Cambridge Encyclopedia » Cambridge Encyclopedia Vol. 67

Shanghai - Origin of name, History, Politics and Administration, Economy and demographics, Geography and climate, Media, Transportation, Culture

centre china largest developed

31°13N 121°25E; pop (2000e) 9 158 000, administrative region 13 876 000; municipality area 5800 km²/2239 sq mi. Port in E China, on the Yellow Sea, on Huangpu and Wusong Rivers; largest city in China; developed in the Yuan period as a cotton centre; trading centre in the 17th–18th-c; opened to foreign trade, 1842, and developed as the principal centre for European influence in China; by the 1940s, world's fifth largest port; Japanese occupation, 1937–45; power centre of Jiang Qing in the Cultural Revolution, 1966–76; two airports; two airfields; rail and sea links to other cities; university (1895) and several other higher education institutions; oil refining, shipbuilding, engineering, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, textiles, paper, publishing; People's Park, People's Square, Jade Buddha Temple (1882), Industrial Exhibition Hall, Museum of Natural History, Songjiang County Square Pagoda and Dragon Wall (11th-c), Longhua Temple (c.7th-c); Yu Yuan (Garden of Happiness), 1577, the basis for ‘willow pattern’ chinaware.

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