Cambridge Encyclopedia » Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 23

electronics - Overview of electronic systems and circuits, Electronic devices and components, Types of circuits, Noise


The scientific study and application of the movement of electrons. The field developed out of 19th-c experiments with electricity, which resulted in the invention of thermionic valves and their subsequent replacement by transistors, introduced at Bell Laboratories in 1948. Transistors facilitated the miniaturization of electronic components, as did the silicon chip and the integrated circuit. The social impact of electronics is far-reaching, including the development of television, computerized office systems, video games, personal computers, pacemakers, and spacecraft.

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