 2, he became Democratic Governor of South Carolina (1947–51). Although relatively progressive as a governor, he was opposed to the 194…

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(Jean Joseph Charles) Louis Blanc - Selected works

French statesman and historian, born in Madrid, Spain. His chief work on socialism, the Organisation du travail (1840, The Organisation of Labour), denounces the principle of competitive industry and proposes the establishment of co-operative workshops, subsidized by the state. After the revolution of 1848, he was appointed a member of the provisional government, but was forced to flee to England.…

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(Jean Nicolas) Arthur Rimbaud - Life and work, Later life (1875-1891)

Poet, born in Charleville, NE France. One of the most revolutionary figures in 19th-c literature, he published his first book of poems in 1870, following this with his most famous work, Le Bateau ivre (1871, The Drunken Boat). In 1871, Verlaine invited him to Paris, where they led a life of ill repute together. Before the relationship ended (1873), Rimbaud wrote Les Illuminations, a series of pros…

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(Jean) Anthelme Brillat-Savarin

French politician, gastronome, and writer, born in Belley, EC France. He was a deputy in 1789, and Mayor of Belley in 1793. During the French Revolution he took refuge in Switzerland, and afterwards in America. His Physiologie du goût (1825, The Physiology of Taste), an elegant and witty compendium of the art of dining, has been repeatedly republished and translated; an English form is A Handbook…

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(Jean) Antoine Watteau - Early life and training, Mature works, Critical assessment and legacy

Rococo painter, born in Valenciennes, N France. In 1702 he went to study in Paris, where he worked as a scene painter and a copyist. His early canvases were mostly military scenes, but it was the mythological ‘L'Embarquement pour l'île de Cythère’ (1717, Embarkation for the island of Cythera) which won him membership of the Academy. He is also known for his ‘Fêtes galantes’ (Scenes of Galla…

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(Jean) Louis (Rodolphe) Agassiz - Early life and education, Early work, Proposal of an ice age, Relocation to the United States

Geologist, born in Motier-en-Vuly, W Switzerland, the father of Alexander Agassiz. He received an MD in Erlangen, Germany (1830), but preferred his early interest in natural science. He became professor of natural history at Neuchâtel, Switzerland (1832), and combined ichthyology, geology, and palaeontology in his classic, Récherches sur les Poissons Fossiles (5 vols, 1833–44). His studies of A…

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(Jean) Margaret Laurence - Education, Personal life, Literary career, Awards and recognition, Bibliography

Novelist, born in Neepawa, Manitoba, C Canada. She graduated from United College (now Winnipeg University) in 1947 - the same year she married John Laurence (separated 1962), a civil engineer. His job took them to England, Somaliland, and Ghana, which inspired her early poetry and travel books. This Side Jordan (1960), her first novel, was set in Ghana. She moved to England in 1962 and wrote her f…

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(Jean) Victor (Marie) Moreau - Suggested readings, Reference

French general in the Napoleonic Wars, born in Morlaix, NW France. He studied law, but in 1789 commanded the volunteers from Rennes, and in 1794 was made a general of division. He drove the Austrians back to the Danube, but was forced to retreat, and later deprived of his command (1797). He declined the dictatorship of Sieyès, but lent his assistance to Napoleon in the coup of 18th Brumaire. He g…

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(Jeanne Fran

Hostess, born in Lyon, SC France. Her salon became a fashionable meeting place, especially for former Royalists and those opposed to Napoleon. When her husband was financially ruined, she was forced to leave Paris (1805), returning in 1815. The most distinguished friend of her later years was Chateaubriand. The name Bernard comes from the German origin. In German The meaning of the name Ber…

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(Jennifer) Jane Kenyon - Life, Career

Poet, born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. She studied at the University of Michigan (1970 BA; 1972 MA). As translator of Twenty Poems of Anna Akhmatova (1985), she gained critical approval, but is best known for her own perceptive and finely crafted poetry, as in Let Evening Come (1990). Otherwise: New and Selected Poems appeared posthumously in 1996. She married poet Donald Hall in 1972 and they li…

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(Jens) Otto (Harry) Jespersen - Essays and articles

Philologist, born in Randers, N Denmark. He studied at Copenhagen, and became professor of English language and literature there (1893–1925), where he revolutionized the teaching of languages. His Sprogundervisning (1901, trans How to Teach a Foreign Language) became perhaps the best-known statement of what is now called the ‘direct method’. His other books include Growth and Structure of the E…

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(Johan) August Strindberg - Life, Partial bibliography

Playwright and artist, born in Stockholm, Sweden. He studied at Uppsala, and settled in Stockholm as a writer, becoming art and theatre critic for a Swedish daily newspaper. He first achieved fame with the novel Röda rummet (1879, The Red Room), followed by several plays. He travelled in France, Switzerland, and Denmark, then published his Giftas I and II (1884–6), collections of short stories, …

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(Johan) Gunnar Andersson

Archaeologist, born in Knista, SC Sweden. Trained as a geologist, he went to China in 1914 as technical adviser to the government, but became fascinated by fossil remains. He was the first to identify prehistoric pottery in China, at Yang-shao-ts'un, Hunan, in 1921. He also initiated excavations in the limestone caves at Chou-k'ou-tien near Peking (1921–6), finding important fossils of Homo erect…

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(Johan) Nordahl Brun Grieg - Selected works

Poet and playwright, born in Bergen, SW Norway. He studied at Oslo and Oxford, and spent much of his youth travelling, mirrored in his volumes of early poetry. A committed anti-Fascist, he wrote dramas about national freedom, as in Vår Ære og Vår Makt (1935, Our Power and Our Glory) and Nederlaget (1937, Defeat). During World War 2 he joined the Resistance, escaped to London, and broadcast his …

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(Johann Christoph) Friedrich (von) Schiller - Biography, Freemasonry, Writing, Ennoblement, Musical settings of Schiller's poems and stage plays, Works

Historian, playwright, and poet, born in Marbach, SW Germany. He attended a military academy, and became an army surgeon in Stuttgart, where he began to write Sturm und Drang (‘storm and stress’) verse and plays. The revolutionary appeal of his first play, Die Räuber (1781, The Robbers), made it an instant success. He later settled in Dresden, where his works included the poem An die Freude (Od…

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(Johann) Adam Schall (von Bell) - Allegation, Contribution to the Chinese Calendar

Jesuit missionary and astronomer, born in Cologne, W Germany. He studied astronomy in Rome, and went to China in 1622, where he was appointed to translate astronomical books and reform the Chinese calendar. After 1644 he became head of the Imperial Board of Astronomy, and adviser to the young emperor Shun-chih (ruled 1644–61), who allowed him to build a church in Beijing (1650). On the death of t…

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(Johann) Balthasar Neumann

Architect, born in Cheb, W Czech Republic (formerly Eger, Bohemia). He was at first a military engineer in the service of the Archbishop of Würzburg, but after visiting Paris and absorbing new ideas, he became professor of architecture at Würzburg. Many outstanding examples of the Baroque style were designed by him, notably the Würzburg Palace, Schloss Bruchsal, and the pilgrimage church of Vie…

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(Johann) Carl Friedrich Gauss - Biography, Commemorations

Mathematician, born in Brunswick, NC Germany. A prodigy in mental calculation, he conceived most of his mathematical theories by the age of 17, and was sent to study at Brunswick and Göttingen. He wrote the first modern book on number theory, in which he proved the law of quadratic reciprocity, and discovered the intrinsic differential geometry of surfaces. He also discovered, but did not publish…

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(Johann) Ludwig Tieck - Early life, Adoption of Romanticism, Later years, Literary significance, Works, Translations, Letters, Bibliography

Critic and writer of the Romantic school, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied at the universities of Halle, Göttingen, and Erlangen, and published several novels followed by dramatized versions of ‘Puss in Boots’, ‘Bluebeard’, and others. Adviser and critic at the theatre in Dresden, (1825–42), he is best known for his critical writings, which include a series of Shakespearean essays (1823–…

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(Johann) Ludwig Uhland

Lyric poet, the leader of the Swabian School, born in Tübingen, SW Germany. He studied law at Tübingen and wrote his first poems there. He was active in politics, becoming a Liberal deputy for Tübingen at the assemblies of Württemberg (1819) and Frankfurt (1848). His collection of poems (1815) contained many popular ballads reflecting his interest in folklore and mediaeval studies. Joha…

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(Johannes) Georg Bednorz

Physicist, born in Neunkirchen, Germany. He studied at Münster and Zürich universities, then joined K Alexander Müller at the IBM Zürich Research Laboratory at Rüschlikon (1982). Their work was chiefly directed to finding novel superconductors which would show superconductivity at higher temperatures than the near-absolute zero level previously observed. Following the success of this project …

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(John Carl) Jon Hendricks - Life

Jazz musician, born in Newark, Ohio, USA. He was a singer and the principal lyricist with (Dave) Lambert, Hendricks, & (Annie) Ross, the vocal trio that popularized ‘vocalese’ in the late 1950s. Jon Hendricks (born September 16, 1921 in Newark, Ohio) is a jazz lyricist and singer. For his work as a lyricist, jazz critic and historian Leonard Feather called him the "Poet Laureate of …

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(John Orley) Allen Tate

Man of letters, born in Winchester, Kentucky, USA. As a student at Vanderbilt University, he joined the Fugitive group of Southern writers and later became the pre-eminent representative of the Southern Agrarian school. Best remembered for measured, classical poems such as his well-known ‘Ode to the Confederate Dead’ (he won the Bollingen poetry prize in 1956), he was also a prominent New Critic…

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(John) Augustin Daly

Theatrical manager and playwright, born in Plymouth, North Carolina, USA. Although purists criticized him for rewriting standard works, including Shakespeare, he became one of the most admired theatrical people of his day, with c.100 plays to his credit. He founded and managed theatres named for him in both New York and London. His greatest hits were plays he adapted from foreign sources, but he w…

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(John) Barry Humphries - Early life, London and the 1960s, 1970s, Film roles, One-man shows, Dame Edna

Comic performer and satirical writer, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He studied at Melbourne University, and made his theatrical debut at the Union Theatre, Melbourne (1953–4). In Britain from 1959, he made his London debut in The Demon Barber (1959) and subsequently appeared in Oliver! (1960, 1963, 1968, and 1997). He created the Barry McKenzie comic strip in Private Eye (1964–73) a…

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(John) Brian Statham - Establishment, Into His Prime, Helped by Higgs to Incomparable Heights, Fading From the Heights, Lancashire Captain

Cricketer, born in Gorton, Greater Manchester, NW England, UK. A fast bowler, noted for his accuracy as a foil to Fred Trueman, he took 252 Test wickets for England in 70 appearances, and 2260 in his first-class career. For almost 20 years he was a Lancashire stalwart, and took 100 wickets in a season on 13 occasions. After retiring in 1968, he served Lancashire as a committee member (1970–95) an…

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(John) Calvin Coolidge - Early life and career, The 1920 Campaign and the Vice Presidency 1921-1923

US statesman and 30th president (1923–9), born in Plymouth, Vermont, USA. He studied at Amherst College (1895), and became a lawyer in Northampton, MA. As a Republican, he held a series of local and state offices until becoming governor of Massachusetts (1919–20), gaining national attention for using the state militia to suppress a police strike. Elected vice-president (1920), he succeeded to th…

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(John) Duncan Macrae

British actor. He studied at Glasgow University, and was a teacher before becoming a full-time actor. He made his first London appearance in 1945, and his performances ranged from Ibsen and Shakespeare to pantomime, television, and film, but he became known especially as a Scottish actor. His association with the Citizens' Theatre in Glasgow dated from its opening production in 1943, and with the …

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(John) Enoch Powell - Life, Personality, Powell in popular culture, Bibliography, Powell's writings

British statesman, born in Birmingham, West Midlands, C England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, was professor of Greek at the University of Sydney (1937–9), and became a Conservative MP in 1950. He held several junior posts before becoming minister of health (1960–3). His outspoken attitude on the issues of non-white immigration and racial integration came to national attention in 1968, and as a c…

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(John) Grahame Douglas Clark

Archaeologist, born in Shortlands, Kent, SE England, UK. He studied at Cambridge, where he taught from 1935, serving as professor of archaeology (1952–74), and was Master of Peterhouse (1973–80). His Archaeology and Society (1939) and World Prehistory (1961, 1977) pioneered the use of the archaeological record to document the economic and social life of prehistoric communities. Sir John G…

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(John) Gutzon (de la Mothe) Borglum - Gallery

Sculptor, born in St Charles, Bear Lake, Idaho Territory, USA. The son of Danish immigrants, he was raised in the West, and after college moved to California (1884), where he studied art and took up painting portraits. He met Jesse Benton Fremont, who sponsored his studies in Paris and Spain (1890–9), and after working in California and London (England) he settled in New York City (1901). By then…

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(John) Hugh MacLennan - Bibliography, Works about MacLennan

Novelist and essayist, born in Nova Scotia, SE Canada. He studied at Dalhousie, Oxford, and Princeton universities, then taught at McGill (1967–79). A highly esteemed writer, he was the first major English-speaking novelist to attempt to portray Canada's national character and regional relationships. He won the Governor-General's Award three times for fiction - Two Solitudes (1945), The Precipice…

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(John) Jeremy Thorpe - Further reading

British politician, born in London, UK. He studied at Oxford, became a barrister in 1954, and a Liberal MP in 1959. Elected leader of the Liberal Party in 1967, he resigned the leadership in 1976 following a series of allegations of a previous homosexual relationship with Norman Scott. In 1979, shortly after losing his seat in the general election, he was acquitted of charges of conspiracy and inc…

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(John) Kirk (Train) Varnedoe

Museum curator and teacher, born in Savannah, Georgia, USA. He studied at Williams College (BA) and Stanford (MA, PhD), and taught at Stanford (1973–7), Columbia University (1974–80), and at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (1980–8). He headed the department of painting and sculpture of the Museum of Modern Art, and in addition to his many articles and lectures on art topics, he …

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(John) Malcolm Fraser - Rise to Leadership, Prime Minister, Decline and fall, Retirement, Honours, Quotes, Further reading

Australian statesman and prime minister (1975–83), born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He studied at Melbourne and Oxford, and in 1955 became the youngest MP in the House of Representatives. He was minister for the army (1966–8), defence (1969–71), and education and science (1968–9, 1971–2), and became leader of the Liberal Party in 1975, and prime minister in a Liberal–National coali…

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(John) Nicholas Maw

Composer, born in Grantham, Lincolnshire, EC England, UK. He studied in London (1955–8) and Paris (1958–9), taught at Cambridge and Yale universities, and became professor of music at Milton Avery Graduate School of Arts, Bard College, NY, in 1990. His music, traditional in idiom but original in expression, includes two comic operas, One Man Show (1964) and The Rising of the Moon (1970), two str…

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(John) Robinson Jeffers - Life, Poetic career, Influence, Quotations

Poet and writer, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He attended six colleges and universities in Europe and America, studying medicine and forestry among other subjects. He began writing in 1912, and from 1924 lived in seclusion by the ocean near Carmel, CA, where he built his own stone house. He is known for his mythical lyrics and narrative poems, as in Roan Stallion, Tamar, and Other Poems …

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(Jorge) Mario (Pedro) Vargas Llosa - Early days, Political involvement, Works, Critical Bibliography

Novelist, born in Arequipa, S Peru. After studying law and literature at home he became a student in Paris and Madrid, building up a reputation as a writer before returning. The Time of the Hero, his first novel, published in 1962 and depicting the abuse of power, so outraged the Peruvian authorities that a thousand copies were publicly burned. Subsequent novels include his masterpiece Aunt Julia …

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(Joseph) Deems Taylor

Composer, music critic, and broadcaster, born in New York City, New York, USA. He studied at New York University, and enjoyed some success with compositions including Through the Looking Glass (1917). Continuing to compose, he also took up an active career as a music critic for various publications and later as a promoter of serious music on radio, becoming widely known as the intermission comment…

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(Joseph) Ernest Renan - Biography, Works, External links and references

Philosopher and historian, born in Tréguier, NW France. He studied theology, but left the seminary only to reject the priesthood after studying Greek and Hebrew biblical criticism. His appointment as professor of Hebrew at the Collège de France in 1861 was not confirmed until 1870 because of his controversial La Vie de Jèsus (1863, The Life of Jesus), which undermined the supernatural aspects o…

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(Joseph) Hilaire (Pierre Ren - Life, Old Thunder, In controversy and debate, Writing, On Islam

Writer, born in Saint-Cloud, near Paris, NC France, the son of a French barrister and his English wife. The family moved to England during the Franco-Prussian war, and he studied at the Oratory School, Birmingham, under Newman, and at Oxford. He became a naturalized British subject in 1902, and a Liberal MP in 1906, but, disillusioned with politics, did not seek re-election in 1910. He was a close…

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(Joseph) Jack Valenti - Early life, Political career, Career in the MPAA, Retirement, Personal life, Trivia, Books by Jack Valenti

Film executive, born in Houston, Texas, USA. He was a decorated bomber pilot during World War 2, and later co-founded and ran an advertising agency (1952–63). He helped to co-ordinate Lyndon B Johnson's inauguration (1963) and then became the president's special assistant (1963–6). As president of the Motion Picture Association of America (1966), he co-wrote a new code for films (1966) which int…

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(Joseph) Kevin Keegan

Footballer, born in Armthorpe, South Yorkshire, N England, UK. He played for Scunthorpe (1966–71), Liverpool (1971–7), Hamburg (1977–80), Southampton (1980–2), and Newcastle (1982–4), and was a lively member of the England side (1973–82, captain from 1976). He received several Cup-winners' medals, and was twice European Footballer of the Year (1978, 1979). He became manager of Newcastle Unit…

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(Joseph) Lane Kirkland - Biography

Labour leader, born in Camden, South Carolina, USA. A merchant marine pilot during World War 2, he joined the staff of the American Federation of Labor (1948), and worked his way up the staff hierarchy. He was elected secretary-treasurer of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) in 1969, and president in 1980. Regarded as one of the new breed of labour …

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(Joseph) Leon Edel - Selected bibliography

Biographer, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He taught at New York University (1953–73), devoting his scholarly career to Henry James, writing a magisterial five-volume biography of James (1953–85), and publishing numerous editions of his letters and other writings. The discovery of impassioned but inconclusive letters written in 1875–1876 by James to the Russian aristocrat Paul Z…

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(Joseph) Lincoln Steffens - Bibliography

Journalist and social reformer, born in San Francisco, California, USA. After graduating from the University of California and studying in Europe, he became a reporter and, ultimately, city editor for the New York Post (1892–8) and then city editor on the New York Commercial Advertiser (1898–1902). As managing editor of the ‘muckraking’ McClure's magazine (1902–6), he wrote carefully research…

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(Joseph) Rudyard Kipling - Kipling's childhood, Early travels, Career as a writer, The effects of World War I

Writer, born of British parents in Mumbai (Bombay), W India. Educated at boarding school in England, UK, he returned in 1882 to India, where he worked as a journalist. His satirical verses and short stories, such as Plain Tales From the Hills (1888) and Soldiers Three (1892), won him a reputation in England, to which he returned in 1889 and settled in London. His verse collections Barrack Room Bal…

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(Joseph) Sepp Blatter - Background, Changes to the game made under Blatter, Criticism

Sports administrator, born in Visp, Switzerland. He studied business administration and economics at Lausanne University, and went on to pursue a career in journalism and public relations in the fields of sport and industry. He has served the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) in a variety of posts, including technical director (1975–81) and general secretary (1981–98), a…

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(Joseph) Sheridan Le Fanu - His work

Writer and journalist, born in Dublin, Ireland. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin, and was called to the bar in 1839, but soon abandoned law for journalism. He began writing for the Dublin University Magazine, of which he became editor and proprietor (1869), and later bought three Dublin newspapers. Of his 14 novels, the best-known are The House by the Churchyard (1863) and Uncle Silas (1864).…

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(Josephine) Edna O'Brien - Life and career, Selected bibliography

Novelist and short-story writer, born in Tuamgraney, Co Clare, W Ireland. She studied at the Pharmaceutical College of Dublin, and practised pharmacy briefly before becoming a writer. Much of her writing is concerned with the position of women in society - their lack of fulfilment and the repressive nature of their upbringing. Her celebrated books include The Country Girls (1960), Girls in Their M…

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(Julius Wilhelm) Richard Dedekind - Life, Work, Quotation, Bibliography

Mathematician, born in Braunschweig, NC Germany. He studied at Göttingen, where he wrote his doctoral thesis under Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1852. He taught at Göttingen (1854–8), then in Zürich, and returned to Braunschweig in 1862 as professor at the Polytechnic. He gave one of the first precise definitions of the real number system, did important work in number theory, and introduced many con…

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(Julius) Gari Melchers

Painter, born in Detroit, Michigan, USA. He spent much of his life in Europe, studied in Dusseldorf (1877–80), and established studios in Paris and Holland (1884). He returned and settled in Fredericksburg, VA (1914), and continued to paint Impressionistic landscapes and portraits. Gari Melchers or Julius Melchers (August 11, 1860 - November 30, 1932) was an American artist. He…

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(Julius) Jules Dassin

Film director, born in Middletown, Connecticut, USA. The husband of Melina Mercouri, he began as a short documentary director, and then made slice-of-life features such as The Naked City (1948). Forced into exile by the McCarthy witch-hunt of the early 1950s, he directed such films as Rififi (1955) and Never on Sunday (1960). Jules Dassin (born Julius Dassin on December 18, 1911, in Middlet…

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(Julius) Lothar Meyer

Chemist, born in Varel, NW Germany. Although trained as a physician, he became the first professor of chemistry at Tübingen in 1876. He discovered the periodic law independently of Dmitri Mendeleyev in 1869, and showed that atomic volumes were functions of atomic weights. In 1864, Meyer published an early version of the periodic table, containing 28 elements classified into 6 families by t…

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(Kareen) Fleur Adcock - Early life, Life in England, Poetry

Poet, born in Papakura, New Zealand. She studied at Victoria University, Wellington, taught at the University of Otago, then held various library posts in New Zealand and the UK, where she has lived since 1963. She published her first collection, The Eye of the Hurricane, in 1964. Her poetry is notable for its unsentimental treatment of personal and family relationships, its psychological insights…

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(Karen) Louise Erdrich - Background and early life, Early literary work, Love Medicine, The Beet Queen

Ojibwa writer, born in Little Falls, Montana, USA. She attended Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools, and studied at Dartmouth (1976 BA) and Johns Hopkins University (1979 MA). Her writing won many prizes and awards, and her books include Love Medicine (1984), The Beet Queen (1986), Tracks (1988), Crown of Columbus (1991), and Antelope Wife (1998). Karen Louise Erdrich (born June 7, 19…

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(Karl Emil Julius) Ulrich Salchow - Navigation

Swedish figure skater, born in Copenhagen, Denmark. The first man to win an Olympic gold medal for this sport (1908), he was a record 10 times world champion (1901–5, 1906–11) and nine times European title holder between 1898 and 1913. He was the originator of a type of jump performed in the free-style element of figure skating, and since named after him. Karl Emil Julius Ulrich Salchow (…

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(Karl Rudolf) Gerd von Rundstedt - Early Life, WWII, Operation Barbarossa, Western Battlefield, After the War, Family, Summary of the military career

German field marshal, born in Aschersleben, EC Germany. He served in World War 1, and in the early 1930s became military commander of Berlin. In 1939 he directed the attacks on Poland and France. Checked in the Ukraine in 1941, he was relieved of his command, but in 1942 was given a new command in France. He was recalled after the success of the 1944 Allied invasion, but returned to direct the Ard…

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(Karl Wilhelm) Friedrich von Schlegel - Life and work, Selected works

Writer and critic, born in Hanover, NC Germany, the brother of August von Schlegel. He studied at Göttingen and Leipzig, and became closely associated with his brother, with whom he edited the journal Das Athenaeum. He wrote widely on comparative literature and philology, his works inspiring the early German Romantic movement. Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (later: von) Schlegel (March 10, 1772 - …

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(Karl) Adolf Eichmann - Early life, Work with the Nazi Party and the SS, The Second World War

Nazi war criminal, born in Solingen, W Germany. He was raised in Austria and joined the Austrian Nazi Party in 1932, becoming a member of the SS. He became the SS's ‘Jewish expert’, acquiring an exhaustive amount of knowledge on Jewish culture, and was put in charge of administering the ‘final solution (Endlösung) of the Jewish problem’ - the intended systematic deportation and extermination …

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(Karl) Ferdinand Braun

Physicist, born in Fulda, C Germany. In 1909 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on wireless telegraphy and cathode rays. Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 in Fulda, Germany – 20 April 1918 in New York City, USA) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel Prize laureate. (German) (English translation) Nobel Prize in Physics: Laureates …

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(Karl) Gunnar Myrdal - Publications

Economist, politician, and international civil servant, born in Gustafs Dalecarlia, Sweden. He studied at Stockholm, where he became professor of political economy (1933). He wrote a classic study of race relations in the USA (An American Dilemma, 1944), then was minister of trade and commerce in Sweden (1945–7), and executive secretary of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (1947–57). His lat…

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(Karl) Hjalmar Branting

Swedish statesman and prime minister (1920, 1921–3, 1924–5), born in Stockholm, Sweden. He was co-founder of the Social Democratic Party in 1889, becoming leader of the party from 1907. In 1921 he shared the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in international diplomacy. Karl Hjalmar Branting?(help·info) (November 23, 1860 – February 24, 1925) was a Swedish statesman and the country…

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(Karl) Manne (Georg) Siegbahn

Physicist, born in Örebro, SC Sweden. He was professor at Lund (1920), Uppsala (1923), and the Royal Academy of Sciences, and director of the Nobel Institute for Physics at Stockholm from 1937. He discovered the M series in X-ray spectroscopy, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1924. He also constructed a vacuum spectrograph. …

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(Karl) Wilhelm von Humboldt - Philosopher and diplomat, Linguist

German statesman and philologist, born in Potsdam, EC Germany. After travelling in Europe, he became a diplomat, and for some years devoted himself to literature. He became Prussian minister at Rome (1801), first minister of public instruction (1808), and minister in Vienna (1810). He was the first to study Basque scientifically, and he also worked on the languages of the East and of the South Sea…

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(Keith) Rupert Murdoch - Early life, Acquisitions in Britain, Moving into the United States, Los Angeles Dodgers, Personal life

Media proprietor, born in Melbourne, Victoria, SE Australia. He studied at Oxford, then worked for two years on the Daily Express, returning to Australia in 1952, where he inherited The News in Adelaide on the death of his father. He built a substantial newspaper and magazine publishing empire in Australia, the USA, Hong Kong, and the UK, including the News of the World and the Sun which, boosted …

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(Kitagawa) Utamaro - Biography, Pupils, Retrospective Observations, Print Series

Painter and engraver, born in Tokyo, Japan. Trained in Edo (modern Tokyo), he came to specialize in portraits of court ladies in which the gracefulness of face, figure, and flowing robes was depicted with a precise detail and personally developed use of close-up which brought him great contemporary success. He also painted flowers, birds, and fish, and carried the technique of the ukiyo-e or ‘pop…

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(Laura Jean) Reese Witherspoon - Selected filmography

Film actress, born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. She began modelling at age seven, and this led to parts in several local television commercials. Her first major acting role was in Robert Mulligan's film The Man in the Moon (1991), her role as a 14-year-old tomboy earning her rave reviews. Later films include A Far Off Place (1993), Freeway (1996), and Cruel Intentions (1999), but it was with Le…

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(Leo) James Rainwater

Physicist, born in Council, Idaho, USA. He studied at the California Institute of Technology and Columbia University, and contributed to the Manhattan Project on the atomic bomb during World War 2. He became professor of physics at Columbia University and was director of the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory there (1951–3, 1956–61). He unified two theoretical models of the atomic nucleus, and shared th…

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(L - Research on tuberculosis

Bacteriologist, born in Nice, SE France. A pupil of Pasteur and founder of the Pasteur Institute at Saigon, where he developed an anti-snakebite and anti-plague serum. In 1895 he founded the Pasteur Institute at Lille (director, 1895–1919). He is best known for the vaccine BCG (Bacille Calmette–Guérin), which provides protection against tuberculosis, jointly developed with Dr Camille Guérin (1…

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(Leon) Bix Beiderbecke - Early life, Influences, Career, Death, Later influence, His name

Cornettist and composer, born in Davenport, Iowa, USA. He was largely self-taught on piano and cornet, playing in local bands as a teenager. When expelled from a military academy, he began the short career that made him one of the most celebrated jazz performers of the 1920s. His bell-like tone and lyrical solo improvisations were heard to best effect in various small groups. His later career rava…

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(Leslie Thomas) John Arlott - Famous and favourite quotes, Books by John Arlott, Sources

Writer, journalist, and broadcaster, born in Basingstoke, Hampshire, S England, UK. Educated there, he worked as a police detective (1934–45) before joining the BBC, where as a cricket commentator on radio and television he became one of the country's most recognizable broadcasting voices. He wrote numerous books about cricket and cricketers, including How to Watch Cricket (1949, 1983) and Arlott…

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(Linden) Forbes (Sampson) Burnham - Early life and education, Political career, Legacy

Guyanese statesman and prime minister (1964–80), born in Kitty, Guyana. He studied law in London, and was co-founder of the Marxist–Leninist People's Progressive Party in 1949. In 1955 he broke away, and was co-founder in 1957 of the more moderate, Socialist People's National Congress. As prime minister he led his country to independence in 1966. In 1980 a new constitution was adopted, and he be…

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(Llewellyn) Sherman Adams - Early life, Political beginnings, New Hampshire governorship, White House Chief of Staff, Post-political life

US government official and governor, born in East Dover, Vermont, USA. He studied at Dartmouth College, became a lumber company executive, then a New Hampshire Republican legislator (1941–4), serving New Hampshire in the US House of Representatives (Republican, 1945–7). As governor (1949–53), he streamlined government and encouraged business development. As President Eisenhower's domineering ch…

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(Lloyd) Logan Pearsall Smith

Writer, born in Millvale, New Jersey, USA. A member of a wealthy Quaker family, he studied at Haverford College (1881–4) and Harvard (1884–5), but took little interest in his family's glass-making business, and went off to England (1888) to pursue his literary interests at Oxford. Financially independent, he was able to devote his life to cultivating his aesthetic ideals, but although he publish…

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(Lois) Maureen Stapleton - Biography

Actress, born in New York City, New York, USA. She studied drama at the Herbert Berghof School of Acting and the Actors' Studio in New York, and made her Broadway debut in a production of The Playboy of the Western World in 1946. A major interpreter of the plays of Tennessee Williams, her role as Serafina in The Rose Tattoo (1951, Tony) brought her great acclaim. She followed this with Flora in Tw…

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(Louis Charles) Alfred de Musset - News, Biography, Works

Poet and playwright, born in Paris, France. After studying first the law, then medicine, he published his first collection of poems, Contes d'Espagne et d'Italie (1829, Tales of Spain and Italy). This won the approval of Victor Hugo, who accepted him into his Cénacle, the inner shrine of militant Romanticism, even though Musset had already begun to poke gentle fun at the movement. His first excur…

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(Louis) Adolphe Thiers - Birth and early life, The July Monarchy of King Louis-Philippe

French statesman, historian, and first president of the Third Republic (1871–3), born in Marseille, S France. He studied at Aix, and became a lawyer and journalist. He held several posts in the government of Louis-Philippe, and was twice prime minister (1836, 1839). He supported Napoleon in 1848, but was arrested and banished at the coup of 1851, only to re-enter the Chamber in 1863 as a critic o…

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(Louis) Auguste Blanqui

Revolutionary socialist leader, born in Puget-Théniers, SE France. An extremist, he worked from 1830 at building up a network of secret societies committed to violent revolution. He spent 33 years in prison, and was in prison in 1871 when he was elected president of the revolutionary Commune of Paris. In 1881 his followers, known as Blanquists, joined the Marxists. Louis Auguste Blanqui (F…

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(Louis) Charles Delescl

French radical Republican and journalist, born in Dreux, NC France. His revolutionary politics drove him from France to journalism in Belgium (1835), but the February Revolution (1848) brought him back to Paris. His writing made him popular, but brought him imprisonment (1849–53), and he was transported until 1859. He played a prominent part in the Paris Commune, and died on the last barricade. …

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(Louis) Henri Murger - Early life, Development as a Writer, Writing Process, The Character of Rodolphe, The Character of Schaunard

Writer, born in Paris, France. He began life as a notary's clerk, devoted his time to literature, and led the life of privation and adventure described in his first novel, Scènes de la vie de Bohème (1845). With Barrière, he adapted it for the stage, which inspired Giacosa and Illica's libretto for Puccini's opera La Bohème (1896). During his later years he led a dissipated life, writing slowl…

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(Louis-)Hector Berlioz - Biography, Musical influence, Works of music and literature

Composer, born in La Côte-Saint-André, SE France. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1826, where he fell in love with the actress Harriet Smithson, whom he subsequently married (1833, d.1854); the Symphonie Fantastique expresses his devotion to her. Gaining the Prix de Rome in 1830, he spent two years in Italy. After 1842 he won a brilliant reputation in Germany, Russia, and England, but on h…

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(Lucie Simplice) Camille (Benoist) Desmoulins - Early life, July 1789, Journalism, National Convention and clash with Robespierre, Trial and execution, Family

French revolutionary and journalist, born in Guise, N France. He studied law in Paris, but owing to a stutter never practised. He nonetheless was an effective crowd orator, and played a dramatic part in the storming of the Bastille. He was also an influential pamphleteer. A member of the Cordeliers' Club from its foundation, he was elected to the National Convention and voted for the death of the …

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(Luigi) Ciriaco de Mita

Italian statesman and prime minister (1988–9), born in Nusco, SW Italy. He joined the Christian Democratic Party, and in 1963 was elected to the Chamber of Deputies. He became a deputy (1963), then minister of industry (1973–4), foreign affairs (1974–5). He was also party leader from 1982 to 1989. Ciriaco Luigi de Mita (born February 2, 1928) is an Italian politician. …

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(Lula) Carson McCullers - Early life, Marriage and career, Failed marriage and emotional struggles, Criticism, Works

Writer, born in Columbus, Georgia, USA. She studied at Columbia and New York universities. She married and divorced Reeves McCullers twice (1937–41, 1945–8). From the age of 29, paralysis of one side confined her to a wheelchair. Her work reflects the sadness of lonely people, and her first book, The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter (1940), about a deaf mute, distinguished her immediately as a novelist …

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(Lynn) Nolan Ryan - Statistics

Baseball pitcher, born in Refugio, Texas, USA. Baseball's all-time leader in strikeouts with over 5000, the right-hander won over 300 games and pitched a record seven no-hitters in his record (all positions) 28 major league seasons (1966–93) with the New York Mets, California Angels, Houston Astros, and Texas Rangers. In addition to his prowess as a pitcher, he had a reputation as a man of irrepr…

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(Margaret) Storm Jameson - Works

Writer, born in Whitby, North Yorkshire, N England, UK. She studied at Leeds University, and took up writing. Her first success was The Lovely Ship (1927), which was followed by more than 30 books that maintained her reputation as storyteller and stylist. These include The Voyage Home (1930), Cloudless May (1943), The Writer's Situation (1950), Last Score (1961), and The White Crow (1968). Her wor…

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(Maria Anna Catharina) Angelica Kauffmann - Related links

Painter, born in Chur, E Switzerland. By the age of 11 she was already an acknowledged painter and musician. She went to London (1766), became a close friend of Reynolds, and a founder member of the Royal Academy (1769). She is best known for her wall paintings for residences designed by Robert Adam. Maria Anna Angelika/Angelica Katharina Kauffmann (October 30, 1741 – November 5, 1807) wa…

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(Maria Annunciata) Caroline Bonaparte

Queen of Naples (1808–15), born in Ajaccio, Corsica, the youngest sister of Napoleon I. She married Joachim Murat in 1800, and brought a brilliant court life to the Neapolitan palaces of Caserta and Portici. After her husband's execution she lived in Austria (1815–24) and Trieste (1824–31) before settling in Florence. …

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(Maria) Eva (Duarte de) Per - Songs

The second wife of Argentinian President Juan Perón, born in Los Toldos, Argentina. A radio and screen actress before her marriage in 1945, she became a powerful political influence and the mainstay of the Perón government. She was idolized by the poor, and after her death in Buenos Aires, support for her husband waned. Her body was stolen, taken to Europe, and kept in secret until 1976. The suc…

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(Maria) Luigi (Carlo Zenobio Salvatore) Cherubini - Selected works, Source

Composer, born in Florence, NC Italy. He studied at Bologna and Milan, and wrote a succession of operas, at first in Neapolitan, later (having moved to Paris) in French style. His best-known opera is Les Deux Journées (1880, The Two Days, or The Water-Carrier). His later work was mainly ecclesiastical. In 1822 he became director of the Paris Conservatoire. Luigi Cherubini (September 14, 17…

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(Marie) Charlotte Corday (d'Armont) - Biography, Marat assassination, Further reading

Noblewoman, born in St Saturnin, W France. She sympathized with the aims of the Revolution, but was horrified by the acts of the Jacobins. She managed to obtain an audience with the revolutionary leader, Jean Paul Marat, while he was in his bath, and stabbed him. She was guillotined four days later. Charlotte Corday (July 27, 1768 – July 17, 1793), more fully Marie Anne Charlotte de Corda…

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(Marie) Joseph (de Malaret) Canteloube

Composer, born in Annonay, SC France. A pupil of D'Indy, whom he wrote about (1949), and of Bordes, he was inspired by folklore, Chants d'Auvergne (1923–55), and became famed for his harmonizations. Other works include instrumental music, the symphonic Vers la Princesse Lointaine (1910–11), vocal music Hymne des Gaules of Phileas Lebesque, and two operas Le Mas (1910–13) and Vercingétorix (193…

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(Marie-) Pauline Bonaparte

Princess Borghese, born in Ajaccio, Corsica, the favourite sister of Napoleon I. She married General Leclerc in 1797 and accompanied him on the expedition to Haiti (1802), during which he died. In 1803 she married Prince Camillo Borghese, her private life soon shocking the patrician family into which she married. She loyally supported Napoleon in his exile on Elba. Pauline Bonaparte, Prince…

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(Marie-Anne) Elisa Bonaparte

Grand Duchess of Tuscany, born in Ajaccio, Corsica, the eldest surviving sister of Napoleon. She married Félix Baciochi in 1797. As Duchess of Lucca from 1805, she managed the economy of her small state so profitably that in 1809 Napoleon assigned her to Tuscany, where she revived the court glories of the Pitti Palace. Maria Anna Elisa Bonaparte, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (January 13, 1777 …

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(Marie-Ennemond) Camille Jordan

Mathematician, born in Lyon, SC France. He became professor at the Ecole Polytechnique (1876–1912) and at the Collège de France. He pioneered group theory, wrote on the theory of linear differential equations, and on the theory of functions, which he applied to the curve which bears his name. His work brought full understanding of the importance of the pioneering work done by Galois. Mari…

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(Marius) Sophus Lie

Mathematician, born in Nordfjordeide, W Norway. He studied at Oslo University, then supported himself by giving private lessons. He became professor of mathematics at Oslo, then succeeded Felix Klein at Leipzig (1886), and returned to Oslo in 1898. His study of contact transformations arising from partial differential equations led him to develop an extensive theory of continuous groups of transfo…

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(M - Overview, Early life, Career, Later life

Operatic soprano, born in Vastra Karup, SW Sweden. She studied at the Stockholm Royal Academy of Music. Following her debut in 1946, she sang with the Stockholm Royal Opera (1947–51), and at Bayreuth Festivals (1953–70). She was the leading Wagnerian soprano of that period, having a voice of exceptional power, stamina, and intense personality. She sang at most of the great houses and festivals o…

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(Martin) Brian Mulroney - University, Gaining Publicity, Prime Minister, After politics, Legacy, Supreme Court appointments

Canadian politician and prime minister (1984–93), born in Baie Comeau, Quebec, SE Canada. He attended St Francis Xavier University in Nova Scotia, and studied law at Laval University, taking up a career first in law, then in business. He became leader of the Progressive Conservative Party in 1983, and won a landslide election victory in 1984. He negotiated a free trade agreement with the USA in 1…

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(Marvin) Neil Simon - Plays, Screenplays, Awards

Playwright, born in New York City, New York, USA. After fulfilling his obligation to the Air Force Reserve in 1946, he took a clerical job with Warner Brothers in New York, but soon began writing comic material for radio and television personalities (1947–60). With his brother, Danny Simon, he wrote sketches for Broadway shows such as Catch a Star (1955) and New Faces of 1956. His first full-leng…

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(Mary Violet) Leontyne Price - Life and Career, Recordings, Reputation, Quotations, Resources

Soprano, born in Laurel, Mississippi, USA. She studied at Juilliard in New York before finding success on Broadway in Four Saints in Three Acts (1952) and the female lead in Porgy and Bess the same year. In 1954 she presented a recital in New York's Town Hall, where she premiered Samuel Barber's Hermit Songs. She went on to an outstanding international career on both operatic and concert stages, e…

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(Mary) Antoinette Perry

Actress and director, born in Denver, Colorado, USA. She had a long career on the stage from 1905 and as a director from 1928. In 1941 she founded the American Theatre Wing. The annual ‘Tony’ Awards of the New York theatre are named after her. (Mary) Antoinette Perry (June 27, 1888 – June 28, 1946), was an actress, director, and co-founder of the American Theatre Wing. Years later, her …

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(Mary) Edmonia Lewis - Selected sculptures, External Link

Sculptor, born near Albany, New York, USA. The daughter of a Chippewa Indian mother and a black father, she was orphaned early and was raised by her mother's tribe. Her brother, Sunrise, a California gold miner, sent her to Oberlin College, Ohio (1859–62) and she changed her name. There she was tried for the attempted murder of two of her classmates, was severely beaten by townspeople, was acquit…

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(Mary) Evelyn Beatrice Longman - Early life and education, Career, Major works, Other works

Sculptor, born near Winchester, Ohio, USA. She studied with Lorado Taft at the Institute of Chicago (1893–1900), and then moved to New York City and became the assistant of Daniel Chester French (c.1901–4). She is known for her beaux-arts style in such commissioned works as ‘Genius of Electricity’ (1916, also known as ‘The Spirit of Communication’). In 1926 she married Nathaniel Batchelder a…

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(Mary) Flannery O'Connor - Biography, Career, Bibliography

Writer, born in Savannah, Georgia, USA. She studied at the University of Iowa, and was brought up a Roman Catholic in the Bible-belt of the Deep South. Wise Blood (1952), the first of her two novels, is a bizarre tragi-comedy, and its theme of vocation is taken up again in her second, The Violent Bear It Away (1960). Regarded as one of the finest short-story writers of her generation, her collecti…

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(Melzia Ann) Grace Bumbry - Early life and career, Later career, Recordings and honors

Mezzo-soprano, born in St Louis, Missouri, USA. She made an acclaimed debut at the Paris Opera in 1960 and the next year sang Venus at Bayreuth. Her Metropolitan Opera debut came in 1965 and she went on to a distinguished international career singing both mezzo and soprano roles. Grace Bumbry (born 4 January 1937) is an American opera singer, considered one of the leading, if controversial,…

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(Michael) Jeremy Bates

Tennis player, born in Solihull, West Midlands. He was educated at Strodes Grammar School and Solihull Sixth Form College, and after winning national tennis titles at junior level turned professional in 1980. A member of the Davis Cup team (1984–95), his achievements include the Wimbledon mixed doubles title (1987), the mixed doubles champion Australian Open (1991), and the singles title Korean O…

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